2011 Minerals Yearbook

IRON AND STEEL [ADVANCE RELEASE]

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

February 2013

S. rose steadily to a high of 75% in May and June 2010. 75). 72). stainless. many others predicted that they could raise prices in 2011 to offset raw material costs. p. as demand decreased in the construction and automobile industries.2 Mt).0 Mt). Production represented 74. World production of iron and steel was reported by the World Steel Association and by foreign government agencies. and tool steel. Apparent consumption in China.7 Mt) and the European Union (EU) (38. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) reported U.7 kilometers per gallon fuel standard. The current boiler MACT regulations would force steelmakers to consume more fossil fuels instead of using waste gases from the steelmaking process to fuel boilers (American Iron and Steel Institute. which had decreased to a low of 63 million metric tons (Mt) in 2009.S. (44. The basic oxygen process was used to make 34. In October 2011.9 Mt) and Germany (24. Wallace.S. Ltd.4% of estimated capacity. up from 70. the global steel market began to lose its recovered strength. According to the World Steel Association (2012b). planned to build a $310 million powerplant that would use blast furnace waste gas that would ordinarily be flared. Blast furnace operations in the United States were operated by 6 companies at 16 locations in 2011 (Iron and Steel Technology.9 Mt). up slightly from that in 2010.S. 2012). China was the top steel producer in the world during 2011 (684 Mt). and the projected use of AHSS per vehicle is about 160 kg and 225 kg by 2020 and 2025.3 Mt).4 Mt). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved the project (Plain Dealer. They also employ continuous casting machines and hot-rolling mills that are often closely coupled to casting operations. Consistent with international usage and Federal Government policy. OH. By late 2011.S. was expected to fall by 7% in 2011 from that in 2010 after a strong increase of 25% in 2009 from that in 2008. followed by Japan (40. and world production tables were prepared by Glenn J. U. The use of this process increased to 39. Production Raw steel production in the United States was about 86. Specialty mills include producers of alloy-electrical. production of iron and steel and shipments of steel mill products. These data can be regarded as representing 100% of the raw steel producers in the United States.3 Mt of steel in the United States (American Iron and Steel Institute.7% in 2010. and ahead of the fifth-ranked producer Russia (68. but then fluctuated significantly between 68% and 75% during the second half of 2010 and through 2011. placing second behind the world’s leading steelmaker ArcelorMittal (97. India was the world’s fourth-ranked steel producer (71. p. to extend compliance deadlines. Environmental Issues AK Steel Corp. and steelmakers began to slow production with the expectation of lower prices. Fenton Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Hoa P. 2012. the U.R. The.IRON AND STEEL By Michael D. Currently. and the U. 2012. House of Representatives passed H. and to ensure that final rules are achievable and based on real-world technologies. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) was the fastest growing automotive lightweighting material used to adapt to new emission and safety standards at affordable cost for consumers. up about 7% from that in 2010 (table 1). 2011a). about 80 kilograms (kg) of AHSS are used per vehicle. Hebei Iron & Steel Group Co. followed by a weak and uneven recovery throughout 2010 and 2011. The U. The EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new rule setting stringent fuel and emissions requirements for model years 2017 to 2025. respectively (American Iron and Steel Institute. apparent steel consumption. rebounded to 89 Mt in 2011. hightemperature alloys. Unprecedented rises of iron ore and metallurgical coal prices adversely affected steelmaking companies and their customers worldwide. About 55 companies operated about 109 EAF facilities in the United States during 2011 (Iron and Steel IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37. after a high of 120 Mt in 2006 and 102 Mt in 2008. including a 87. The global recession of 2008–09 caused a retraction of global steel industries through 2009. of Middletown.4% in 2010 (American Iron and Steel Institute. with its leading steelmaker.S. 2011b). U. Despite financial losses during the last quarter of 2010 by several steelmakers. which had dipped to a low of 41% in April 2009. behind the United States (86. the EPA Regulatory Relief Act of 2011. forged ingots. ending at 75% in December 2011. Geological Survey reported all data on iron and steel in metric units unless otherwise noted. capacity utilization for raw steel production. which would provide the EPA with additional time to reconsider and re-propose its boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) air regulations. 2250. 2012). The EU ranked first in the world for total imports of steel (35.9 Mt) followed by the United States (26. statistical assistant.4 Mt).7% of total steel production in 2011 from 38.9 Mt).4 Mt in 2011. and other low-volume steel products. Phamdang. China ranked first in the world for total exports of steel (47.S. Integrated steel producers smelted iron ores to make liquid iron in blast furnaces and used basic oxygen furnaces to refine the liquid iron with some steel scrap to produce raw liquid steel.9 Mt). the U. international data coordinator. the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel.1 . as China eased back on its economic boom and the effects of government stimulus packages faded. Minimills and specialty mills are nonintegrated steel producers that use the electric arc furnace (EAF) to melt low‑cost raw materials (usually scrap). The AISI estimated raw steel production capability to be 116 Mt. Department of Energy awarded AK Steel a $30 million grant.

