English - grammar DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES..................................................2 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.............................................................................................2 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS..............

..................................................................................2 THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE CASE............2 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES....................................................2 THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.............................................................................................3 ADJECTIVES - DEGREES OF COMPARISON...............................................................3 THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES....................................................3 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES..............................................................4 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCE............................................................................................7 THE PLURAL OF NOUNS................................................................................................8 THE IRREGULAR PLURAL OF NOUNS........................................................................8 THE GENITIVE CASE.......................................................................................................8 VERB PATTERNS...........................................................................................................10 THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE.....................................................................................12 THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS.........................................................................12 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE...................................................................12 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS.......................................................13 THE PAST PARTICIPLE.................................................................................................13 THE PAST TENSE ..........................................................................................................14 THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS................................................................................14 PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE...................................................................................15 PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS ASPECT.......................................................16 FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE...............................................................................................16 FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS...................................................................................17 THE NEAR FUTURE......................................................................................................17 THE FUTURE IN THE PAST..........................................................................................17 THE PASSIVE..................................................................................................................17 THE CONDITIONAL ......................................................................................................19 Corespondenta timpurilor "if Clauses"...........................................................................20 MODAL VERBS..............................................................................................................22 SEQUENCE OF TENSES.................................................................................................28 VERBE CE NU SE FOLOSESC LA ASPECTUL CONTINUU.....................................28 EXPRESII IPOTETICE.....................................................................................................29 THE PREPOSITION.........................................................................................................30

English - grammar DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
This That These Those

There is
There is a bookcase in the classroom. There are many exercise-books on the desks. There are a lot of books on the desk.

There are

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
Singular I II III My Your His Her Its Plural our yours their

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
Singular I II III Mine Yours His Hers Plural ours yours theirs

THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE CASE
sg I II III I II II NOMINATIV I You He She It We You they DATIV (to) me (to) you (to)him (to) her (to) it (to) us (to) you (to) them ACUZATIV me you him her it us you them

pl.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 1. Pentru persoane:

English - grammar
a) N G D Ac who? (cine?) whose? (al cui?) (to) whom? (cui?) whom?

b) c) 2. a) b)

which? (care dintre?)- exprimã selectia what? (ce?)

Pentru animale si lucruri
what? which?

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 1. Pentru persoane:
a) N G D who whose (to) whom that (restrictiv)

b) 2. a) b) c) d)

Pentru animale si lucruri
whose which that what

ADJECTIVES - DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Pozitiv comparatie sinteticã long easy narrow clever noble interesting sup. longer easier narrower cleverer nobler more i. Comparativ egalitate inf. as long as not so long as as easy as not so easy as as narrow as not so narrow as as clever as not so clever as as noble as no so noble as as..as less ..than Superlativ relativ absolut the longest very long easiest very easy narrowest very narrow cleverest very clever noblest very noble the most.. very ..

comparatie sinteticã

THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Pozitiv Good, well Bad ill Much many Comparativ better worse more Superlativ the best the worst the most

English - grammar
little old Far Late Near less older elder farther further later the latter (cel de-al doilea, ultimul din doi) nearer the least the oldest the eldest the farthest the furthest the latest the last (ultimul) the nearest the next

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
Prop.afirmative (+) Some – ceva, niste, câţiva, câteva, unii, unele şi compuşii sãi Any – orice, oricare şi compuşii sãi Prop. interogative ( ?) Any – ceva, nişte, câţiva, câteva, unii şi compuşii Some – ceva, nişte, câţiva, câteva şi compuşii Prop. negative (-) No – nici un, nici o, nici un fel de, deloc şi compuşii sãi Any – nici un, nici o, nici un fel de şi compuşii sãi

Compuşii lui some, any, no, every
Some Any body somebody cineva (+, ?) anybody cineva ( ?) nimeni (-) oricine (+) nobody nimeni (-) everybody fiecare, toţi, toatã lumea) One someone cineva (+, ?) Anyone cineva ( ?) nimeni (-) oricine (+) no one nimeni (-) Everyone fiecare, toţi, toatã lumea) Thing Something ceva (+, ?) Anything ceva( ?) nimic (-) orice (+) Nothing nimic (-) Everything Totul where somewhere (undeva (+, ?) anywhere undeva ( ?) nicãieri (-) oriunde (+) nowhere nicãieri (-) everywhere pretutindeni

No Every

Reguli : 1. Some şi compuşii sãi a) în propoziţii afirmative There is some tea in the cup (adj. nehot) Este nişte ceai în ceaşcã Some children go to school (adj.nehot) Unii copii merg la şcoalã Some say he is very good at math (pron.nehot) Unii spun cã el este foarte bun la mate

b) în propoziţii interogative, când Can you lernd me some money ?(adj.nhot) Poţi sã-mi împrumuţi
se aşteaptã un rãspuns afirmativ (când cerem sau oferim ceva şi dorim ca rãspunsul sã fie afirmativ)

nişte bani ? May I help you to some tea ?(adj.nehot) Pot sã te servesc cu nişte ceai ? Can you tell me something about him ? (pron.nehot) Îmi puteţi spune ceva în legãturã cu el ? c) în propoziţii negative, când You never read whitout make some mistakes. Niciodată nu citeşti fără să faci unele greşeli. some are sens afirmativ

English - grammar
2. Any şi compuşii sãi a) în propoziţii interogative, în Is there any tea in the cup ?(adj.nehot) Este ceva ceai în ceaşcã ? locul lui some Are any of those students your friends ?(pron.nehot) Sunt vreunii dintre studenţii aceia prietenii voştri ? Is anybody in the library ?(pron.nehot) Este cineva în bibliotecã ? b) în propoziţii negative, când verbul este la forma negativã There isn’t any tea in the cup ?(adj.nehot) Nu este deloc ceai în ceaşcã There isn’t anybody in the library (pron.nehot) Nu este nimeni în bibliotecã There isn’t anything on the table (pron.nehot) Nu este nimic pe masã c) în propoziţii afirmative, cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice, Any student can do this exercise (adj.nehot) Orice student poate oriunde sã facã acest exerciţiu Any of these dictionaries is good for you (pron.nehot) Oricare dintre aceste dicţionare este bun pentru tine You may have anything you want (pron.nehot) Poţi avea orice doreşti.. 3. No şi compuşii In propoziţii negative, când verbul There is no tea in the cup (adj.nehot) Nu este deloc ceai în ceaşcã Nobody can translate this text (pron.nehot) Nimeni nu poate este la forma afirmativã traduce acest text 4. All - adj. si pron. nehotărât All of them were present. We worked all day long. All seats were taken. sg. şi plural

5.

