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# PIPE FLOW FUNDAMENTALS COURSE

by Wendi Junaedi

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## What You Should Know

Course only for two days !!

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## You may not become a superman nor even goku in 2 days....

Introduction
What is piping system ?
A Piping system consist of tanks, pumps, valves, and components connected together by pipelines to deliver a fluid at a spesific flow rate and/or pressure in order to perform work or make a product. The piping system may also contain a variety of instrumentation and controls to regulate the processes that are occuring within the boundaries of the piping system

## What is piping system ?

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Introduction
Value of a Clear Picture of a Piping System
To see the piping system clearly, the system boundaries must be defined, including where the system begins and ends, what device are installed in the system, and how all the devices in the system are configured.

Introduction
Value of a Clear Picture of a Piping System
A clear picture of system operation Understanding normal operation (flow, pressure, level, temperature, etc) Understanding why and how they changed at different operating condition Understanding the function and expected of hydraulic performance Understanding the processes are occuring inside the piping, and how the processes measured and controlled.

Introduction
Value of a Clear Picture of a Piping System
A clear picture for troubleshooting Not only provides a better understanding of normal condition Helps to identify abnormal condition A clear picture for energy consumption and cost Transporting fluid requires energy Energy loss occurs due to friction, noise, vibration, inefficient in the motor and pump, head loss in the components such as piping, valves, fitting, etc Surely, energy costs money

Introduction
Understanding Total System
Understand type of piping system Single path open system Branching system Single path closed loop system Multi loop closed system Understand hydraulic performance Understand piping system curve vs pump curve Understand total energy graph

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Fluid Properties
Any characteristic of a system is called a property.
Familiar: pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. Less familiar: viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, vapor pressure, surface tension.

Intensive properties are independent of the mass of the system. Examples: temperature, pressure, and density. Extensive properties are those whose value depends on the size of the system. Examples: Total mass, total volume, and total momentum. Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties. Examples include specific volume v = V/m and specific total energy e=E/m.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Fluid Properties
The properties relevant to fluid flow are summarized below:

Density:
This is the mass per unit volume of the fluid and is generally measured in kg/m3. Another commonly used term is specific gravity. This is in fact a relative density, comparing the density of a fluid at a given temperature to that of water at the same temperature.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Fluid Properties
Viscosity: This describes the ease with which a fluid flows. A substance like treacle has a high viscosity, while water has a much lower value. Gases, such as air, have a still lower viscosity. The viscosity of a fluid can be described in two ways. Absolute (or dynamic) viscosity: This is a measure of a fluid's resistance to internal deformation. It is expressed in Pascal seconds (Pa s) or Newton seconds per square meter (Ns/m2). [1Pas = 1 Ns/m2] Kinematic viscosity: This is the ratio of the absolute viscosity to the density and is measured in metres squared per second (m2/s).

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Fluid Properties
Reynolds Number: Critical Reynolds number (Recr) for flow in a round pipe
Re < 2300 laminar 2300 Re 4000 transitional Re > 4000 turbulent

Note that these values are approximate. For a given application, Recr depends upon
Pipe roughness Vibrations Upstream fluctuations, disturbances (valves, elbows, etc. that may disturb the flow)

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Fluid Properties
Laminar vs Turbulent

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## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Pipe
Whenever fluid flows in a pipe there will be some loss of pressure due to several factors: a) Friction: This is affected by the roughness of the inside surface of the pipe, the pipe diameter, and the physical properties of the fluid. b) Changes in size and shape or direction of flow

c) Obstructions: For normal, cylindrical straight pipes the major cause of pressure loss will be friction. Pressure loss in a fitting or valve is greater than in a straight pipe. When fluid flows in a straight pipe the flow pattern will be the same through out the pipe. In a valve or fitting changes in the flow pattern due to factors (b) and (c) will cause extra pressure drops.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Pipe
Pressure drops can be measured in a number of ways. The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal. However pressure is often measured in bar.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Pipe
Before the pipe losses can be established, the friction factor must be calculated. The friction factor will be dependant on the pipe size, inner roughness of the pipe, flow velocity and fluid viscosity. The flow condition, whether Turbulent or not, will determine the method used to calculate the friction factor.

