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In this paper the author reviewes nine previous proposed and solved problems of elementary 2D geometry, and he extends them either from triangles to polygons or polyhedrons, or from circles to spheres (from 2D-space to 3D-space), and makes some comments, conjectures and
open questions about them.

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Florentin Smarandache Math & Science Department University of New Mexico, Gallup, USA In this paper we review nine previous proposed and solved problems of elementary 2D geometry [4] and [6], and we extend them either from triangles to polygons or polyhedrons, or from circles to spheres (from 2D-space to 3D-space), and make some comments, conjectures and open questions about them.

Problem 1. We draw the projections M i of a point M on the sides Ai Ai +1 of the polygon A1... An . Prove that: 2 2 2 2 2 M 1 A1 + ... + M n An = M 1 A2 + ... + M n 1 An + M n A1 Solution 1. For all i we have: MM i It results that:

M i Ai

2 2 2 2 2 2

= MAi

Ai M i

2

= MAi +1 Ai +1M i

2

M i Ai +1

2 i

= MAi

2

MAi +1

2 i

From where:

( M A

i i

M i Ai +1

) = ( MA

i

MAi +1

)=0

Open Problem 1. 1.1. If we consider in a 3D-space the projections M i of a point M on the edges Ai Ai +1 of a polyhedron A1... An then what kind of relationship (similarly to the above) can we find? 1.2. But if we consider in a 3D-space the projections M i of a point M on the faces Fi of a polyhedron A1... An with k4 faces, then what kind of relationship (similarly to the above) can we find?

Problem 2.

Lets consider a polygon (which has at least 4 sides) circumscribed to a circle, and D the set of its diagonals and the lines joining the points of contact of two non-adjacent sides. Then D contains at least 3 concurrent lines. Solution 2. Let n be the number of sides. If n = 4 , then the two diagonals and the two lines joining the points of contact of two adjacent sides are concurrent (according to Newton's Theorem). The case n > 4 is reduced to the previous case: we consider any polygon A1... An (see the figure) Ai+1 Aj-1 B4 Aj B1 Ai

B2 Ai-1 R B3 Aj+1

A j A j 1 Ai Ai +1 = P

and

. Let Bh , h {1, 2, 3, 4} the contact points of the quadrilateral PA j RAi with the circle of center O . Because of the Newtons theorem, the lines Ai A j , B1 B3 and B2 B4 are concurrent.

A j A j +1 Ai Ai 1 = R

Open Problem 2. 2.1. In what conditions there are more than three concurrent lines? 2.2. What is the maximum number of concurrent lines that can exist (and in what conditions)? 2.3. What about an alternative of this problem: to consider instead of a circle an ellipse, and then a polygon ellipsoscribed (lets invent this word, ellipso-scribed, meaning a polygon whose all sides are tangent to an ellipse which inside of it): how many concurrent lines we can find among its diagonals and the lines connecting the point of contact of two non-adjacent sides? 2.4. What about generalizing this problem in a 3D-space: a sphere and a polyhedron circumscribed to it? 2.5. Or instead of a sphere to consider an ellipsoid and a polyhedron ellipsoido-scribed to it? Of course, we can go by construction reversely: take a point inside a circle (similarly for an ellipse, a sphere, or ellipsoid), then draw secants passing through this point that intersect the

circle (ellipse, sphere, ellipsoid) into two points, and then draw tangents to the circle (or ellipse), or tangent planes to the sphere or ellipsoid) and try to construct a polygon (or polyhedron) from the intersections of the tangent lines (or of tangent planes) if possible. For example, a regular polygon (or polyhedron) has a higher chance to have more concurrent such lines. In the 3D space, we may consider, as alternative to this problem, the intersection of planes (instead of lines).

Problem 3. In a triangle ABC lets consider the Cevians AA ', BB ' and CC ' that intersect in P . Calculate the minimum value of the expressions: PA PB PC E ( P) = + + PA ' PB ' PC ' and PA PB PC F ( P) = PA ' PB ' PC ' where A ' [ BC ] , B ' [CA ] , C ' [ AB ] .