mining.7 Mt in 2010 (table 4). the amount of semifinished steel consumed by companies that also produced raw steel is subtracted from domestic consumption. The U. Chinese exporters allegedly transshipped products through countries that had no antidumping duties. Brazil (31 Mt).2 in 2011 from 191. World Review World production of pig iron totaled about 1. p.S. the only major U.S.9 Mt from 21.2 Mt from 11. sought protection from low-priced Chinese competition that was blamed for lost sales and jobs. Mexico was again the second ranked importer. the U. To avoid these duties.7% higher than in 2010 (American Iron and Steel Institute. shipments of construction products.000 t at yearend (U. To avoid double counting the imported semifinished steel and the products produced from it.9 Mt in 2011 as the steel industry. 5. high pressure steel cylinders. lumbering. U. Domestic imports of steel mill products increased by 19% to 25. China continued to be the leading producer of pig iron in the world. and as a result. Between 1993 and 2006. imports continued to recover from a 2009 low of 14. p.000 t in July. 2012. Russia (50 Mt). Continuous casting production was 84. about 5% more than that in 2010 (table 9). The accumulated shipments of all companies less the shipments to other reporting companies are identified as net shipments to avoid double counting.6% increase from that in 2010. and petrochemical shipments increased by 46%. 25). shipments of agricultural products increased by 33%. 6. companies increased by 10% to 83. a slightly lower percentage than that of 2010.3 Mt compared with those of 2010 (American Iron and Steel Institute. India (39 Mt). and tools increased by 23%. China. the share of the U. “Fabricated steel products” reported in tables 4. and 6 are those produced from steel mill products but do not include those that incorporate steel products with other materials.2 [ADVANCE RELEASE] Russia were major sources of steel mill product imports in 2011 (table 4). companies and the U.S. Examples of fabricated steel products are structural steel and steel fasteners. and shipping material decreased by 20% (American Iron and Steel Institute. Canada.7 Mt to 25. and 37. producer price index for steel mill products increased by 13% to 216.7 in 2010 (1982 base=100) (table 1). quarrying industries shipments increased by 17%. increased slightly in 2011. 2012). 73).4 Mt. 72–73).2% of U. The average monthly price of hot-rolled steel sheet increased steadily from about $806 per metric ton in January 2011 to a high of $965 in April. In North America. and Germany (28 Mt). Japan.S. oil. producing nearly 630 Mt. apparent steel consumption. Germany was the leading producer in the EU.S. such as Malaysia.S. These U.S. steel market represented by imported steel was an estimated 29% in 2011 compared with 27% in 2010. galvanized steel wire. “Other iron and steel products” refers to products that are not produced from steel mill products. industrial machinery. Mexico. Taking the imported semifinished steel into consideration. Compared with those in 2010. or 97. p. Consumption Steel mill products are produced at steel mills either by forging or rolling into forms normally delivered for fabrication or use. and containers. the Republic of Korea (42 Mt). followed by Japan (81 Mt). 2011). 30% more than that in 2010. Some companies purchase semifinished steel mill products from other steel companies and use them to produce finished steel products. Prior to 1993. Government continued in 2011 to accuse Chinese competitors of receiving Chinese Government subsidies. an indicator of economic growth. Prices The U. Steel product imports from China were at a low of 44.S.5 Mt/yr. International Trade Commission determined that the U. slightly less than that in 2010. Raw liquid steel is mostly cast into semifinished products in continuous casting machines.8% of total steel production.1 Mt.S. and other steel products. 29). production was cast in ingot form in 2011. increased to 89 Mt in 2011 from 80 Mt in 2010. Russia and Ukraine were the only major pig iron producers in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). automotive product shipments increased by 18%. slightly less than that in 2010.2 Mt/yr.1 Mt. steel wheels. Department of Labor. followed by a steady decline to a low of $721 in November before rebounding to $751 in December (American Metal Market. Pig iron production of the EU was about 95 Mt. to the United States (Lawrence. the United States (30 Mt).Technology.1 Mt of steel. thus allowing the sale of products in the United States at artificial and unfairly low prices. 2011). p.09 billion metric tons (Gt). Brazil. the same as that in 2010 (table 4).500 t in February 2011. Net shipments of steel mill products by U. including maintenance. a 5.S. among others. 2012. 2012. equipment. Imports of semifinished steel (table 6) by steel companies are taken into consideration in evaluating apparent consumption (supply) of steel mill products in the United States and the share of the market represented by imported steel. producing about 28 Mt.S. Ukraine (29 Mt). the leading single end-use market for steel. then rose to a high of 147. Only 2. mills used the EAF steelmaking process to produce 52.5 million metric tons per year (Mt/yr) and 8. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011).S. receiving 3.S. industry was materially injured by Chinese imports of drawn stainless steel sinks.0 Mt in 2010 (table 4). Department of Commerce issued antidumping and countervailing duties. packaging. semifinished steel imports ranged between 2. U. 5% more than that of 2010. and decreased to 80. the amount was less than 0. Examples of other iron and steel products include iron or steel castings and direct reduced iron (DRI).S. and accounted for 60. gas. Foreign Trade Export shipments of steel mill products by AISI reporting companies increased to 12. the Republic of Korea. 7. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . International Trade Administration. Canada received the largest amount of U. steel service center shipments increased by 22%. U. the EU.S. and subsequently rolled into semifinished forms. 2012. 2011). exported steel.3% of total steelmaking (American Iron and Steel Institute. shipments of appliances increased by 16%.