Each şi every Each passenger (fiecare călător)

Every passenger (toţi călătorii)

We paid fifty lei each to be admitted to the museum. (Fiecare dintre noi a plătit taxă de intrare căte 50 lei) Each of his paintings is very valuable. (Fiecare tablou al său este f. valoros) Every passenger had his luggage inspected by the customs officer. (Tuturor călătorilor li s-au controlat bagajele de vameş) They come to visit us every year. (vin să ne viziteze în fiecare an)

6.

Either a) unul sau altul, oricare dintre You can bring me coffee or tea, either will do.(Poţi să-mi aduci cafea sau ceai, oricare (dintre ele), indiferent care) doi Trees were planted on either side of the road. Neither of them wants to leave (nici unul din ei nu vrea să plece) b) ambii, ambele Neither - negativul lui either

7.

Other

Another

8. 9. 10.

One Both Several

I like other books to read. (Îmi place să citesc ale cărţi) Some of us study English, others French.(Câţiva diontre noi studiază engleza, alţii franceza) This dictionary is mine, the other is yours. (celălalt) Does this street lead to the opera? No, the other.(cealaltă) Come another time.(vino altă dată) I don't like this coat, show me another. (arată-mi alta) One can easily learn all these rules.(putem învăţa uşor aceste reg.) One day I hope to visit this place. (cândva - într-o zi - sper să …) We shall both leave tomorrow. (amândoi vom pleca mâine) Several people entered at the same time. (mai multe persoane)

English - grammar
Is there a book on the table? No, there are several. (mai multe) 11. Much, little se folosesc pt. I don't like much furniture in my room. Does Ann spend much time at the seaside? substantive la singular There's a little time left. 12. Many, few se folosesc pt. I could tell you many things about flying. There are few children in the park on such a cold day. substantive la plural

ADJECTIVES SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
Adj attractive correct expensive fashionable formal happy intelligent iteresting kind modest polite usual Opposite Adj+prefix unattractive incorrect unexpensive unfashionable informal unhappy unintelligent uninteresting unkind immodest impolite unusual Opposite Different word ugly wrong cheap out of date casual sad stupid boring cruel arrogant rude strange/rare Adj old house old man single person a single ticket strong man strong beer rich person rich food sweet apple sweet wine hot curry hot drink dark hair dark room Opposite new house young man married person return ticket weak man light beer poor person plain food sour apple dry wine mild curry cold drink fair hair light room

English - grammar ADVERBS OF FREQUENCE Locul adverbelor in propoziţie: 1. intre SB si predicat 2. intre auxiliar si verb 3. dupa “to be” si verbele modale 4. daca vb. are 2 auxiliare, intre cele 2 auxiliare

English - grammar ************************************************************************ THE PLURAL OF NOUNS
+ es Substantivele terminate în: 2. -y precedate de 3. -f, -fe - se consoanã (y devine i) transformã în v lady - ladies shelf - shelves wife - wives

1. -ch, -sh, -s, -ss, -x, -z bench - benches brush - brushes bus - buses class - classes box - boxes

4. - o, precedat de o consoanã hero - heroes potato - potatoes

THE IRREGULAR PLURAL OF NOUNS
Singular child die foot goose leaf life man mouse ox tooth wife woman Plural children dice feet geese leaves lives men mice oxen teeth wives women

THE GENITIVE CASE 1.
Genitivul analitic Se redã cu ajutorul prepozitiei of Ordinea cuvintelor: 1. subst. ce denumeste obiectul posedat the room of the children (precedat de articol) 2. prepozitia of the car of my friend 3. substantivul ce denumeste posesorul Se foloseste când numele posesorului este exprimat prin:  subst. comune ce denumesc fiinte the pencil of the student  subst. comune ce denumesc obiecte the walls of the office

2.

Genitivul saxon

Se redã prin 's sau ' Ordinea cuvintelor: 1. substantivul ce denumeste posesorul Tom's dictionary 2. 's sau ' the students' books subst. ce denumeste obiectul posedat Se foloseste când numele posesorului este exprimat prin:

English - grammar  subst. proprii nume de fiinte  subst. comune ce denumesc fiinte: oameni si Tom's pencil  subst. nume de tãri
animale the girl's pencil the cat's name Romania's territory

English - grammar ************************************************************************ ***** VERB PATTERNS
Verbs + ing like love adore avoid enjoy prefer hate can’t stand don’t mind finish look forward to

doing cooking sightseeing

Note : like, love, adore, prefer, hate are sometimes used with to, but ing is more usual and more
general in meaning.

Verbs + to + infinitive
agree choose dare decide expect forget help hope learn manage need offer promise refuse seem want would like would love would prefer would hate

to do to come to cook

Notes : Help and dare can be used whitout to Have to – for obligation Used to – for past habits

English - grammar Verbs + somebody + to + infinitive
advise allow ask beg encourage expect help need invite order remind tell want warn (+not) would like would love would prefer would hate

me him them someone

to do to go to come

Verbs + somebody + infinitive (no to)
let make help her us do

Notes : - To is used with make in the passive We were made to work hard - Let cannot be used in the passive allowed to is used instead She was allowed to leave. Verbs+ing or to + infinitive (with no change in meaning)
begin start continue raining to rain

Verbs+ing or to + infinitive (with a change in meaning)
remember stop try doing to do

- I remember posting the letter (I have a memory now of a past action : posting the letter) - I stopped smoking (I gave up a habit)
I rememberd to post the letter (I reminded myself to post the letter) I stoped to smoke (I stopped doing something else in order to have a cigarette) I tried counting sheep and taking sleeping pills (these were possible ways of getting to sleep)

Notes :

- I tried to sleep(I wanted to sleep, but it was difficult)