Solution 3. Well apply the theorem of Van Aubel three times for the triangle ABC , and it results:

PA AC ' AB ' = + PA ' C 'B B 'C PB BA ' BC ' = + PB ' A 'C C'A PC CA ' CB ' = + PC ' A' B B'A

AC ' C 'B = x >0, AB ' B 'C = y > 0, BA ' A 'C =z>0

then we obtain: 1 1 1 E ( P) = x + + x + + z + 2 + 2 + 2 = 6 y y z The minimum value will be obtained when x = y = z = 1, therefore when P will be the gravitation center of the triangle. When we multiply the three relations we obtain

1 1 1 F ( P) = x + x + z + 8 y y z Open Problem 3. 3.1. Instead of a triangle we may consider a polygon A1A2An and the lines A1A1, A2A2, , AnAn that intersect in a point P. Calculate the minimum value of the expressions:

E ( P) = PA1 PA2 PAn + + ... + PA1 ' PA2 ' PAn ' PA1 PA2 PAn ... PA1 ' PA2 ' PAn '

F ( P) =

3.2.

Then lets generalize the problem in the 3D space, and consider the polyhedron A1A2An and the lines A1A1, A2A2, , AnAn that intersect in a point P. Similarly, calculate the minimum of the expressions E(P) and F(P).

Problem 4. If the points A1 , B1 , C1 divide the sides BC, CA respectively AB of a triangle in the same ratio k > 0, determine the minimum of the following expression:

AA1 + BB1 + CC1

2 2 2

Solution 4. Suppose k > 0 because we work with distances. BA1 = k BC , CB1 = k CA , AC1 = k AB Well apply tree times Stewarts theorem in the triangle ABC , with the segments AA1 , BB1 , respectively CC1 :

AB BC (1 k ) + AC BC k AA1 BC = BC

2 2 2 3

(1 k ) k

where

AA1

2

= (1 k ) AB + k AC (1 k ) k BC

2 2

similarly,

BB1

2 2

= (1 k ) BC + k BA (1 k ) k AC

2 2

2 2

CC1

2

= (1 k ) CA + k CB (1 k ) k AB

2 2

2 2

AA1 + BB1 + CC1

= ( k 2 k + 1) AB + BC + CA

2 2

),

1 , which is the case when the three lines from the 2 enouncement are the medians of the triangle. 3 2 2 2 AB + BC + CA . The minimum is 4

Open Problem 4. 4.1. If the points A1, A2, , An divide the sides A1A2, A2A3, , AnA1 of a polygon in the same ratio k>0, determine the minimum of the expression: 2 2 2 A1 A1 ' + A2 A2 ' + ... + An An ' . 4.2. Similarly question if the points A1, A2, , An divide the sides A1A2, A2A3, , AnA1 in the positive ratios k1, k2, , kn respectively. 4.3. Generalize this problem for polyhedrons.

Problem 5. In the triangle ABC we draw the lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 such that

A1 B + B1C + C1 A = AB1 + BC1 + CA1 .

2 2 2 2 2 2

Partial Solution 5. They are concurrent for example when A1, B1, C1 are the legs of the medians of the triangle BCA. Or, as Prof. Ion Ptracu remarked, when they are the legs of the heights in an acute angle triangle BCA . More general. The relation from the problem can be written also as: a ( A1 B A1C ) + b ( B1C C1 A ) + c ( C1 A C1 B ) = 0 , where a, b, c are the sides of the triangle. Well denote the three above terms as , , and respective , such that + + = 0 .

= a ( A1 B A1C )

where

= A1 B A1C 2 A1C

a2

a 2 A1C a

Then

a2 + . = 2 A1C a A1 B

Similarly:

C1 A c 2 + b2 + and = B1 A b 2 C1 B c 2 In conformity with Cevas theorem, the three lines from the problem are concurrent if and only if: A1 B B1C C1 A = 1 ( a 2 + )( b 2 + )( c 2 + ) = ( a 2 )( b 2 )( c 2 ) A1C B1 A C1 B B1C =

Unsolved Problem 5. Generalize this problem for a polygon. Problem 6. In a triangle we draw the Cevians AA1 , BB1 , CC1 that intersect in P . Prove that PA PB PC AB BC CA = PA1 PB1 PC1 A1 B B1C C1 A Solution 6. In the triangle ABC we apply the Cevas theorem: AC1 BA1 CB1 = AB1 CA1 BC1

(1) (2)

In the triangle AA1 B , cut by the transversal CC1 , well apply the Menelaus theorem:

In the triangle BB1C , cut by the transversal AA1 , we apply again the Menelaus theorem: A C1 P B1 C B A1

BA1 CA B1 P = BP B1 A CA1

transversal BB1 :

(3)

We apply one more time the Menelaus theorem in the triangle CC1 A cut by the

AB C1 P CB1 = AB1 CP C1 B We divide each relation (2), (3), and (4) by relation (1), and we obtain:

(4)

PA BC B1 A = PA1 BA1 B1C PB CA C1 B = PB1 CB1 C1 A PC AB A1C = PC1 AC1 A1 B Multiplying (5) by (6) and by (7), we have: PA PB PC AB BC CA AB1 BC1 CA1 = PA1 PB1 PC1 A1 B B1C C1 A A1 B B1C C1 A but the last fraction is equal to 1 in conformity to Cevas theorem.