MEPS predicts global steel output at 1. which was down from an earlier projection of 4. American Iron and Steel Institute press release.3 . 2012. China. at http:// www. the leading producers behind China were Japan. PA. MEPS also forecast increasing steel production in 2012 in South America. China. unpub. The leading producer of DRI was India. federalreserve. The 2011 GDP growth for China was 10. and 2013 was 3.msci. NY. Iran. World capacity for DRI production in 2010 was estimated to be about 87 Mt/yr (Midrex Technologies. and decrease an additional 2.6%.org. and then by 4% in 2013 to 675 Mt. 2011).3% and was projected to be 8. Bahrain. May 1. and that of India was projected to be 7. 6% more than the revised production in 2010 (table 10). an increase of 4% from that in 2010. The. 2010. DC. MEPS (International) Ltd. The International Monetary Fund’s projection of GDP growth for 2012 was 4. p. PA.. November 17. 2012). ASC was expected to increase by 5. respectively [MEPS (International) Ltd. The. (Accessed August 8. 2012 GDP growth rate was between 2. HYL/Energiron. 218. after increasing by 5. October 14. the Republic of Korea.1% and 3.0%.5% (International Monetary Fund. Outlook The expansion or contraction of gross domestic product (GDP). (Accessed IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37. Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee. 2012. and 2%. Custom pricing reports: New York.4% and 3.org.com/ newsdesk/statistics/Global_steel_output_forecast_to_reach_almost_1_57_ billion_t_in_2011.422 Gt during 2012. an increase of 7.3% to 156 Mt in 2013. Russia and Ukraine remained the leading producers in the CIS. at http://www.625 Mt: London.3 Mt in 2011.) American Iron and Steel Institute. Iron and Steel Technology. AIST 2011 EAF roundup: Warrendale. July 15. August 16. via www. respectively.7% and 7. Iron and Steel Technology. References Cited American Iron and Steel Institute.com/ global-steel-2012-trends-2011-outlook-india-next-landmark-on-the-globalsteel-landscape/). and the CIS. United Kingdom. Lawrence. (Accessed August 15.2% to 62 Mt in 2013. 2011. 2012. 2011. and Finmet processes. International Monetary Fund. the United States. Africa and the Middle East.625 Gt. January 24–25: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. in descending order of tonnage. and the CIS (3. During 2011.8% in 2013. These six countries accounted for 29% of world production.S.6% to 1. steel production during 2011 was greater than 86 Mt. The leading technology was.S.2% to 151 Mt in 2012 and increase by 3.steel. (Accessed August 14. p.. March. and the EU of 5%. and Germany.org/ forward.steel. February. had a capacity utilization rate of 82% in 2010.9% for those years. at http://www. Positive growth also took place in India (5.) American Iron and Steel Institute.5% more than that in 2010 (table 9). China produced 45% of world total crude steel in 2011. 11).ey. the 2012 ASC was expected to decrease by 0. according to declining order of production. Advanced high-strength steels will enable automakers to meet tough new vehicle emissions standards: Washington. additional DRI capacity of almost 22 Mt/yr was under construction in China.3%). MEPS (International) Ltd. 2012. Steve. The U. worldwide and domestically. Pakistan. May–June 2011. India. North America. up 11% from that in 2010 and up 5% from that forecast in 2011.. 44 p. Asian countries produced about 58% of the world’s steel.com. United Kingdom.6% in 2011. June 17..steel-grips.. The U. 2011. IL. China’s ASC was expected to increase by about 4% to 649 Mt in 2012. Venezuela. (Accessed August 8. the only major pig iron producer was Brazil. the United States. after a low of about 57% in December 2008 and a high of 84% in April 2010. 12%. the EU (2. In descending order of production. World apparent steel consumption (ASC) was expected to increase by 3. p. at http://www. American Iron and Steel Institute.5 Gt.8% in 2010 (World Bank. 7%. production varied widely among major regions of the world.) Iron and Steel Technology.2%).org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011//02/pdf/text.2%. 2012. 2012. forecast total world steel production in 2012 to be 1. DC. 2012. 2012 AIST North American blast furnace roundup: Warrendale.49 Gt (World Steel Association. In Japan. ASC in India was expected to increase by about 7% in 2012 to about 73 Mt and by 9. and between 2. at http://emergingmarkets. the EU.57 billion t in 2011: London. The combined steel production of the seven steel-producing countries in the CIS was about 112 Mt. a gain of 7. other Europe and the CIS. 2011.S. between 2. AISI applauds House for passing bill to re-do EPA boiler MACT regulations: Washington. 2012. (Accessed September 16. 2011 outlook—India—Next landmark on the global steel landscape: Ernst & Young. Global steel—2012 trends. Steel production increased during 2011 in North America (6.8%). 2011).3% for 2014. NY. American Iron and Steel Institute press release. As in previous years. 126. 7. 2012c). and then increase by 4. Egypt. Federal Reserve’s January 2012 projections for the U. MEPS (International) Ltd.amm.6% to 64 Mt. 2012. Global steel output forecast to reach almost 1. Fairness fiasco: Chicago.htm#t1f1r.7%). data. Metal Service Center Institute. 2012. 2011b..) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. to reach a historic high of 1. 4%. China was again the world’s leading steel producer. 2011. and Mexico. (Accessed November 13.7% in 2012 and 8. Inc. DC. In 2011.6% in 2013. where in 2011 production increased by 13% from that in 2010. The EU’s ASC was expected to decrease by 1. Russia. (Accessed July 15. The average capacity utilization rate during 2011 was 80% (David Ko.4% in 2013. American Metal Market.8% and 4. 2012).5% in 2013. American Metal Market.S.2% compared with that of 2010. the leading steel-consuming and steel-producing country in the world. respectively (World Bank. via www.gov/monetarypolicy/fomcminutes20120125ep.) MEPS (International) Ltd. 2012. World production of raw steel was 1.7%) and China (7.) MEPS (International) Ltd. 2011a. the broadest measure of a nation’s economic activity. via www. South America (3. India. 2011. In South America. followed by.html. 126 p. 8%.6%.7% to 94 Mt in 2012 and by 5. World economic outlook: New York. Iran. followed by coal-based.0%.imf.pdf. which were reduced from earlier projections (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. according to Ernst & Young (2012. DRI production worldwide reached a record of 76. July 15. 2012).producer of pig iron was the United States. International Monetary Fund. Iron and Steel Technology. 2012]. (Accessed August 9. may be considered a predictor of the health of the steelmaking and steel manufacturing industries. U.1%). and Venezuela. 3. World Steel Association (2012a) reported that world steel capacity utilization rate at yearend 2011 was about 72%. 2012). about 683 Mt. The ASC of the CIS was expected to increase by 4% to 56 Mt in 2012 and then by 5% to 59 Mt in 2013. 2012. after 3. 8%. KPMG. the Midrex process. The World Bank’s forecast of global GDP growth for 2011.3% from that in 2010. 2012. Annual statistical report 2011: Washington. 3%.8% for 2013.) Ernst & Young. and 3.