Moody Chart can be used to estimate friction factor. Roughness of pipe is required for friction factor estimation. The chart shows the relationship between Reynolds number and pipe friction. Calculation of friction factors is dependant on the type of flow that will be encountered. For Re numbers <2320 the fluid flow is laminar, when Re number is >= 2320 the fluid flow is turbulent.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Pipe
The following table gives typical values of absolute roughness of pipes, k. The relative roughness k/d can be calculated from k and inside diameter of pipe.

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Pipe

Calculate pressure drop for a pipe of 4 diameter. carrying water flow of 50 m3/h through a distance of 100 meters. The pipe material is Cast Iron

## Terminology, Unit, and Physical Laws

Pressure Loss in Components in Piping System
Minor head loss in pipe systems can be expressed as:

Valves
Valves isolate, switch and control fluid flow in a piping system. Valves can be operated manually with levers and gear operators or remotely with electric, pneumatic, electropneumatic, and electro-hydraulic powered actuators. Manually operated valves are typically used where operation is infrequent and/or a power source is not available. Powered actuators allow valves to be operated automatically by a control system and remotely with push button stations. Valve automation brings significant advantages to a plant in the areas of process quality, efficiency, safety, and productivity.

Valves
Gate Valves
Best Suited Control: Quick Opening Recommended Uses:
Fully open/closed, non-throttling Infrequent operation Minimal fluid trapping in line

High capacity Tight shut off, Low cost, Little resistance to flow

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Poor control Cavitate at low pressure drops Cannot be used for throttling

Applications: Oil, Gas, Air, Slurries, Heavy liquids, Steam, Noncondensing gases, and Corrosive liquids

Valves
Globe Valves
Best Suited Control: Linear and Equal percentage Recommended useThrotteling services/flow regulation Frequent operation

Efficient throttling Accurate flow control valves Available in multiple ports

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High pressure drop More expensive than other

## Applications: Liquids, vapors, gases, corrosive

substances, slurries

Valves
Ball Valves
Best suited control Quick opening linear. Recommended uses
Fully open/closed limited throttling Higher temperature fluids

Low cost High capacity Low leakage & maintenance Tight sealing with low torque

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Poor throttling characteristics Prone to cavitation

## Applications Most Liquids, high temperatures, slurries

Valves
Butterfly Valves
Best Suited Control: Linear, Equal percentage Recommended Uses:
Fully open/closed or throttling services Frequent operation Minimal fluid trapping in line

Low cost and maint. High capacity Good flow control Low pressure drop

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High torque required to control Prone to cavitation at lower flows

## Applications: Liquids, gases, slurries, liquids with suspended

solids

Valves
Cavitation on Valves

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## Pump & Pumping System

What are Pumping Systems 20% of worlds electrical energy demand

## 25-50% of energy usage in some industries

Used for
Domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural services Municipal water and wastewater services

## Pump & Pumping System

What are Pumping Systems Objective of pumping system

## Transfer liquid from source to destination

Circulate liquid around a system (US DOE, 2001)

## Pump & Pumping System

What are Pumping Systems
Main pump components Pumps Prime movers: electric motors, diesel engines, air system

## Piping to carry fluid

Valves to control flow in system

## Other fittings, control, instrumentation

End-use equipment

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics
Head Resistance of the system Two types: static and friction Static head Difference in height between source and destination Independent of flow

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## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics
Static head consists of Static suction head (hS): lifting liquid relative to pump center line Static discharge head (hD) vertical distance between centerline and liquid surface in destination tank

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics

## Resistance to flow in pipe and fittings

Depends on size, pipes, pipe fittings, flow rate, nature of liquid Proportional to square of flow rate Closed loop system only has friction head (no static head)

Flow

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics
In most cases:

Flow

Flow

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics
Pump performance curve

Flow increase
System resistance increases

Flow decreases to zero Zero flow rate: risk of pump burnout
Flow

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics Pump operating point
Duty point: rate of flow at certain head Pump operating point: intersection of pump curve and system curve
Static head Pump performance curve Pump operating point