Problem 7. Given a triangle ABC whose angles are all acute (acute triangle), we consider A ' B ' C ' , the triangle formed by the legs of its altitudes. In which conditions the expression: A ' B ' B 'C ' + B 'C ' C ' A ' + C ' A ' A ' B ' is maximum? A C c-z B x A

b-y B y C a-x

BA ' = x, CB ' = y , AC ' = z .

(1)

It results that

BAC = B ' A ' C = BA ' C '; ABC = AB ' C ' = A ' B ' C '; BCA = BC ' A ' = B ' C ' A From these equalities it results the relation (1) A'C ' x (2) A ' BC ' ~ A ' B ' C = ax A' B '

A ' B ' C ~ AB ' C ' AB ' C ' ~ A ' B ' C A'C ' cz = z B 'C '

(3)

B 'C ' b y (4) = y A' B ' From (2), (3) and (4) we observe that the sum of the products from the problem is equal

to:

1 2 a b c a + b2 + c2 ) x y z ( 4 2 2 2 a b c which will reach its maximum as long as x = , y = , z = , that is when the altitudes legs are 2 2 2 in the middle of the sides, therefore when the ABC is equilateral. The maximum of the 1 2 expression is a + b2 + c2 . 4 Conclusion1: If we note the lengths of the sides of the triangle ABC by ||AB|| = c, ||BC|| = a, ||CA|| = b, and the lengths of the sides of its orthic triangle A`B`C` by ||A`B`|| = c`, ||B`C`|| = a`, ||C`A`|| = b`, then we proved that: x ( a x ) + y (b y ) + z (c z ) =

2 2 2

Unsolved Problems 7.

7.1. Generalize this problem to polygons. Let A1A2Am be a polygon and P a point inside it. From P, which is called a pedal point, we draw perpendiculars on each side AiAi+1 of the polygon and we note by Ai the intersection between the perpendicular and the side AiAi+1. Lets extend the definition of pedal triangle to a pedal polygon in a straight way: i.e. the polygon formed by the orthogonal projections of a pedal point on the sides of the polygon. The pedal polygon A1A2Am is formed. What properties does this pedal polygon have? 7.2. Generalize this problem to polyhedrons. Let A1A2An be a polyhedron and P a point inside it. From P we draw perpendiculars on each edge AiAj of the polyhedron and we note by Aij the intersection between the perpendicular and the side AiAij. Lets name the

new formed polyhedron an edge pedal polyhedron, A1A2An. What properties does this edge pedal polyhedron have? 7.3. Generalize this problem to polyhedrons in a different way. Let A1A2An be a poliyhedron and P a point inside it. From P we draw perpendiculars on each polyhedron face Fi and we note by Ai the intersection between the perpendicular and the side Fi. Lets call the new formed polyhedron a face pedal polyhedron, which is A1A2Ap, where p is the number of polyhedrons faces. What properties does this face pedal polyhedron have?

Problem 8. Given the distinct points A1 ,..., An on the circumference of a circle with the center in O and of ray R . 180o Prove that there exist two points Ai , A j such that OAi + OAj 2 R cos n Solution 8. Because A1OA2 + A2OA3 + ... + An 1OAn + An OA1 = 360o

Ai OAj

360o n

An-1 An A1 A2 O

Aj M Ai

360o The quadrilateral OAi MA j is a rhombus. When is smaller, OM is greater. As , it n 180o results that: OM = 2 R cos 2 R cos . n 2

Open Problem 8:

Is it possible to find a similar relationship in an ellipse? (Of course, instead of the circles radius R one should consider the ellipses axes a and b.)