English - grammar THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE (V1) The Present Simple is used: 1 – to express an action which happens again and again, that is a habit it is often found with these time expressions: usually, generally, often, always, never, every day, every year,sometimes I sometimes walk to work He usually wears a suit. 2 – to express a fact which is always true I come from Argentina. 3 – to express a fact which stays the same for a long time (state) He works in a bank I live in a flat near the center of town. I prefer coffee to tea. 4 – a announcements, titles of journals 5 – introduceri de citate 6 – în povestiri (prezentul narativ) 7 – în propoziţia secundară, dc. verbul este la viitor If the car breaks down, I will walk THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Presentul auxiliarul " to be "+ participiul nedefinit al vb. de conjugat(Ving) Is used:  to express an activity that is happening now What are we doing? Don’t turn theTV off. I’m watching it.  to express an activity or situation that is true now, but is not necessarily happening at the moment of speaking Don’t take that book. Jane’s reading it. I’m doing a French evening course this year.  to express a temporary activity I’m living with friends until I find a place of my own.  to express a planned future activity I'm doing my homework in the afternoon. I’m having lunch with Glenna tomorrow.  Momente enervante + adverb de frecvenţă Jane's always talking. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE prezentul aux. "to have" + participiul trecut al vb. de conjugat (V3) actiuni incheiate la un moment din rtecut nespecificat Este folosit pentru a exprima:

English - grammar  o actiune terminatã în trecut, dar care are consecinte în prezent a) actiunea a avut loc într-o perioadã de timp care nu s-a încheiat încã (today, this week, this year) I have worked hard this week. b) momentul actiunii este exprimat printr-un adverb de timp nedefinit si de frecventã ever in prop. interogative never often seldom already (deja) in propoziţii afirmative si negative(expr.mirare) lately (in ultima vreme) just (tocmai) doar in propoziţii afirmative always yet (încã) p. negative sau interogative – pe ultimil loc in prop. recently so far (pânã acum) - se asazã între aux. si vb.de conjugat) I have never written my report during the classes.  o actiune care a început în trecut si continuã în prezent a)momentul din trecut când a început actiunea este marcat de prep. Since I have studied in the library since morning. b)durata actiunii este indicatã de prep. for I have been a teacher for several years.  In propozitii secundare pt. a exprima actiuni viitoare You can go out as soon as you have had lunch. I’ll give you a phone when the meeting has ended. Don’t answer any question until you have read the whole questionnaire. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS present perfect "to be" + Ving Este folosit pentru a exprima:  o actiune care a început în trecut, a fost în curs de desfãsurare în trecut si s-a încheiat cu putin înainte de momentul vorbirii I have been studying this text all day long.  o actiune care a început în trecut, este în curs de desfãsurare în momentul vorbirii si poate continua în viitor I have been living in this house for twenty years.  Actiuni care explica rezultatul unei alte actiuni trecute Please excuse my dirty clothes. I’ve been painting. It has been raining all the day that is so cold. THE PAST PARTICIPLE 1. vb. regulate: infinitiv scurt + "-ed" când se adaugă terminaţia "-ed" :

• • • • •

English - grammar verbele terminate în "e" pierd acest "e" final translate translated verbele monosilabice terminate într-o consoană precedată de o singură vocală scurtă dublează consoana finală: stop stopped verbele plurisilabice terminate într-o consoană precedată de o singură vocală scurtă dublează consoana finalănumai dacă accentul cade pe ultima silabă: prefer preferred verbele terminate în "l' dublează consoana finală indiferent de accent travel travelled la verbele terminate în "y" precedat de consoană, "y" devine "i" try tried

2. vb. neregulate: V3

THE PAST TENSE Use : 1 – to express a finished action in the past We met in 1987. I went to Manchester last week. John left two minutes ago. 2 – to express actions which follow each other in a story Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully. She heard a noise coming from behind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, and then she saw… 3 – to express a past situation or habit When I was a child, we lived in a small house by the sea. Every day I walked for miles on the beach with my dog. This use is often expressed with used to We used to live in a small house…I used to walk miles… Time expressions that are common with the Past Simple last night, two days ago, yesterday morning, in 1990, in summer, when I was young THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS past "to be"(was) + Ving (were) Is used: 1 - to express an activity in progress before, and probably after, a particular time in past: I walked past your house last night. There was an awful lot of noise. What were you doing? At 7.00 this morning I was having breakfast 2 – to describe a situation or activity during a period in the past:

English - grammar Jan looked lovely. She was wearing a green cotton dress. Her eyes were shining in the light of the candles that were burning nearby. 3 – to express an interrupted past activity When the phone rang, I was having a bath. We were playing tennis when it started to rain. 4 – to express an incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the Past Simple, which express a completed activity I was reading a book during the flight (I didn’t finish it) I watched a film during the fly (the whole film) 5 – the Past Simple is usually used to express a repeated past habit or situation: I went out with jack for years. But the Past continuous can be used if the repeated habit becomes a longer setting for something: I was going out with Jack when I first met Harry. Past Simple versus Past Continuous 1 – the Past Simple expresses past actions as simple facts. The Past Continuous gives past activities time and duration I didn’t see you in the pub last night. No I stayed at home and watched TV I rang you last night, but there was no reply. Sorry. I was watching TV. I didn’t hear the phone. 2 – the questions refer to different time periods: the Past Continuous asks about activities before; the Past Simple asks about what happened after: When the war broke out, Peter was studying medicine at university. He decided that is was safer to go home to his parents and postpone his studies. What was Peter doing when the war broke out? He was studying What did Peter do when the war broke out? He went home to his parents. PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE past "to have" (had) + V3 (mai mult ca perfect) Use 1 – to look back to a time in the past and refer to an action that happened before then: When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my stereo. I didn’t want to go to the cinema with the others because I’d seen the film before. 2 – notice the difference between the sentences: When I got to the party, Peter went home (after I arrived, Peter left) When I got to the party, Peter had gone home (Before I arrived, Peter left) Momentul trecut poate fi marcat prin: a) by the end of the week, by 2 o'clock, by sunday, by that time By the end of the last week I had already drawn up the report. a) o altã actiune trecutã, exprimatã printr-un verb la timpul trecut

English - grammar When I got home, they had already left.

PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS ASPECT past perfect tense simple of "to be" (had been) + Ving (mai mult ca perfect) Este folosit pentru a exprima:  o actiune de duratã care a fost în curs de desfãsurare în trecut si s-a încheiat cu putin înainte fatã de un moment trecut  o actiune de duratã în curs de desfãsurare, care a început înaintea unui moment din trecut si continuã si în acel moment He had been coughing for two days when I took him to the doctor's. Momentul trecut poate fi exprimat prin: a) o locutiune adverbialã de timp: this time yesterday, this time last month b) o actiune trecutã, exprimatã printr-un verb la trecut, aspectul comun FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE shall (pers.I sg., pl) + infinitiv scurt will (pers.II, III sg, pl) Este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare fatã de momentul vorbirii. - folosit pentru evenimente neutre. Se foloseste cu: tomorrow, next week, next year, etc. • Will folosit cu persoana I este verb modal si exprimã intentia sau hotãrârea subiectului de a face o anumitã actiune I will go there. • Shall folosit la pers. II si III este verb modal si exprimã un ordin, o amenintare, o promisiune. You shall go there. You shall have the book back tomorrow.(Iti promi sã-ti înapoiez cartea..) Viitorul simplu se foloseste numai pentru actiuni viitoare neplanificate. Nu se foloseste viitorul în:  propozitii circumstantiale de timp, viitorul fiind înlocuit cu a) prezentul, dacã actiunile sunt simultane : You'll decide on it when father comes. b) present perfect, dacã actiunea din secundarã este anterioarã fatã de actiunea din prop. principalã: We shall leave only after we have prepared everything.  propozitii conditionale, viitorul fiin înlocuit cu timpul prezent: You'll catch cold if you bathe on this weather.

English - grammar FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS viitor "to be" + Ving Este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune de duratã, în curs de desfãsurare în viitor. Caracterul progresiv reiese dacã o raportãm la:  un moment viitor exprimat prin: at 5'oclock, at noon, tomorrow, this time next month, all day tomorrow, all the week trough, from one to three This time tomorrow I shall be writing a letter.  o actiune momentanã viitoare, exprimatã printr-un verb la prezent simplu When you come back home, I shall be reading a book..  o altã actiune de duratã în curs de desfãsurare în viitor. While I am filling in a telegram form, he will be withdrawing some money from the Bank counter. THE NEAR FUTURE Prezentul continuu al vb."to go" + infinitivul lung al vb. de conjugat  Exprimã o actiune pe care intentionãm sã o desfãsurãm într-un viitor apropiat de momentul vorbirii. Are implicatii modale, exprimând intentia, probabilitatea I am going to read. Is she going to dictate? I am going to close the window, it's going to rain. THE FUTURE IN THE PAST should + infinitiv scurt would  Se foloseşte numai în propoziţii secundare, când vb. din principală este la trecut  Exprimă o acţiune viitoare faţă de acţiunea trecută din prop. Principală
Past F.I.P.

I promised / I should ring up Mr. Brown at 2 o'clock. (Am promis că îi voi telefona d-lui Brown la ora 2) THE PASSIVE Form : the tense of the verb to be changes to give different tenses in the passive. This is followed by the past participle. Use : 1 – passive sentences move the focus from the subject to the object of active sentences : Shakespeare wrote Hamlet in 1599. – active Hamlet, one of the great dramatic tragedies, was written by shakespeare 2 – very often, by and the agent are omitted in the passive sentences ; this might be because : - the agent is not known :

English - grammar My flat was burgled list night. - the agent is not important : The bridge was built in 1886. - we understand who the agent is :c I was fined £100 for speeding. 3 – the passive is associated with an impersonal, formal style ; it is often used in notices and announcements : Customers are requested to refrain from smoking. It has been noticed that refrence books have been removed from the library. 4 – in informal language, we often use you, we and they to refer to people in general or to no person in particular ; in this wy we can avoid the passive : They’re building a new department store in the city centre. You can buy stamps in lots of shops, not just post offices. We speak English in this shop. The same meaning is expressed in formal languages using one: One should dress to suit the occasion. 5 – many past participles are used more like adjectives: I’m very interested in modern art. I was surprised by her behaviour. We were very worried about you Aren’t you bored by the news? I’m exhausted! I’ve been working all day. Past tenses in the passive Present tense I am asked / he is asked. (Sunt întrebat / este întrebat) Present Perfect I have been asked / he has been asked (am fost întrbat) Past tense I was asked / he was asked (am fost întrebat, eram întrebat) The bridge was built in 1876 (Past Simple – finished action in the past) Past Perfect I had been asked / he had been asked (fusesem întrbat) The letter I was waiting for didn’t arrive because it had been sent to my old address (Past Perfect – one action before another action in the past) Future Tense I shall be asked / he will be asked (voi fi întrebat) The bomb was being diffused when it exploded (Past Continuous – interrupted activity) Present Simple and Continuous passive Computers are used in all areas of life and work. (fact which is always true) Sorry about the mess. The house is being redecorated at the moment.(activity happening now)

English - grammar Diateza pasivã se poate folosi la toate timpurile, mai putin formele perfecte continue si viitorul continuu Present Simple SB + to be + V3 Present tense continuous SB + to be + being + V3 Past tense SB + was/were + V3 I’m told thet you didn’t respect… The school is being painted now The school was pulled down yesterday.

Past Tense continuous SB + was/were + being + V3 The bridge was being built when I first came to this town. Present Perfect SB + have + been + V3 Past Perfect SB + had + been + V3 started. Future SB + will + be + V3 He has been asked several times to deliver the letter. He had been appointed P.Minister before the war

He will be appointed P.Minister

Future Perfect SB + will + have + been + V3 He’ll have been appointed PM before the war starts. THE CONDITIONAL Conditional prezent simplu should (pers.I, sg. si pl.) + infinitivul scurt would Conditional prezent continuu should + be + Ving would Conditional trecut simplu should + infinitiv perfect (have +V3) would Conditional trecut continuu should + have been + Ving would

English - grammar Corespondenta timpurilor "if Clauses"
Timp prop. principalã viitor conditional prezent conditional trecut Timp prop. conditionalã Prezent Past Tense Past Perfect Tense Exemple I shall buy a new dress /if I find something to suit me. I should buy a new dress/ if I found someting to suit me. I shouldn't buy this blouse/ if I were you. I should have bought a new dress/ if I had found someting to suit me.

CONDITIONALS There are many different ways of making sentences with if. It is important to understand the difference between sentences that express real possibilities, and those that express unreal situations. Real possibilities
If it rains, we’ll stay at home. (if + Present Simple + will) If you’ve finished your work, you can go home. (if + Present Perfect + modal auxiliary verb) If you’re feeling ill, go home and get into bed. (if + Present Continuous + imperative)

Unreal situations
You would understand me better if you came from my country.(would + if + Past Simple) If I were rich, I wouldn’t have any problems. (if + were + would) If I stopped smoking, I could run faster. (if + Past Simple + modal auxiliary verb)

First Conditional If + Present Simple + will Positive : Negative : Question :
If I find your wallet, I’ll let you know. We’ll come and see you on Sunday if the weather’s good You won’t pass the exam if you don’t revise. If you lose your ticket, you won’t be able to go. What will you do if you don’t find a job ? If there isn’t a hotel, where will you stay ?