org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/ EXTDECPROSPECTS/GEPEXT/0. Ch. The World Bank. Washington. February 22. Iron and Steel Scrap. HYL. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . at http://www. Iron and Steel. Shaping.S. 1999.ita.) World Bank. International Trade Administration. Midrex Technologies.00. 2012.) U. at http:// web. June 30. DC. World steel short range outlook: Brussels. 2012b.August 17. weekly.S. American Institute of Mining. Department of Labor. June 2011.org/media-centre/press-releases/2012/ 08-2012-crude-steel.pdf. 2012. Belgium. annual.commodities-now. Steel industry executive summary—July 2012: Washington.) U. Iron Ore. Brussels. World Steel Association. 37.S.) Midrex Technologies.doc.html. NC. Mineral Industry Surveys. in Mineral Commodity Summaries. at http:// worldsteel.S. Department of Labor. World Steel Association. Bureau of Labor Statistics. and Treating of Steel. The. Ch. U. in Mineral Commodity Summaries. Warrenton. Pittsburgh. at http://www. Making.S. Iron Ore.gov/cgi-bini/surveymost?wp. in Minerals Yearbook. International Trade Administration. 1985. U. de C. Belgium.4 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U. PA.bls. Mineral Industry Surveys. 12 p. Pittsburgh. U. 2012. World steel in figures 2011: Brussels. April. Professional Paper 820. 1973. GENERAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION U. DC. Iron and Steelmaker. Ch. 2011. Iron and Steel Slag. 2012. in Mineral Facts and Problems. (Accessed August 8. DC. PA. monthly. at http://www.html. 1999. PA.pdf.S..cleveland.com/business/index.nsf/webfiles/ SteelMillDevelopments/$file/execsumm. Iron and Steel Slag.) World Steel Association. annual. 2011.V. 2011 World direct reduction statistics: Charlotte. Metal Bulletin. Producer price index—Commodities—Steel mill products—WPU1017: Washington.A.gov/License/Surge.html. Global economic prospects: Washington.) Iron and Steel. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 675. American Iron and Steel Institute. DC. Washington. 2012. monthly.org/dms/internetDocumentList/bookshop/WSIF_2012/document/ World Steel in Figures 2012.com/uploads/documents/MDX2010StatsBook. 2012.) World Steel Association. 2012. August 2012 crude steel production: Brussels.pdf?openelement. in Metal Prices in the United States Through 1998.ssf/2012/02/ blast_furnace_waste_gas_could. September. Ch. (Accessed August 14. 2012c.steelonthenet.html. S. the Iron & Steel Technology Division of HYLSA. in Metal Prices in the United States Through 1998. 2011. International Iron and Steel Institute. (Accessed October 9. Other American Metal Market. Ch. Belgium. Steel Statistical Yearbook. 2012.S. (Accessed August 8. Belgium. Ch.S. Inc. annual.com/kb/world-steel-association-short-rangeoutlook-April-2012. Metallurgical. Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. Iron and Steel Scrap. in Minerals Yearbook. Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. annual.) Plain Dealer.midrex. at http://www. HYL Report. Steel Times International. Iron Ore. daily.. The. Geological Survey Publications Iron. Blast furnace waste gas could be considered renewable energy under Ohio law: The Plain Dealer. Ch.contentMDK:22804791~pagePK:51087 946~piPK:51087916~theSitePK:538110. at http://hq-web03. at http://www. Iron and Steel. at http:// data. Ch.worldbank. Department of Commerce. 2012a. Inc. (Accessed August 14. 2011. (Accessed August 21. in Mineral Commodity Summaries. 2012. Annual Statistical Report. U.. World Steel Association. (Accessed September 2.com/news/metals-andmining/10769-meps-predicts-global-steel-output-at-1625-mt. in United States Mineral Resources. Steel Manufacturers Association.worldsteel. annual. Direct from Midrex quarterly.html. Directory of Iron and Steel Plants. DC.) World Steel Association. and Petroleum Engineers—Iron and Steel Society. Midrex Direct Reduction Corporation. (Accessed August 15. Ch. 2012.

7 216.900 Imports2 7 182.220 51 Exports3 5. 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.330 2.000 r 1. percent 87.700 21.700 25.500 89.200 Exports2 30.240.700 83.400 75.S.330.420 11. and companies. 6 Raw steel is defined by AISI as steel in the first solid state after melting.000 1.780 4.9 220.600 79. Department of Labor.420 3.100 12.4 52.400 Capability utilization.000 931.200 73.300 Direct-reduced iron Raw steel 1.620 4.200 Production2 71 51 10 2. Census Bureau.2 191.190 Imports for consumption3 Direct-reduced iron: 250 260 ---Production4 (5) (5) 1r 1r 4 Exports3 2.200 29.220 4.800 30.000 26.100 55.930 1. 3 Data are from the U.440.520.4 74.900 59.020 1.200 8.000 r 1.300 Net shipments2 10.000 4 r r 65.800 Imports for consumption3 Raw steel production:6 Carbon steel 89. 8 Data are from the U.400 56. governments. Inc.040.000 1.000 1.000 r 1. 5 Less than ½ unit.640 1.0) 8 World production: Pig iron 956. 7 Data are from the U.200 2. IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37.100 Stainless steel 2.810 2. suitable for rolling.700 19.100 91.340 1.620 2. 2 Data are from the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI).400 r 71.220 Total 98. 4 Data are from Midrex Technologies.2 Producer price index (1982=100.000 12. except producers price index.070 All other alloy steel 6.980 2.Zero.4 70.4 Steel mill products: 96.TABLE 1 SALIENT IRON AND STEEL STATISTICS1 (Thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 United States: Pig iron: 36.900 65.000 r Revised.090.5 .140 5.800 84.000 921.300 33. Bureau of Labor Statistics.400 80.680 5. may not add to totals shown.000 r 76.000 66.S.6 165.170 1.350.S.000 14.500 86. -..0 81. Geological Survey and the World Steel Association.

