INTRODUCTION OF RESEARCH

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By LECTURERS FAKULTI PENGURUSAN MAKLUMAT

This Chapter seeks to examine the nature of research, its definition, identify the reasons for undertaking research and the basic concept of research methodology. It also distinguishes between basic and applied research.

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CHAPTER CONTENTS
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.

Definition of Research Purpose of Research Applied and Basic Research Quantitative and Qualitative Research Types of Research Ethics and Research

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INTRODUCTION
• Systematic investigation of a subject, • Aimed at uncovering new information (discovering data) and / or • Interpreting relations among the subject’s parts (theorising). • Research is done in hundreds of ways, ranging from lawyers searching among old court cases for legal precedents to physicists smashing atoms to study subatomic particles.

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DEFINITION OF RESEARCH .1.

It employs well designed method to collect the data and analyses the results. The word research is derived from the Latin word meaning to know.DEFINITION OF RESEARCH 1. It disseminates the findings to contribute to generalizeable knowledge. It is a systematic and a replicable process which identifies and defines problems. within specified boundaries. Its include : 6 .

Reductive .procedures can be duplicated or understood by others. Empirical . 7 . Replicable .it investigates a small sample which can be generalized to a larger population.others may test the findings by repeating it. Logical .i. iii. systematic problem solving which identifies variables and tests relationships between them ii. v.decisions are based on data collected iv.

DEFINITION OF RESEARCH 2. 8 . Research can be defined as a process of systematic investigation of a subject for the purpose of adding to the body of knowledge about that subject.

Research is intended to add to the body of knowledge : the purpose of research is to inform. 9 .DEFINITION OF RESEARCH • Contained in that definition are three key points : i. ii. Investigation is carried out systematically : the investigation is planned iii. Research is a process : it is carried out in stages.

scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it.DEFINITION OF RESEARCH 3. (Sekaran. objective. 2003) 4. Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions. databased. 10 . critical. systematic. As an organized.

Systematic – is a define set of procedures and steps which you should follow iii.i. Finding Answer – is end of all research iv. Organized – Structure or method in going about doing research ii. Questions – are central to research 11 .

(Hancock. 1998) 12 .Research can be defined as a process of systematic investigation of a subject for the purpose of adding to the body of knowledge about the subject.

1998) 13 . (Hancock.Research = process + Systematic investigation + subject + adding + knowledge.

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH .2.

problem solving and measure the benefits. • The knowledge can lead to more reliable decision making.PURPOSE OF RESEARCH • Systematic research is often conducted to bring about knowledge. 15 .

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH … • advances knowledge for (as an example) library and information management theory • improves practices for practitioners in the library and information management industry • improves technologies for example used in library and information management industry 16 .

• helps justify the need for library and information management systems facilities.PURPOSE OF RESEARCH … • helps create meaningful education programs in the library and information management. 17 .

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH … • helps library and information managers in good decision making processes where they insist on: – recognition of a problem – collection and synthesis of information – develop possible solutions to the problem – selection and implementation of best solution 18 .

3. APPLIED AND BASIC RESEARCH .

action research. we only focuses on Applied and Basic Research. evaluation research. and orientational research. • However for this course. 20 . applied research.APPLIED AND BASIC RESEARCH • There are five general kinds of research: basic research.

Applied Research • Applied research is research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization. 21 . • One might say that the goal of the applied researcher is to improve the human condition.

22 . applied researchers may investigate ways to improve reference desk services.Applied Research • For example.

k. 23 . in this case. Therefore.Basic Research • Basic (a. • The main motivation is to expand knowledge. not to create or invent something.a. there is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. fundamental or pure) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question.

and seek methods is solving them. 24 .Basic Research • Research conducted to generate knowledge and understanding of phenomena (in the work setting) that would add to the existing body of knowledge (about organizations and management theory) • To generate a body knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that commonly occur in organizational setting.

Basic Research • For example. basic researchers may investigate How books was invented? 25 .

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTATIVE RESEARCH .4.