! ! !We do not usually use will in the if clause. If can be replaced by unless (if…no) or in case (because of the possibility) • Use 1. First Conditional sentences express a possible condition and its probable result in the future. Condition (if clause)
If I find a jumper that suits you If you can do the homework If you can find my purse If you’ve never been to Wales Unless I hear from you, I’ll arrive at 8 o’clock. I’ll take my umbrella in case it rains.

Result (result clause)
I’ll buy it for you. give me a ring. I might buy you an ice-cream. you should try to get there one day.

English - grammar 2. We can use the First Conditional to express different functions (all which express a possible condition and a probable result)
If you do that again, I’ll kill you ! (a threat) Careful ! If you touch that, you’ll burn yourself ! (warning) I’ll post the letter if you like. (an offer) If you lend me £ 100, I’ll love you forever. (a promise)

Second Conditional Positive Negative Question

if + Past Simple + would

If I won some money, I’d go round the world. My father would kill me if he could see me now. I’d give up my job if I didn’t like it. If I saw a ghost, I wouldn’t talk to it. What would you do if you saw someone shoplifting? If you needed help, who would you ask ?

! ! ! was change to were in the conditional clause. • Use 1. We use the Second Conditional to express an unreal situation and its probable result. The situation or condition is improbable, impossible, imaginary, or contrary to known facts.
If I were the president of my country, I’d increase taxation (but it’s not very likely that I will ever be the president) If my mother was still alive, she’d be very proud (but she’s dead) If Ted needed any money, I’d lend it to him (but he doesn’t need it)

2. Other modal verbs are possible in the result clause
I could buy some new clothes if I had some money If I saved a little every week, I might be able to save up for a car. If you wanted that job, you’d have to apply very soon.

3.

If I were you, I’d… (is used to give advice)
If I were you, I’d apologize to her. I’d take it easy for a wile if I were you.

English - grammar MODAL VERBS can - pot, sunt în stare, sunt capabil may - pot, am voie, am permisiunea may not - lipsa permisiunii (nu este permis) must - trebuie must not - interdicţia - este interzis, nu este voie might will would shall should ought need not (needn't) - lipsa necesitãţii (nu este necesar, nu este cazul) Form : - there is no –s in the third person singular - there is no do/does in the question - there is no don’t/doesn’t in the negative - modal auxiliary verbs don’t usually have past forms - they have no infinitives and no –ing forms - they are followed by an infinitive without to (the exception is ought to) - they can be used with perfect infinitives to talk about the past : You should have told me that you can’t swim. You might have drowned! Use : - each modal verb has at least two meanings. One use of all of them is to express possibility or probability I must post this letter !(obligation) You must be tired !(deduction, probability) Could you help me ?(request) We could go to Spain for our holidays.(possibility) May I go home now ?(permission) Where’s Anna ? She may be at work (possibility) - modal verbs express our attitude, opinions and judgements of events. Who’s that knocking on the door ? It’s John. (this is a fact) It could/may/might/must/should/can’t/’ll be John (these all express our attitude or opinion) 1. Can - prezent Could - Past Tense, conditional prezent Could + infinitivul trecut - conditional trecut Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste to be able to

- a putea, a fi în stare - a sti sã (aratã o anume abilitate fizicã) - a avea permisiunea (în vorbirea familiarã) - folosit cu sensul lui may - can't, couldn't – deductie negativa – nu se poate, nu este posibil sã

English - grammar - could + have + V3: actiune care nu a fost efectuata; couldn’t have + V3: actiune imposibila 2. - infinitiv, prezent - redã ideea de trecut, dar se foloseste numai dupã un alt verb la trecut ex: He said I might smoke in that room. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc: to be allowed to, to be permitted to May Might

- a putea, a avea permisiunea - posibilitate viitoare ex: Take your umbrella.It may/might rain - posibilitate prezenta ex: he may be working now - posibilitate trecutã: may / might + have + V3 –ex: He may have left. - poate exprima un repros ex: You may/might help me when I am in need. 3. Must - infinitiv, prezent Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste to have to must exprima obligativitate mustn’t - interdictia - a trebui - probabil cã - deductie prezenta ex: It must be late. - deductie trecuta ex: he must have been reach. 4. Need - ca verb modal se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ - a fi nevoie ex: Need I be here at one o'clock? No you needn't. * pentru a rãspunde afirmativ se foloseste verbul must Need I be here at one o'clock? Yes, you must. * pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut: - dacã actiunea nu era necesarã dar a fost fãcutã: need + ininitiv trecut You needn't have watered the flowers. - dacã actiunea nu era necesarã si nu a fost fãcutã: didn't need + infinitiv We didn't need to do these exercises. Notã: need not = nu e nevoie must not = nu trebuie 5. Should, ought to - ar trebui sã, ar fi cazul sã, ar fi bine sã - ar fi trebuit: you should have paid the bill 6. a) Shall folosit cu persoana I indicã viitorul

English - grammar b) folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica solicitarea unui sfat, o ofertã sau o sugestie c) folosit cu persoanele II si III poate arãta o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste ex: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. 7. Will, would - formulã de politete, cerere politicoasã ex: Will/would you sit down? - a voi (cu sens extins la obiecte) ex: This radio won't work. - actiune repetatã * în perioada prezentã: My mother will sit for hours watching TV * în trecut: When I was child, my mother would read me fairy-tales. * actiunea repetatã în trecut se poate exprima cu used to When I was child, my mother used to read me fairy-tales. - presupunere (o fi) This girl looks very much like Jane. She will be her sister. Expressing obligation have to, must and should are used to express obligation Note - Must I… ? is possible, but question forms with have to are more common Do I have to do what you say, or can I do what I want ? - Should I/she/we … ? is possible. We often use Do you think.. ? Should I try to eat less ? Do you think I should see a doctor ? - Have to has all the forms that must doesn’t have I had to work until midnight last night.(Past) You’ll have to study hard when you go to university.(Future) She’s a millionaire. She’s never had to do any work.(Present Perfect) I hate having to get up cold, winter mornings.(-ing form) If you were a policeman, yu would have to wear a uniform.(Infinitive) Use : - must and have to both express strong obligation Must is used to express an obligation that involves the speaker’s opinion ; it is personal I must get my hair cut. (this is me talking to me) You must do this homework carefully.(a teacher talking to students) Must is also associated with a formal, writen style

