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Basics of Electronic Circuits

Experiment 7

Characteristics of Passive Devices


In this experiment, we will examine the physical features and the electrical characteristics of various passive devices used in electronic circuits. The circuit given in Fig. 7. will !e used to o!tain a display of the i"v characteristic of any #$evice %nder Test& '$%T( !y ma)ing use of the x"y display mode availa!le in the C*+. The two resistances used in the circuit are * , .-- ) and *. , ./ ). 0ote that, as the inverting input of the opamp is at #virtual earth& potential, and the currents flowing into the two input terminals 'inverting and non"inverting( of the opamp are negligi!ly small, the output voltage of the opamp is given !y vo , 1 id*, where id is the current flowing through the $%T as shown in Fig. 7. . 2s * , .-- ), the y axis of the x"y display on the C*+ will represent the current i d in m2, !ut with its sign inverted. The x axis, of course, represents the voltage v d, and hence a display of '1id( against vd is o!tained in the given circuit arrangement. The role of *. is only to protect the $%T from accidental high voltage applied from the F3. Its value is therefore not critical. H 7 G ; id 9: i CC *. id 9 vd $%T / E 9 * 9 /:. 7 < G 9 I'6( vo II'I( 9 vd / E C*+ 7< C 9 :CC <


/:. Fig. 7. Circ!it for "isp#a$ing i-v characteristic% &ith the pin connection of the opamp . 4eep the power switch of the $"C 5ower .upply and the F3 +FF. Connect the four soc)ets in the 5ower .upply section of the Techla! to the four parallel !us strips 'two on the top side, and two on the !ottom( of the !read!oard. %se an 6E77+8 ca!le for 9 / :, a B7%E ca!le for 1 / :, a *E$ ca!le for 9; : and a B72C4 ca!le for 3round. This power supply !us arrangement will !e followed for all future experiments, in order to minimise errors in connections. 2ll power supply connections to any circuit assem!led on the !read!oard will !e done through these four !us strips. 2. Connect the F3 ground to the same ground !us in order to esta!lish the common reference point for all voltages. 2ssem!le the circuit given in Fig. 7. , without any $%T, on the !read!oard, and connect pin 7 and pin < of the opamp to the 9 / : !us and the 1 / : !us respectively. Be very careful a!out these connections, as a wrong power supply connection will almost definitely !urn the opamp. '. .et the fre=uency of the F3 at )>?. 8ith any convenient amplitude setting for the F3, verify that vo , - and vd is the same as the F3 output voltage. Part (. )esistors *esistors used in electronic circuits are usually classified according to the following properties@ Composition 'e.g. car!on film, metal film, wire"wound etc.(, Tolerance 'e.g. -A, ;A, A etc(, and 5ower rating 'e.g. B 8, C 8, 8, ; 8 etc.(. +f these three features, the first one has to !e found out from the manufacturerDs specifications. Tolerance is always indicated on the !ody of the resistor itself along with the value of the resistance. The value and the tolerance, unless printed on the resistor, are coded !y four or five coloured !ands. For ;A and -A resistors, the st and /nd !ands give the significant digits, and the Erd !and gives the num!er of ?eros on the right of the two significant digits. For A and /A resistors, the st, /nd and Erd !ands give the significant digits, and the <th !and gives the num!er of ?eros on the right of the three significant digits The ten colours denoting the digits -"F are the following@ Blac) '-(, Brown ' (, *ed '/(, +range 'E(, 6ellow '<(, 3reen ';(, Blue 'G(, :iolet '7(, 3rey 'H(, 8hite 'F(. The

<th or the ;th !and, as the case may !e, indicates the tolerance@ a golden !and indicating a tolerance of ;A, and a !rown or a red !and indicating a tolerance of A or /A. 2!sence of a tolerance !and implies -A tolerance. The tolerance !and is slightly away from the other !ands. *. Identify the different types of resistors given to you from their approximate distinguishing features. %sing the colour code, note down the values and tolerances of the different resistors provided. :erify the values !y measuring the resistances with the multimeter. 5. 5ut a .-- ) resistor as the $%T, and switch on the d"c power supply. 8ith the pea)"to" pea) value of the F3 output set at - :, o!serve the waveforms of the voltages v o and vd in the $%27 y"t mode. *educe the amplitude appropriately if the waveforms are not sinusoidal. Change the display mode to x"y and s)etch the i"v characteristic displayed on the C*+, with the origin and the scales for id and vd properly mar)ed. 6. >ence verify that the resistance of the $%T matches the slope of the i"v characteristic. 7. Increase the fre=uency of the F3 gradually, until the display !ecomes a loop instead of remaining a line. *ecord the fre=uency at which the display Just starts !ecoming a loop. 0ote how the shape of the loop changes as the fre=uency is further increased. Part +. Capacitors an" In"!ctors Capacitors used in electronic circuits are classified according to the dielectric material used in the fa!rication of the capacitor and the range of values availa!le varies from type to type. .ome of the commonly encountered types are listed !elow@ Electrolytic ' F( 1 Cylindrical !ody with printed value and polarity indicated !y 9K1 signL 5olyester '-.-- 1 - F( 1 Moulded !ody with value either printed or colour"codedL Ceramic ' F( 1 Tu!ular or disc shaped !ody, with value printed. These capacitors may !e assumed to have -A tolerance unless indicated otherwise. ,. Identify the different types of capacitors from their approximate distinguishing features, and note down their values as well as voltage ratings. -. *epeat step ; with the given -.-<7 F capacitor as well as the given coil '7 m>( as the $%T, increasing the F3 fre=uency to a suita!le value so as to o!tain a nearly circular display. >ow would you find the values of the reactances from the intercepts of these characteristicsN Part C. .emperat!re an" /ight 0ensors 0. Identify each of the three following sensor devices !y visual examination, and repeat step ; with each of them used as the $%T@ 'i( thermistor 'with negative temperature coefficient(, 'ii( 7$* 'light"dependent resistor(, and 'iii( photo"transistor 'pin connection given in Fig. 7./(.
B lead E C left open


Fig. 7.2 Phototransistor Pin Connections

. +!serve the effects of 'i( heating the thermistor !y pressing it !etween two fingers, and 'ii( shining light on the 7$* and the phototransistor !y applying a d"c voltage of ; : to the series com!ination of the white 7E$ and two resistors. 0ote that while the 7$* has a resistive characteristic and hence the slope changes when illumination is changed, the phototransistor !ehaves li)e a light"controlled current source, and hence the flat region of the characteristic remains flat, !ut the value of the current changes when illumination is changed. Part D. Different .$pes of Dio"es 2. Identify each of the following four different types of diodes !y visual examination, and repeat step ; with each of them used as the $%T. Connect the diode in each case so that the current id indicated in Fig. 7. is in the forward direction of the diode@ 'iv( general"purpose diode ' 0< <H(, 'v( rectifier diode ' 0<--7(, 'vi( ?ener diode 'voltage printed on the !ody( and 'vii( 7E$ 'light"emitting diode 1 red(