System curve

Flow

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics Pump suction performance (NPSH)
Cavitation or vaporization: bubbles inside pump
If vapor bubbles collapse Erosion of vane surfaces Increased noise and vibration Choking of impeller passages Net Positive Suction Head NPSH Available: how much pump suction exceeds liquid vapor pressure NPSH Required: pump suction needed to avoid cavitation

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## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics

## Pump & Pumping System

Pumping System Characteristics

Type of Pumps

Centrifugal Pump
Are classified as nonpositive displacement pumps because they do not pump a definite amount of water with each revolution. Rather, they impart velocity to the water and convert it to pressure within the pump itself.

Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal Pump

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Centrifugal Pump

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Centrifugal Pump
How to Calculate Pump Performance
Pump shaft power (Ps) is actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft
Pump shaft power (Ps): Ps = Hydraulic power Hp / pump efficiency Pump Pump Efficiency (Pump): Pump = Hydraulic Power / Pump Shaft Power

Pump output/Hydraulic/Water horsepower (Hp) is the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump
Hydraulic power (Hp): Hp = Q (m3/s) x Total head, hd - hs (m) x (kg/m3) x g (m/s2) / 1000
hd - discharge head - density of the fluid hs suction head, g acceleration due to gravity

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
1. Selecting the right pump
2. Controlling the flow rate by speed variation

## 3. Pumps in parallel to meet varying demand

4. Eliminating flow control valve

## 5. Eliminating by-pass control

6. Start/stop control of pump 7. Impeller trimming

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
1. Selecting the Right Pump Pump performance curve for centrifugal pump Oversized pump Requires flow control (throttle valve or by-pass line) Provides additional head System curve shifts to left Pump efficiency is reduced Solutions if pump already purchased VSDs or two-speed drives Lower RPM Smaller or trimmed impeller

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities 2. Controlling Flow: speed variation
Explaining the effect of speed Affinity laws: relation speed N and

## Small speed reduction (e.g. ) = large power reduction (e.g. 1/8)

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities 3. Parallel Pumps for Varying Demand

## Multiple pumps: some turned off during low demand

Used when static head is >50% of total head System curve does not change Flow rate lower than sum of individual flow rates

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities 4. Eliminating Flow Control Valve
Closing/opening discharge valve (throttling) to reduce flow Head increases: does not reduce power use Vibration and corrosion: high maintenance costs and reduced pump lifetime

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities 5. Eliminating By-pass Control
Pump discharge divided into two flows
One pipeline delivers fluid to destination Second pipeline returns fluid to the source Energy wastage because part of fluid pumped around for no reason

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
6. Start / Stop Control of Pump
Stop the pump when not needed Example:

## Filling of storage tank

Controllers in tank to start/stop Suitable if not done too frequently Method to lower the maximum demand (pumping at non-peak hours)

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
7. Impeller Trimming
Changing diameter: change in velocity

Considerations
Cannot be used with varying flows

## No trimming >25% of impeller size

Impeller trimming same on all sides Changing impeller is better option but more expensive and not always possible

Centrifugal Pump
Energy Efficiency Opportunities
Comparing Energy Efficiency Options
Parameter Impeller diameter
Pump head Pump efficiency Rate of flow Power consumed

## Change control valve 430 mm

71.7 m 75.1% 80 m3/hr 23.1 kW

## Trim impeller 375 mm

42 m 72.1% 80 m3/hr 14 kW

VFD 430 mm
34.5 m 77% 80 m3/hr 11.6 kW

Centrifugal Pump

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Pipeline
Hydraulic Design Generally need to deliver oil or gas at a specified flow rate and pressure Hydraulic design required for preliminary selection of pipeline diameter Fluid must be kept above a minimum velocity
Minimise surging Prevent build up of solids