English - grammar Candidates must write in ink and answer four questions (instructions on an exam paper) Books must be returned on or before the due date.(instructions in a library) - have to expresses a general obligation based on a law or rule, or based on the authority of another person ; it is more objective I can’t play tennis tomorrow. I have to go to the dentist(I have an appointment) Children have to go to school until they are sixteen.(a law) Mum says you have to tidy your room before you go out.(mother’s order) - mustn’t – expresses negative obligation : it is very important not to do something - don’t have to expresses the absence of obligation – you can if you want, but it isn’t necessary You mustn’t steal other people’s thingf. It’s wrong. You mustn’t drive if you’ve been drinking. You could kill someone. Some people iron their socks, but you don’t have to. I think it’s a waste of time. When you go into a shop, you don’t have to buy something. - should and ought to express mild obligation, or advice. They both expess what, in the speaker’s opinion, is the right or best thing to do You’re always asking me for money. I think you should spend less. You ought to be more careful with your money. I know I shouldn’t keep buying you presents, but just love you ! You shouldn’t sit so close to television ! it’s bad for your eyes. Expressing permission - can, may, and be allowed to are used to express permission. Can is more informal and usually spoken. You can borrow my bike, but you can’t hve the car. I need it. May we smoke in here ? You can’t come in here with those muddy shoes ! You’re allowed to get married when you’re sixteen. Are we allowed to youse a dictionary for this test ? Making requests - There are many ways of making requests in English. Can / could / will / would you help me please / pass the salt please ? Would you mind helping me, please ? Can / could I speak to you, please ? Do you mind if I open the window ? Would you mind if I opened the window ? - could is (a little) more formal ; can is (a little) more familiar. Could I… ? and Could you.. ? are very useful because they can be used in many different situations - Responding to requests :

a.

b.

English - grammar Excuse me ! Could you help me ? Sure. Of course Well, I’m afraid I’m a bit bussy at the moment Would you mind if I opened the window ? No, not at all. No, that’s fine. Well, I’m rather/a little chilly, actually. Making offers

- will and shall are used to express offers. - the contracted form of will is used to express an intention, decision or offer made at the moment of speaking Come over after work. I’ll make a meal for you. It’s Jane birthday today. Is it ? I’ll buy her some flowers. Give him your suitcase. He’ll carry it for you. Don’t worry about the bus. Dave’ll give you a lift. Give it back or we’ll call the Police ! In many languages, this idea is often expressed by a present tense, but in English this is wrong : NOT* I give you my number I carry your suitcase. - shall ..? is used in questions with the first person, I and we. It expresses aqn offer, a suggestion or a request for advice. Shall I carry your bag for you ?That’s very kind, thank you. Shall we go out for a meal tonight ? Mmm. I’d love to. What shall we do ? We haven’t got any money. We could ask Dad. We use should to make an informal suggestion What should we have for dinner ? What should we do tonight ? Expressing possibility / probability - we use must and can’t to express the logical conclusion of a situation ; must – logically probable can’t –logically improbable We don’t have all the facts, so we are not absolutely sure, but we are pretty certain. He’s very fit, though he must be at leat sixty ! Suzie can’t have a ten-year-old daughter. She’s only twenty-five herself ! Is there no reply ? They must be in bed. They can’t be out at this time of night. A walk in this weather! You must be joking ! - we use may / might and could to express possibility in the present or future. May / might + not is the negative. Couldn’t is rare in this use. Take your umbrella. It might rain later. Dave and Beth aren’t at home. They could be in the pub, I suppose.

English - grammar We may go to Greece for our holidays. We haven’t decided yet. You know we are going out tonight ? Well, I might not be able to make it. I might have to work late - we use will to express what we belive to be tue about the present. We are guessing based on what we know about people and things, their routines, character, and qualities. There’s a knock on the door. That’ll be the postman. He always calls at this time Infinitives • Continuous infinitive You must be joking ! Peter must be working late. She could have been lying to you. • Perfect infinitive to express degrees of probability in the past He must have been drunk. She can’t have got home yet He might have got lost. They could have moved the house Asking about possibilities Question forms with the above modal verbs are unusual. We usually use Do you think.. ? Do you think she’s married ? She can’t be. Where do you think he’s from ? He might be French. He’s very handsome. Do you think they’ve arrived yet ? They may have. Or they might have got stuck in the traffic.

English - grammar SEQUENCE OF TENSES Prop. principalã 1 Un timp "present"
Present tense Simple, Present Tense Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous

Prop. secundarã
orice timp cerut de sens orice alt timp "past" Past Tense Past Perfect Future in the Past

EX.

2

un timp "past"
Past Tense Simple, Past Tense Continuous, Past Perfect Simple,Past Perfect Continuous Actiune simultanã Past Tense Actiune anterioarã Past Tense Actiune posterioarã Past tense

He told me his phone was out of order I didn't know you had already rung him up The operator said she would put me through in a minute.

3

un timp "future"
teoretic, se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens, cu exceptia propozitiilor temporale sau conditionale, care nu pot include un verb la viitor Actiune simultanã Future Actiune anterioarã Future

Present Present Perfect

I will call you as soon as I arrive. I shall se what you have done.