Problem 9: Through one of the intersecting points of two circles we draw a line that intersects a second time the circles in the points M 1 and M 2 respectively. Then the geometric locus of the

point M which divides the segment M 1M 2 in a ratio k (i.e. M1M = kMM2) is the circle of center O (where O is the point that divides the segment of line that connects the two circle centers O1 and respectively O2 into the ratio k, i.e. O1O = k OO2 ) and radius OA, without the points A and B.

Proof Let O1 E M 1M 2 and O2 F M 1 M 2 . Let O O1O2 such that O1O = k OO2 and

M M 1M 2 , where M 1M = k MM 2 .

A E M1 O1 B Fig. 1. We construct OG M 1M 2 and we make the notations: M 1 E EA = x and O O2 G F M2

AF FM 2 = y . Then, AG GM , because

AG = EG EA = and

k x + ky ( x + y) x = k +1 k +1

x + ky x + ky k . = ( 2x + 2 y ) 2x k +1 k +1 k +1

GM = M 1 M M 1 A AG =

Therefore we also have OM OA . The geometric locus is a circle of center O and radius OA , without the points A and B (the red circle in Fig. 1).

Conversely.

If M ( GO, OA) \ { A, B} , the line AM intersects the two circles in M 1 and M 2 respectively. We consider the projections of the points O1 , O2 , O on the line M 1M 2 in E , F , G respectively. Because O1O = k OO2 it results that EG = k GF . Making the notations: M 1 E EA = x and AF FM 2 = y we obtain that

M 1M = M1 A + AM = M1 A + 2 AG = 2 x + 2 ( EG EA) =

Open Problem 9. 9.1.The same problem if instead of two circles one considers two ellipses, or one ellipse and one circle. 9.2.The same problem in 3D, considering instead of two circles two spheres (their surfaces) whose intersection is a circle C . Drawing a line passing through the circumference of C, it will intersect the two spherical surfaces in other two points M1 and respectively M2. Conjecture: The geometric locus of the point M which divides the segment M 1M 2 in a

ratio k (i.e. M1M = kMM2) includes the spherical surface of center O (where O is the point that divides the segment of line that connects the two sphere centers O1 and respectively O2 into the ratio k, i.e. O1O = k OO2 ) and radius OA, without the intersection circle C. A partial proof is this: if the line M 1M 2 which intersect the two spheres is the same plane as the line O1O2 then the 3D problem is reduce to a 2D problem and the locus is a circle of radius OA and center O defined as in the original problem, where the point A belongs to the circumference of C (except two points). If we consider all such cases (infinitely many actually), we get a sphere of radius OA (from which we exclude the intersection circle C ) and centered in O (A can be any point on the circumference of intersection

circle C ). The locus has to be investigated for the case when M1M2 and O1O2 are in different planes. 9.3.What about if instead of two spheres we have two ellipsoids, or a sphere and an ellipsoid?

References:

[1] Ctlin Barbu, Teorema lui Smarandache, in his book Teoreme fundamentale din geometria triunghiului, Chapter II, Section II.57, p. 337, Editura Unique, Bacu, 2008. [2] Jzsef Sndor, Geometric Theorems, Diophantine Equations, and Arithmetic Functions, AR Press, pp. 9-10, Rehoboth 2002.

[3] F. Smarandache, Nine Solved and Nine Open Problems in Elementary Geometry, in arXiv.org at http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2153 . [4] F. Smarandache, Problmes avec et sans problmes!, pp. 49 & 54-60, Somipress, Fs, Morocco, 1983. [5] The Admission Test at the Polytechnic Institute, Problem IV, 1987, Romania. [6] Florentin Smarandache, Proposed Problems of Mathematics (Vol. II), University of Kishinev Press, Kishinev, Problem 58, pp. 38-39, 1997. [7] Ctlin Barbu, Smarandache's Cevian Triangle Theorem in the Einstein Reletivistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry, in viXra.org International Scientific Archives, http://vixra.org/abs/1003.0254 and http://vixra.org/pdf/1003.0254v1.pdf [8] Ctlin Barbu, Smarandache's Pedal Polygon Theorem in the Poincar Disc Model of Hyperbolic Geometry, in viXra.org International Scientific Archives, http://vixra.org/abs/1003.0245 and http://vixra.org/pdf/1003.0245v1.pdf [9] Ctlin Barbu, Smarandaches Cevian Triangle Theorem in The Einstein Relativistic Velocity Model of Hyperbolic Geometry, Progress in Physics, University of New Mexico, Vol. 3, 6970, 2010.

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