100 1.TABLE 2 MATERIALS CONSUMED IN BLAST FURNACES AND PIG IRON PRODUCED1 (Thousand metric tons) Material 2010 2011 Iron oxides:2 Ores --Pellets 36. 3 Includes sintered ore and pellet fines.090 2.100 53. 4 Mainly briquetted turnings and borings.300 5. 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.430 9. may not add to totals shown.270 Coke2 Pig iron. 37. shredded scrap. scrap produced at blast furnaces and remelt not included.S.800 30.280 Scrap4 8. mill scale. etc.090 6.Zero. produced 26.200 -. also some nodules. and other revert iron-bearing materials.. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . 2 American Iron and Steel Institute. dust.6 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U.000 46.830 Sinter3 Total 41.

45 Total 75.05 0.94 1.47 7.01 Pipe and tubing. cold-rolled 9. cold rolled 584 565 0.390 1.300 100. hot-rolled 4.070 9.890 1. heavy 3.620 11.88 23.200 27.00 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.65 Plates.05 0.510 1.210 3. electrogalvanized 1.700 83.49 Alloy steel 3.870 2.01 0.82 Tin mill products.05 1.01 0.400 25.300 16.15 Tin mill products.15 2.63 0.00 100.33 Rails 713 843 0.95 Construction 16.510 5.35 Structural shapes.58 6.13 5.39 5.17 Containers 2.700 11.780 4.00 Steel mill products: Ingots.900 34.880 4.27 Total 75. may not add to totals shown.000 26.55 1.520 2.41 Bars.00 100.300 100.79 Pipe and tubing. structural 61 53 0. blackplate 100 123 Tin mill products.57 Machinery 795 978 1.41 Strip.TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF SHIPMENTS OF STEEL MILL PRODUCTS. BY STEEL TYPE. light-shaped 1.83 0. tinplate 1. blooms.76 93.40 0. AND MARKET1 Quantity (thousand metric tons) 2010 2011 Percentage 2010 2011 Shipments by steel type: Carbon steel 71. electrical 306 339 0.10 14.01 3. mechanical tubing 521 658 0.53 Pipe and tubing.98 11. other metallic coated 965 1.600 19.030 2.390 2. stainless 10 7 0.480 1.740 5.960 2. except percentages.13 0.06 Wire 272 356 0.97 Wire rods 1.06 Pipe and tubing. oil country goods 1. billets and slabs 927 811 1.43 0.68 Total 75.42 Plates.510 1.25 Bars.400 14. pressure tubing 39 46 0.25 0.57 Automotive 9.300 21. hot dip galvanized 10.82 Sheets and strip.900 93.60 Sheets.23 Bars.59 2.080 4.660 6.08 0. in coils 3.71 13. hot-rolled 16.77 Sheets and strip.33 2.00 100. PRODUCT. reinforcing 5.67 Sheets and strip. tin-free steel 474 395 0.77 0.53 19. cut lengths 5.300 12.24 Stainless steel 1.28 All others 26.840 1.370 1.530 4.01 Pipe and tubing.00 1. cold finished 1.700 83.86 Pipe and tubing.25 2. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute.22 0. standard pipe 626 779 0.300 100.65 Tool steel 8 7 0.060 7.60 33. line pipe 302 438 0.000 77.710 1.08 0.27 1. IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37.900 3.760 1.700 83. hot rolled 37 51 0.06 Strip.44 1. tin coated sheets 84 73 0.370 7.01 Railroad accessories 190 192 0.830 5.64 Sheets and strip.11 0.07 Bars.09 Sheets.960 2.36 0.96 29.80 Steel piling 819 354 1.99 2.47 Tin mill products.700 12.69 0.93 Pipe and tubing.25 4.00 Shipments by markets: Service centers and distributors 20.700 21.390 2.7 .180 1.40 0.

900 12.390 2.S.120 133 2.680 445 European Union2 Germany 1.S.250 -1. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute.TABLE 4 U.470 6. 37.570 342 2. 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.030 6.120 Russia 1.620 3.820 145 Canada 6.700 11.710 1. 2 Excludes Germany and Sweden. may not add to totals shown. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 .000 25.8 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U.090 73 975 94 Japan 1. Republic of 1.570 64 Mexico 2.560 2. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF STEEL MILL PRODUCTS.100 5.110 China 781 116 1.850 72 2.Zero.770 Total 21. BY COUNTRY1 (Thousand metric tons) 2010 2011 Country Imports Exports Imports Exports Argentina 128 15 167 13 Australia -28 -33 Brazil 903 143 2.250 -South Africa 117 2 131 7 Sweden 253 14 268 8 Taiwan 486 88 587 159 Turkey 528 -665 -Ukraine 118 -325 -Venezuela -62 -87 Other 1.350 16 1.540 2.380 1.200 -.820 19 Korea.