Exceptii la concordanta timpurilor : 1. când propozitia secundarã exprimã un adevãr general valabil The teacher told the pupils the water boils at 100oC. 2. când propozitia secundarã este atributivã The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother 3. când propozitia secundarã este comparativã Last year I worked more than I have done this year. 4. când timpul din propozitia secundarã este independent de timpul actiunii din principală - vb. subordonatei poate fi la prezent sau viitor I didn't believe her because she isn't reliable. I like the play so much that I shall never forget it. VERBE CE NU SE FOLOSESC LA ASPECTUL CONTINUU 1. feelings love, like, dislike, hate, prefer 2. vb.ce denumesc simturile see, hear, test, smell, feel 3. vb.ce indica posesia

English - grammar own, belong, have 4. vb.ce indica o caracteristica permanenta a unui obiect cost, include, mesure, weigh 5. verbele : be, know, understand, believe, remember,agree, appear (pare), seem(a parea), expect, mean exceptii: see – la aspect continuu cand nu exprima simtul vãzului:- to have an appointment I’m seeing the dentist tomorrow. Taste, smell, hear - V.T.: I’m testing the soup I’m hearing - V.I. nu se foloseste la continuu (simţul este exercitat in mod involuntar) the rose smells nice. Have - posesia – nu se foloseste la continuu - Continuu: I’m having my house painted expect think appear be - cu sens de a spera – nu se foloseste la continuu - aşteptare I’m expecting company - opinia (believe) - nu se foloseste la continuu - activitate de gândire I’m thinking of sth. - se pare - nu se foloseste la continuu - apariţia: she’s appearing in the new movie. - existenta - nu se foloseste la continuu - cmportament temporar: he’s being very rude today. EXPRESII IPOTETICE 1. I wish urmat de • Past Tense – situatie ireala prezentã I wish I had money. • Past Perfect – dorinţã nerealizatã care se referã la trecut I wish I had bought the newspaper. • Would + infinitive – dorinţã viitoare, puţin probabil de a se realiza I wish he would win the first prise. urmat de

2. If only (numai de, numai dacã)

• Past Tense – dorinţã prezentã sau viitoare If only I could win the first prise. • Past Perfect – regretul pentru o actiune care nu s-a intamplat If only I had bought the newspaper.

English - grammar 3. Would rather (mai degrabã) urmat de • Prezent: dacã SB preferintei coincide cu subiectul actiunii preferate I would rather go skiing than skating. • Past Tense: dacã SB preferintei nu coincide cu subiectul actiunii preferate I would rather you went to the meeting instead of me. • Would + infinitive: actiuni preferate care se vor defasura in viitor, SB preferintei nu coincide cu subiectul actiunii preferate I would rather you would come tomorrow. 4. It’s time/it’s high time urmat de • Prezent: dacã actiunea se savarseste la timp It’s time for you to have dinner. • Past Tense: dacã este prea târziu pentru savarsirea actiunii It’s time you had dinner. 5. As if/ though (de parcã) urmat de • Past Tense: indoialã prezentã He talks as if he were English. • Past Perfect: incertitudine asupra unui eveniment trecut He acts as if he had won the first prise. • Present – daca este o certitudine It looks as if it’s going to rain. ************************************************************************ ***** THE PREPOSITION
at a) timp : la (orã, moment, în, The class began at 8 a’clock sharp (Lecţia a început la ora 8 fix.) pe) Don’t tell me you wake up at sunrise (Nu-mi spune cã te trezeşti la b) loc : la rãsãritul soarelui) We welcomed them at the airport 9I-am întâmpinat la aeroport) The goods were sold at a good price (Mãrfurile s-au vândut la un c) alte relaţii : cu, la un preţ preţ bun) in a) timp : în, peste He finished his homework in one hour (şi-a terminat tema într-o orã) The exhibition is planned to be opened in a fortnight (expoziţia este planificatã sã se deschidã peste 2 sãptãmâni) b) loc : în, din, pe, de In Bucharest you can find some very attractive parks.(În Bucureşti se gãsesc câteva parcuri foarte frumoase) c) alte relaţii : în, din, cu All the paintings in the exhibition were very well selected. (Toate tablourile din expoziţie au fost foarte bine selecţionate) The exercise was written in ink.(Exerciţiul a fost scris cu cernealã) On a) timp : la (data), în They promised to be ready with theyr papers on the third of May. (Au promis sã fie gata cu lucrãrile la 3 mai) On a fine summer morning we decided to start our trip (Am hotãrât sã pornim în excursie într-o frumoasã dimineaţã de varã.) b) loc : de, de pe The vase on the table is not nice (Vasul de pe masã nu e frumos)

English - grammar
c) alte relaţii : pe, în, despre With a) odatã cu You can place the books on the shelf (Poţi sã pui cãrţile pe raft) Today we shall hear a lecture on marketing.(Astãzi vom audia o expunere despre marketing) With the aproach of examination we have to plan our time carefully. (odatã cu apropierea examenelor, trebuie sã ne planificãm timpul cu grijã) He lives with his parents (locuieşte la pãrinţi)

b) loc : la By a) timp : în timpul ; pânã, pe We travelled by day and by night (am cãlãtorit zi şi noapte) la ; cãtre They will reach the resort by 10 o’clock(Vor ajunge în staţiune pe la ora 10) By the end of the year I should have finished my thesis(Pânã la sfârşitul anului îmi voi termina teza) b) loc : lângã, alãturi de, pe I passed by your housethe other day.(Am trecut pe lângã casa ta lângã, prin ieri) c) alte relaţii : pe (referitor la The hall was 4 meters wide by 6 meters long.(Holul era de 4 metri dimensiuni) pe 6) Of a) loc : de We decided to put up for the night in a motel two miles of the resort.(Am hotãrât sã mergem peste noapte la un motel la douã mile de staţiune) b) alte relaţii : al, din, de, dintre The beauty of the mountains attract many visitors (Frumuseţea din partea munţilor atrage mulţi vizitatori) One of my friends told me all about this (unul dintre prietenii mei mi-a povestit totul despre aceasta) From a) timp : din, de la She is studying in the library from morning till night.(Ea studiazã în bibliotecã de dimineţa pânã seara) b) loc : din, de la I took the dictionary from the library. (Am luat dicţionarul de la bibliotecã) c) alte relaţii : din partea I haven’t received any letter from them recently. (nu am primit nici o scrisoare de la ei în ultimul timp) About a) timp : cam, pe la They arrived at about 6 o’clock.(Ei au sosit pe la ora 6) b) loc : împrejurul, în(din) jurul, We walket about the town. (Am umblat prin oraş) prin, la c) alte relaţii : despre, referitor What are you talking about ?(Despre ce vorbiţi) la I’ve heard about this place before (Am mai auzit despre acest loc) Above a) timp : înainte The existence of the town was not mentioned above the 14th century (Existenţa oraşului nu a fost menţionatã înainte de sec.14) b) loc : deasupra, peste I don’t think the best place for the lamp is above that table (Nu cred cã cel mai bun loc pentru lampã este deasupra mesei aceleia. c) alte relaţii : peste, mai presus Above all you should understand that you must do your duty.(mai de presus de toate trebuie sã înţelegi cã trebuie sã-ţi faci datoria) Over a) timp : în cursul, în timpul, He will stay with us over the week-end (va sta cu noi pânã la pânã la sfârşitul sãptãmânii) Beside a) loc : alãturi de, lângã I sat down beside her (M-am aşezat lângã ea) During a) timp : în timpul, în cursul We met and discussed during the interval (Ne-am întâlnit şi am discutat în timpul pauzei)