They are quantitative research. Qualitative and Mixed Research There are currently three major research paradigms in education (and in the social and behavioral sciences). 27 . qualitative research. and mixed research.Quantitative.

In fact. 3. the possibilities for mixing are almost infinite. 2. Qualitative research – research that relies on the collection of qualitative data. Quantitative research – research that relies primarily on the collection of quantitative data. Qualitative and Mixed Research 1.Quantitative. Mixed research – research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative methods or paradigm characteristics. 28 . Mixing of quantitative and qualitative research can take many forms.

it involves the analysis of numbers. 29 . At its simplest. (i. The measurement of tangible variables and their inter-relationships).e.Quantitative Research Most people have a clear idea of quantitative research. Quantitative Research tends to generate Quantitative Data .data is either collected in numeric format or rapidly reduced to numbers.

published statistics 30 . Secondary Data .Quantitative Data Collection Method 1.face to face. phone.lab. quasi. field 2. Experiments . post 3. Surveys .

31 . videotaping of subjects. case studies and document analysis. direct and participant observation.Qualitative Research Qualitative research is an exploration of relatively intangible variables resulting in a largely verbal description or explanation of the phenomena (often behavior) studied. Its methods includes interviews.

Where non textual data is collected it is often expressed in textual format. 32 .Qualitative Research Qualitative Research tends to generate Qualitative Data data is collected in textual format and largely retained in textual format.

Qualitative Research Five traditions in qualitative research : – – – – – Biography Phenomenology Grounded Theory Ethnography Case Study 33 .

5. 3. 4. Fields notes/observations 8.Qualitative Data Collection Method 1. 2. Personal documents 34 . Open ended survey Semi-structured interviews In-depth interviews Focus groups Case notes/records of meetings 6. Diaries and research diaries 7.

5. TYPES RESEARCH .

Ethnographic 36 . Action Research vi. Co-relational ii. Historical vii. Causal – Comparative iii. Experimental iv. Survey v.TYPES OF RESEARCH i.

6. ETHICS AND RESEARCH .

What one person or group considers to be good or right might be considered bad or wrong by another person or group. • It is a topic that people may disagree on because it is based on people's personal value systems.ETHICS AND RESEARCH • Ethics is the division in the field of philosophy that deals with values and morals. 38 .

especially when human beings are investigated. 39 .ETHICS AND RESEARCH • Most research in the fields of education contain ethical issues. • Some universities and research institutions have an internal body to review every research proposal and activity from ethical viewpoint.

40 . without exception. An action is either ethical or not ethical.Ethics Approaches Deontological Approach • This approach states that we should identify and use a Universal code when making ethical decisions.

Professional issues. ii. Treatment of Research Participants 41 . iii.Ethical Concerns The are three primary areas of ethical concern for researchers. The relationship between society and science. i.

The relationship between society and science. – Should researchers study what is considered important in society at a given time? – Should the federal government and other funding agencies use grants to affect the areas researched in a society? – Should researchers ignore societal concerns? 42 .

– Partial publication (publishing several articles from the data collected in one study). it should be avoided. cheating or lying are never defensible. This is allowable as long as the different publications involve different research questions and different data.Professional Issues – The primary ethical concern here is fraudulent activity (fabrication or alteration of results) by researchers. Otherwise. – Duplicate publication (publishing the same data and results in more than one journal or other publication) should be avoided. 43 . Obviously.

• It is essential that one insures that research participants are not harmed physically or psychologically during the conduct of research. 44 .Treatment of Research Participants • This is probably the most fundamental ethical issue in the field of empirical research.

subjects must be fully informed of the procedures to be followed and a risks (if any) involved if they participate. 45 . ii. Voluntary participation. although rewards may be given. i.ETHICS AND RESEARCH The following principles should be followed in research works. Consent alone insufficient.

An example would be where the researcher has a large group of people fill out a questionnaire but NOT write their names on it. including the researcher. the researcher ends up with data. 46 . iv. but no names. v.ETHICS AND RESEARCH iii. In this way. Confidentiality : no identifying information may be released except to those involved with the research. Anonymity : the identity of the participant is not known by anyone in the study. The research aim should be explained.