shot and grit Other castings Total See footnotes at end of table. light-shaped Bars. IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37.000 384 16 64 19 30 122 142 30 911 37 114 38 104 2. structural Pipe for piling Wire Tin mill products. in coils Rails. mechanical tubing Pipe and tubing. other Railroad accessories Bars. stranded products Wire. hot-rolled Bars.920 14.100 40 55 1 31 36 87 250 Steel mill products: Ingots.9 . tinplate Tin mill products. slabs Wire rods Structural shapes. tin-free steel Sheets.TABLE 5 U. nonclassified Pipe and tubing. concrete reinforcing Bars. electrogalvanized Sheets and strip. EXPORTS OF IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS1 (Thousand metric tons) 2010 609 170 760 31 1. blackplate Tin mill products. standard pipe Pipe and tubing. oil country goods Pipe and tubing.000 38 115 1 34 31 68 287 2011 904 189 1. other metallic coated Sheets and strip. hot-dip galvanized Sheets and strip. electrical Strip. cold-finished Tool steel Pipe and tubing. line pipe Pipe and tubing.140 424 276 230 188 326 12.060 38 1.200 388 16 148 20 33 126 167 29 666 45 118 40 126 1. standard Rails. hot-rolled Sheets. used Railroad products Wire rope Wire. cut lengths Plates. other products Springs Nails and staples Fasteners Chains and parts Grinding balls Pipe and tube fittings Other2 Total Grand total Cast iron and steel products: Cast steel pipe fittings Cast iron pipe and fittings Cast steel rolls Cast grinding balls Granules.010 13. blooms. billets.070 979 84 23 27 563 235 520 147 29 95 366 186 38 33 370 221 20 193 3 208 21 876 832 960 393 240 213 194 298 11. cold-rolled Sheets and strip. hot-rolled Strip. stainless Pipe and tubing. fabricated Rails. cold-rolled Total Fabricated steel products: Structural shapes. heavy Steel piling Plates.S.230 850 99 18 32 683 197 523 182 46 135 437 145 54 42 443 222 17 200 4 214 20 705 939 1.

TABLE 5—Continued U.10 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U. and conduit. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . sashes and frames. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute. may not add to totals shown. 37.S.S. fence and sign post. EXPORTS OF IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS1 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits. architectural and ornamental work. 2 Includes shapes cold formed.

800 Cast iron and steel products: Cast steel pipe fittings 265 Cast iron pipe and fittings 25 Other products 315 Total 605 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits. hot-rolled 952 Bars.200 Structural shapes-heavy 474 Steel piling 77 Plates.330 88 483 103 61 144 25. structural 282 Pipe for piling 14 Wire 573 Tin mill products-blackplate 31 Tin mill products-tinplate 459 Tin mill products-tin-free steel 134 Sheets.060 1.160 Pipe and tubing.230 277 1.100 338 29 384 751 IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37. used 53 Railroad products 125 Wire rope 140 Wire-stranded products 202 Springs 280 Nails and staples 492 Fasteners 957 Chains and parts 116 265 Pipe and tube fittings Other 709 Total 4.060 921 465 94 1. hot-dip galvanized 1. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute. line pipe 1. stainless 100 Pipe and tubing. billets.200 101 595 350 156 755 2. cold-finished 243 Tool steel 122 Pipe and tubing.270 30.790 558 121 115 17 343 13 577 40 366 132 2.900 587 71 180 140 211 330 506 1.110 Sheets and strip. hot-rolled 40 Strip.290 Sheets and strip. hot-rolled 2.11 . reinforcing 469 Bars. IMPORTS OF MAJOR IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS1 (Thousand metric tons) 2010 Steel mill products: Ingots.350 Pipe and tubing.000 142 338 760 4.180 Sheets. light-shaped 99 Bars.TABLE 6 U. and slabs 4.260 1. electrogalvanized 91 Sheets and strip. fabricated 772 Rails. electrical 86 Strip. cut lengths 680 Plates. pressure tubing 78 Pipe and tubing. 2011 6. cold-rolled 1.420 1. cold-rolled 144 Total 21. in coils 928 Rails and railroad accessories 260 Bars.600 Wire rods 1.110 Grand total 25. oil country goods 2.S. standard pipe 705 Pipe and tubing. nonclassified 22 Pipe and tubing. may not add to totals shown. blooms. other metallic coated 375 Sheets and strip.700 Fabricated steel products: Structural shapes.640 1. mechanical tubing 386 Pipe and tubing.

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 .S.000 Total 813.000 Plate 88.400 14.000 132. Quarterly Coal Report. apparent 13. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute. 2 Includes furnace and merchant coke plants.000 Bars and shapes 110.600 Exports 1.600 158.500 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.000 880 1. TABLE 8 COAL AND COKE AT COKE PLANTS1.000 Sheet and strip 353.800 Pipe and tube 99.000 143. 2 (Thousand metric tons) 2010 Coal. IMPORTS OF STAINLESS STEEL1 (Metric tons) Product 2010 2011 Semifinished 101.100 Coke:3 Production 13. may not add to totals shown.700 115. 3 Coke production and consumption do not include breeze.12 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U.000 356.000 Wire and wire rods 60.S. DOE/EIA–0121(2011/04Q). consumption 19.400 Source: Energy Information Administration.330 Imports 1. 2011 19.000 1 Data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.290 14.300 63.100 Consumption. 37.TABLE 7 U.000 968.