English - grammar
For a) timp : timp de I shall stay with them for a fortnight (Voi sta cu ei timp de 2 sãptãmâni) We have lived in this town for five years (Locuim în acest oraş de 5 ani) We left for London by plane (am plecat la Londra cu avionul) This present is for you (acest cadou este pentru tine) I bought the book for twenty dollars (am cumpãrat cartea cu 20 de dolari) I haven’t met him since last month (Nu l-am vãzut de luna trecutã) He works from morning till night (Lucreazã de dimineaţa pânã seara) The book will come out until the end of the year She did not offer an explanation to this day (Nu a dat nici o explicaţie pânã în ziua de azi) This is the way to airport (Acesta este drumul spre aeroport) This range of goods is exported to over ten countries (acest sortiment de mãrfuri se exportã în peste 10 ţãri) The interior decoration wasn’t to my taste (decoraţia interioarã nu a fost pe gustul meu) We approached the village towards evening (ne-am apropiat de sat spre searã) She turns towards us (s-a întors spre noi) His attitude towards you was quite unexpected (atitudinea lui faţã de tine a fost cu totul neaşteptatã) Recently I have worked far into the night (in ultimul timp am lucrat pânã noaptea târziu. The noise stopped as we came into the room (Zgomotul a încetat când am intrat în camerã) Wood turned into furniture (lemnul s-a transformat în mobilã)

b) alte relaţii : pentru, cu, cãtre

Since timp : de la, de Till, untill timp: pânã (la) To a) timp : pânã la b) alte relaţii : la, spre, dupã, pe

Towards a) timp : spre b) loc : înspre c) alte relaţii : faţã de, cu Into a) timp : pânã b) loc : la

c) alte relaţii : în Whitin a) timp: în interval de, înaite de The lot should be completed whitin a week (Lotul trebuie sfârşitul, pânã în completat într-o sãptãmânã) b) loc: distanţa At about 8 o’clock we were whitin a mile of the town (Pe la ora opt eram la depãrtare de o milã de oraş)

in, at, on for time 1. we use at for time and certain expressions: at 8.00 at midnight at lunchtime at the weekend at Christmas at the same time at the moment at the age of 9 2. we use on for days and dates on Friday on Friday morning on 12 September on Saturday evening

English - grammar 3. we use in for longer periods, such as months, years and seasons in April in 1965 in summer in the nneteenth century
We say at night, but in the evening/afternoon We also say I’ll see you in the morning but I’ll see you tomorrow morning. 4. there is no preposition before last, next or this

in, at, on for place 1. in is used to express a position inside a place. It suggests three dimensions He works in an office in London He lives in the south of England. He eats in restaurants. He potters in the garden. There are lot of shops in the airport. When we were in France, we spent a few days in Paris. 2. at is used to express a location at a point. It suggests two dimensions. Lucinda’s at home. Justin’s at Ben’s house. I’ll see you at the cinema at 8.00. I’ve left my case at the office. I’ve met him at the bus stop. Turn right at the traffic lights. Our house is at the end of the road. We arrived at the airport with tome spare. 3. on is used to talk about position on a surface Your dinner’s on the table. Don’t sit on the floor. The exercise is on page 26. We drive on the left. There are no picture on the wall. You’ve got a dirty mark on your chin. Our flat is on the third floor. Space preposition behind between under opposite over below above through out into în spatele între sub, dedesubtul în fata, vizavi deasupra, peste sub, dedesubtul deasupra, peste prin afarã în (exprimã ideea de

in front of next to the ... in the middle

English - grammar pãtrundere) în fata lângã în mijlocul While, during and for

1. while is a conjunction, and is followed by a clause While I was getting ready, I listened to the radio. I met my wife while I was at university. 2. During is a preposition and is followed by a noun. It tells us when something happened. It means at some point in a period of time We had to call a doctor during the night. Can I speak to you during the beak? We can’t use during with a period of time. We talked during five minutes We’re on holidays during six weeks. 3. For is a preposition, and is followed by a noun. I ttells us how long something last We talked for five minutes. We’re going on holidays for six weeks. up (adv) down (adv)
VERB + PREPOSITION with agree with sb. dance with stay with on agree on / with sb/ on sth / to a proposal be based on comment on concentrate on congratulate on (a felicita in legatura cu) depend on sth. knock on (the door) to belong to complain to sb / about sth /of an ilness lie to sb / about sth listen to speak to talk to sb write to

sus, în sus jos

English - grammar
of consist of die of think of What do you think of Pete? I really like him. Worn of the danger / against enemy in abound in (a abunda in) believe in end in fail in interested in sth. succeed in thrust in for account for (a da socoteala de) ask for blaim for leave for (a pleca la) look for pay for Where is the cash desk? I want to pay for this book. send for (a trimite dupa) wait for work for at aim at (a tinti) arrive at fire at look at lough at point at stare at about talk about think about worry about

You aren’t concentrating on your work. What are you thinking about?

from die from start from suffer from free from (a se elibera de) NOUN + PREPOSITION on average for a change a cheque for a hundred pounds complaints about damage to difference between take a photo of sb/sth

English - grammar
in a bad/good/terrible mood on purpose = deliberately on strike trouble with sb/sth. out of work interest in progress in satisfaction in cause of chance of (Ving) opportunity of exception to invitation to kindness to (help him) ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION afraid of ashamed of aware of bored of fond of full of jealous of kind of proud of sure of tired of worthy of (demn de) be angry with busy with charmed with fed up with = annoyed, bored, unhappy wet with anxious about concerned about enthusiastic about excited about sure about worried about different from bound for (life - legat de cineva pe viata) eager for (nerabdator sa) famous for fit for good for sb = healthy for your body or your mind responsible for sorry for alarmed at amazed at

English - grammar
clever, good at sth (maths) dissapointed in (dezamagit) interested in reach in skilled in successful in affectioned to appropriate to cruel to deaf to (surd la) greatful to sb/ for sth married to polite to rude to

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