## Fluid flow must be below a maximum velocity

Prevent erosion Optimise pumping requirements

Pipeline
Hydraulic Design

Hydrocarbons for transport may be Liquid Gas (incompressible: straightforward to analyse) (compressible & properties vary along pipe: more challenging to analyse) (highly complex)

Pipeline
Fluid Velocities

## For liquid lines:

Max velocity 4 m/sec

## Min velocity 1 m/sec

For gas lines: Max velocity 18-25 m/sec Min velocity 4-5 m/sec Trade off between - CAPEX (Large pipe diameter) and - OPEX (Lower pumping costs)

Pipeline
Pressure Drop The remainder of the section on hydraulic design will be concerned with liquid pipelines Pressure drop in liquid pipelines is principally due to

## Change in elevation (described by change in hydraulic head, or Pressure = gh )

Friction loss

Pipeline
Friction Loss Calculation
There are two equations that may be used for calculating the friction loss
Darcy-Weisbach
2 L V hL = f DARCY D 2g

Oil pipelines

Fanning

2 L V hL = 2 f FANNING D g

Gas pipelines

So,

fDARCY = 4fFANNING

Pipeline
Friction Loss Calculation For Laminar Flow

f DARCY

64 = Re

## For Re < 2300

For Turbulent Flow For Re > 4000 use the Moody Chart Depends on pipe relative roughness

Best Practice

## Compressed Air System

Best Practice

Compressed Air Leakage Leaks can be a significant source of wasted energy in an industrial compressed air system and may be costing you much more than you think. Audits typically find that leaks can be responsible for between 20-50% of a compressors output making them the largest single waste of energy. In addition to being a source of wasted energy, leaks can also contribute to other operating losses: Leaks cause a drop in system pressure. This can decrease the efficiency of air tools and adversely affect production Leaks can force the equipment to cycle more frequently, shortening the life of almost all system equipment (including the compressor package itself) Leaks can increase running time that can lead to additional maintenance requirements and increased unscheduled downtime Leaks can lead to adding unnecessary compressor capacity

Best Practice

## Compressed Air Leakage

Best Practice
Steam Distribution Pipe Selection

There are numerous graphs, tables and slide rules available for relating steam pipe sizes to flow rates and pressure drops. To begin the process of determining required pipe size, it is usual to assume a velocity of flow. For saturated steam from a boiler, 20 - 30 m/s is accepted general practice for short pipe runs. For major lengths of distribution pipe work, pressure drop becomes the major consideration and velocities may be slightly less. With dry steam, velocities of 40 metres/sec can be contemplated -but remember that many steam meters suffer wear and tear under such conditions. There is also a risk of noise from pipes.

Best Practice
Steam Distribution

Best Practice
Steam Distribution

## Recommended Thickness of Insulation (inches) for Mineral Wool

Best Practice
Water Distribution As a rule of thumb, the following velocities are used in design of piping and pumping systems for water transport:

Best Practice
Water Distribution If you want to pump 14.5 m3/h of water for a cooling application where pipe length is 100 metres, the following table shows why you should be choosing a 3 pipe instead of a 2 pipe.
If a 2 pipe were used, the power consumption would have been more than double compared to the 3 pipe. It should be noted that for smaller pipelines, lower design velocities are recommended. For a 12 pipe, the velocity can be 2.6 m/s without any or notable energy penalty, but for a 2 to 6 line this can be very lossy.

Best Practice
Water Distribution Recommended water flow velocity on suction side of pump
Capacity problems, cavitation and high power consumption in a pump, is often the result of the conditions on the suction side. In general - a rule of thumb - is to keep the suction fluid flow speed below the following values:

References
1. Piping System Fundamental, The Complete Guide to Gaining a Clear Picture of Your Piping System, 2012 Engineered Software, inc 2. Best Practice Manual, Fluid Piping System, 2006, Devki Energy Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. 3. Pump Handbook, 2004 Grundfos Industry 4. Valve Sizing & Selection, Ranjeet Kumar 5. Pumps & Pumping System, 2006, www.energyefficiencyasia.org 6. Pumps for Process Industry, Ranjeet Kumar 7. Critical Pump Selection, Webinar 8. Repair Engineering