549 82.289 1. 2007 1.532 1.600 10.130 622 -100 1.830 342 3.405 1.141 900 42.042 807 4.043 1.520 341 5. 3.100 2.372 29. Republic of Libya.289 29.800 19.500 10.426 31.TABLE 9 PIG IRON AND DIRECT-REDUCED IRON: WORLD PRODUCTION.060 1.560 450 1. 2.560 1.000 8.420 1.393 28.360 2.409 5.700 685 31.330 327 3.149 590 1.097 2.970 2.373 86.000 690 1.001 148 351 90 2008 690 2.566 6.050 34.000 300 923 552.900 659 -100 1.400 5.110 86.700 27.581 1.077 6.000 146 400 75 r 2011 360 2.576 60 35.000 22.353 3.483 3.690 325 4.000 146 400 75 r r 2010 696 2.600 5.871 302 441 2 -9.600 2.200 146 400 75 e r r r r r r e r r r e e r p.771 3.270 2.228 1.000 145 395 72 6 e r e 2009 493 2.571 362 1.213 300 2.810 6.929 4.500 10.315 38. Northe Korea.300 8.105 20.388 3.900 27.670 5.795 380 1.000 5.943 11.000 2.135 305 -2 -5.600 9.400 4.137 28.000 21.799 667 -100 1.815 4.569 1. direct-reduced iron Malaysia.660 1.800 81.440 11.259 5.847 6.300 9. direct-reduced iron Mexico: Pig iron Direct-reduced iron Moroccoe Netherlands8 New Zealande Nigeria Norwaye Pakistane Paraguay Peru:e Pig iron Direct-reduced iron See footnotes at end of table.719 66.370 4.147 476.125 243 34.351 5. BY COUNTRY1. direct-reduced irone Iran:e Pig iron Direct-reduced iron Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea.600 2.957 4.000 2.230 2.069 2 -8.737 1.265 15 6.042 8.795 900 29.984 900 31.400 2.500 700 1.111 520 1.000 800 635 597.900 12 5.290 2.390 4.000 305 -2 -7.725 621 30.420 2.600 3.200 7.997 900 27.283 2.200 1.943 2.106 900 31.130 629.593 1.572 7.577 910 1.914 12.203 15 4.028 3.840 4.437 1.621 4.109 470.13 .325 38.137 3.030 1.500 1.940 15 6.000 9.670 300 4.087 482 25.000 2.987 3.655 608 -100 1. e r r r r 6 e r e r r r e e e 6 r e e r r r r r r r 6 r r e e e e e r e e 6 IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37.650 6.908 6.412 679 200 100 1.193 2.795 7.171 3.104 380 1.898 305 -2 -6. 4 (Thousand metric tons) Country5 Algeria Argentina: Pig iron Direct-reduced iron Australia Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil: Pig iron Direct-reduced irone Bulgaria Burma:e Pig iron Direct-reduced iron Canada: Pig irone Direct-reduced iron Chile China7 Colombia Czech Republic Egypt: Pig iron Direct-reduced irone Finland France Germany: Pig iron Direct-reduced irone Hungary India: Pig iron Direct-reduced iron Indonesia.900 3.685 23.720 5.786 2.455 15 5.

700 e 4.600 e South Africa: 4.140 7.970 5.700 e 2.090.Zero. data.234 6 6. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . direct-reduced iron 2.736 1.266 r 4. and estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.178 1.600 1.100 2.975 100 100 100 100 100 Portugale Qatar.945 1.000 r 986.040.361 r 28. 2 Production is pig iron unless otherwise specified.682 r 27. Table includes data available through September 7.939 9.358 5. may not add to totals shown.410 4.000 r 1. 37.995 4. -.182 1. U.340 1.000 4.000 921.065 1.095 r 3.934 3.800 e e 6 6 4.000 r 1.358 12.500 Saudi Arabia.000 Of which: 956.674 7.300 43.670 4.752 r 6.444 r 5.TABLE 9—Continued PIG IRON AND DIRECT-REDUCED IRON: WORLD PRODUCTION.800 30.020.500 r. 2.000 e Pig iron 51. 7 Figures reported by State Statistical Bureau that the Government of China considers to be official statistical data.012 3. 8 Includes blast furnace ferroalloys.000 931.880 1.700 3.700 19.000 4.782 7.485 1.019 3. 6 Reported figure. direct-reduced iron 7.960 10.600 e Russia: 50.150 e Venezuela.S. 4 Table excludes ferroalloy production except where otherwise noted.000 8.000 8. Vietnam has facilities to produce pig iron and may have produced limited quantities during 2007–11.14 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U. 3.000 Spain Sweden 3.400 r 71. 5 In addition to the countries listed.900 65.110.750 7.300 Direct-reduced iron e Estimated.265 1.560 4.915 Trinidad and Tobago.100 e 6 6 e 3.000 r 1. pPreliminary.000 Pig iron9 10 r r 65.575 1.235 6.881 United Kingdom 10.940 1.523 48.150 7.647 30.340 4.000 r 1.226 Slovakia 4.170. 3 Direct-reduced iron is obtained from ore by reduction of oxides to metal without melting.804 4. 1 World totals. 4 (Thousand metric tons) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Country5 Poland 5.200 1.815 3.649 3.550 9.230 Romania 3.000 66.930 48.800 e 3. but output is not reported and available information is inadequate to make reliable estimates of output levels.638 r 3.000 5.800 e Pig iron 5.300 e Taiwan 10.150 e Grand total 1.200 Turkeye Ukraine 35.600 United States: Pig iron 36. BY COUNTRY1.000 r 76.582 1. 2012. 10 Listed separately.006 1.138 r r r Direct-reduced iron 1. rRevised.157 r 2. direct-reduced iron Serbia 1.982 25.120 1. 9 Includes unspecified pig iron and direct-reduced iron.000 5. direct-reduced iron 1.200 Direct-reduced iron 250 260 ---7.300 33.974 3.200 r Direct-reduced iron 3. e 3.S.137 7.923 2.600 7.529 3.000 998.000 26.

180 368 6.449 5.180 1.700 107.308 572.523 500.853 853 590 1.836 32.227 53.423 2 17.209 885 202 478 6.874 45.224 73 110 4.150 711 2009 440 543 4.256 1.041 242 95 480 6.160 10. Northe Korea.990 120.137 2.845 1.431 19.595 150 4. 2.416 43.244 1.100 834 25 12.563 291 5.662 79 2.011 637. 3 (Thousand metric tons) Country4 Albania Algeria Argentina Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina.752 550 914 2.290 100 290 5.279 53.270 1.594 259 5.474 150 2.550 25 2.088 591 32.671 -2.500 3.288 -2.500 10.724 7.200 824 2010 440 696 5. all from scrape Finland France Germany Ghana.508 56 150 3.100 130 1.895 1 17.082 224 550 1.519 550 100 2.830 -2.014 6.172 426 90 480 5.387 128 6.354 2 14.599 150 4.322 550 1.300 68. 2007 263 1.000 649 33.751 109.800 3.278 5.15 .100 272 500 1.078 12.000 430 25.200 130 1.573 995 174 314 7.651 853 600 1.214 10.477 118.726 1.582 252 6.914 550 825 2.534 150 4.147 1.003 1.047 7.928 740 25 13.290 1.151 2.693 2 17.200 800 e r e r r e e e r r p r r r r r r p e e e 7 7 r r r e r e e r r r r r r e r 7 r r 7 r r r r 7 7 r r e 7 7 r 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 r r IRON AND STEEL—2011 [ADVANCE RELEASE] 37.300 58.TABLE 10 RAW STEEL: WORLD PRODUCTION.000 480 28.300 3.000 380 19.140 7.200 800 2011 440 440 5.135 5.678 68.300 48.252 48.245 76 262 7.538 7.636 519 26.554 349 550 2.368 845 680 1.692 533 33.782 1.486 100 130 4.900 844 600 1.500 4.733 72.330 25 14.915 9.387 8.490 1.194 765 591 1.739 150 4.800 44.517 550 1.833 -2. ingot production Brazil5 Bulgaria Burmae Canada Chile5 China6 Colombia Croatia Cubae Czech Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Ethiopia.441 7.858 372 6. Republic of Latviae Libya Luxembourg Macedonia Malaysia Mauritaniae Mexico Moldova Montenegro Moroccoe Netherlands New Zealand Norwaye Pakistane Paraguaye Perue Philippinese See footnotes at end of table.200 3.679 489.100 130 1.500 386 5.784 1.578 273 2.198 71 150 4.100 130 1.891 1. BY COUNTRY1.215 276 5.572 1.051 480 31.097 57.206 129 2.808 1.700 8.203 150 4.583 525 6.620 683.209 110 265 5.403 63.400 250 550 2.800 13. all from scrape Greece Guatemala Hong Konge Hungary India Indonesia Irane Israele Italy Japan Jordane Kazakhstan Korea.418 17.053 122 274 6.230 1.676 608 33.737 87.138 7.506 726 25 9.059 87 6.672 8.000 15.079 52 274 4.700 51 150 4.000 445 200 1.230 51.100 321 100 475 6.000 15.909 25 15.800 2 18.245 1.090 132 881 718 2008 380 646 5.660 10.594 75 2.960 480 30.700 12.655 6.

4 In addition to the countries listed.400 1. and estimated data are rounded to no more than three significant digits.500 86. 5 Excludes castings.000 4. 7 Reported figure.300 13.484 7.000 e Russia 72.896 3.400 1.16 [ADVANCE RELEASE] U.565 5.883 19.147 1. includes material reported as “liquid steel.Zero.035 2. 2 Steel formed in solid state after melting. 2012.500 5.559 35.000 5.588 4.000 Romania 6.761 3.389 68.100 4.999 7 19.670 4. for some countries. BY COUNTRY1.250 e 7 70 70 70 70 70 Syria Taiwan 20.000 1.830 37.750 7 26.TABLE 10—Continued RAW STEEL: WORLD PRODUCTION.166 66.650 e 18.211 3.222 15. data.400 80.000 1.809 7 25.800 68.700 4.500 United States 98.500 e Slovenia 638 642 430 606 600 e South Africa 9.000 Venezuelae 4. 6 Figures reported by the State Statistical Bureau that the Government of China considers as official statistical data. 3 (Thousand metric tons) 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Country4 Poland 10.” presumably measured in the molten state prior to cooling in any specific form.520.478 1.489 3.260 981 1.400 1.264 1.621 9. U.794 1.673 7 5.996 r 8.855 r 33.332 Ukraine 42.024 2.000 1. 37.000 r 1.S.250 2.300 e Vietnam 2.240 7 5.300 Saudi Arabiae 1.048 7 19. suitable for further processing or sale.279 r 90 90 90 90 100 United Arab Emiratese United Kingdom 14.538 10.129 7.400 71 7 70 7 70 70 70 Uruguaye 740 686 7 716 7 745 760 Uzbekistane 5.400 1.498 22.566 20.000 5.240. -.800 r 4.100 91. but available information is inadequate to make reliable estimates of output levels.300 r 4.145 r Trinidad and Tobago 682 489 417 572 610 Tunisia 61 82 155 180 150 25.S.314 r e 7 23 10 10 --Zimbabwe Total 1. 3 Table includes data available through September 7.246 r 7. Mozambique is known to have steelmaking plants.330.406 1.100 19.644 7 4. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MINERALS YEARBOOK—2011 . rRevised.300 r 1.662 1.700 59.727 7.700 5.400 Portugale Qatar 1.097 r 620 600 620 650 650 e Singaporee Slovakia 5.080 9.000 Turkeye 30 30 25 20 r 10 Ugandae 29.100 19. may not add to totals shown.350.645 4.100 Spaine e 30 30 30 30 30 Sri Lanka 5.440.254 1.098 8.879 4. 2.000 30.400 2. 1 World totals.900 59.617 r 6.709 9.005 7 4.261 5.900 Swedene Switzerland 1.000 5.000 34.000 2.000 e Estimated. pPreliminary.100 e Thailand 5.324 Serbia 1.747 4.