CHAPTER- 1 INTRODUCTION & PROBLEM BACKGROUND

1.1 HISTORY
Embedded Systems and Robotics are two interesting fields where every engineer can display his creative and technical skills. Pleasing aspect of robotics is that anyone can make a robot indigenously. In this competitive world there is need for every enthusiastic, from amateur to professional, to make a simple robot having innovated applications and with robust control. Mobile phones today became an essential entity for all and so, for any mobile-based application there is great reception. In this scenario, making a mobile phone operated land rover is a good idea. Conventionally wireless controlled robots utilize RF circuits, which had limitations as if limited range limited frequency ranges and controls. However, a mobile phone controlled DTMF based DC Fan Controller can hold up these limitations. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. This control of robot involves three distinct phases- perception, processing and action.

1.2 GENERAL CONCEPTS
FEATURES OF 8051 ARCHITECTURE         Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications and extensive Boolean processing capabilities. 64KB Program Memory address space. 64KB Data Memory address space. 128 bytes of on chip Data Memory. Thirty-Two Bi-directional and individually addressable I/O lines. Two 16-bit timer/counters. Full Duplex UART. 6-source / 5-vector interrupt structure with priority levels.
Page | 1

On chip clock oscillator.

Now we may be wondering about the non-mentioning of memory space meant for the program storage, the most important part of any embedded controller. Originally, this 8051 architecture was introduced with on-chip, „one time programmable‟ version of Program Memory of size 4K × 8. Intel delivered all these microcontrollers (8051) with user‟s program fused inside the device. The memory portion was mapped at the lower end of the Program Memory area. However, after getting devices, customers could not change anything in their program code, which was already made available inside during device fabrication.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
In this project, the DC Fan is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the device. In the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called „dual-tone multiple-frequency‟ (DTMF) tone. The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the DTMF based DC Fan Controller acts as a remote. The main achievement of this project is to control the DC Fan attached with the DTMF Based DC Fan Controller through the wireless link. The normal wireless link has the limitation of the limited range as well as the high susceptibility of the interfaces. To remove the problem of limited range and the possibility of the interfaces we are going to use the GSM i.e. global system of mobile.

Page | 2

CHAPTER- 2 DETAILS OF TECHNOLOGY USED
2.1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN
Embedded system employs a combination of software & hardware to perform a specific function. It is a part of a larger system, which may not be a “computer”, works in a reactive & time constrained environment.

Figure 2.1: Outline of an Embedded System Any electronic system that uses a CPU chip, but that is not a general-purpose workstation, desktop or laptop computer is known as embedded system. Such systems generally use microprocessors; microcontroller or they may use custom-designed chips or both. They are used in automobiles, planes, trains, space vehicles, machine tools, cameras, consumer and office appliances, cell phones, PDAs and other handhelds as well as robots and toys. The uses are endless, and billions of microprocessors are shipped every year for a myriad of applications. In embedded systems, the software is permanently set into a read-only memory such as a ROM or flash memory chip, in contrast to a general-purpose computer that loads its programs into RAM each time. Sometimes, single board and rack mounted general-purpose computers are called "embedded computers" if used to control. We are living in the Embedded World. You are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning of these gadgets. Television, Radio, CD player of your living room, Washing Machine or Microwave Oven in your kitchen, Card readers, Access Controllers, Palm devices of your work space enable you to do many of your tasks very effectively. Apart from all
Page | 3

these desktop computers can do many things. The computer you use to compose your mails. Theoretically. an embedded controller is a combination of a piece of microprocessor-based hardware and the suitable software to undertake a specific task. fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded products. In recent days. You need to install the relevant software to get the required processing facility. Page | 4 . Selecting a right microprocessor may turn out as a most difficult first step and it is getting complicated as new devices continue to pop-up very often. embedded controllers carryout a specific work for which they are designed. Especially. many controllers embedded in your car take care of car operations between the bumpers and most of the times you tend to ignore all these controllers. Air bags and Automatic braking (for safety). scanners. or create a document or analyze the database is known as the standard desktop computer. new devices. in 8 bit and 32 bit.2 EMBEDDED APPLICATIONS AUTOMOBILES: Fuel Injection control (for fuel efficiency). These days designers have many choices in microprocessors/microcontrollers. BUSINESS APPLICATIONS: Vending machines. printers. engineers design these embedded controllers with a specific goal in mind. the available variety really may overwhelm even an experienced designer. All kinds of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies. you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many places. In contrast.) Industrial Control: such as CNCmachines are examples of embedded systems. and car entertainment systems. 2. Therefore. Heart rate monitors.these. MEDICAL ELECTRONICS: Many sophisticated medical instruments (Body Scanners. Most of the time. So these controllers cannot be used in any other place. Pacemaker etc. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purposes and applications.

Toys. Satellite Stations Figure 2. Washing Machines AVIONICS: Airplanes. fast. and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere. and is standardized by ITU-T Recommendation Q. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13. unacknowledged. 2. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.CONSUMER ELECTRONICS: Cameras.4 TELEPHONE KEYPAD Page | 5 . DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the1990s.3 DUAL-TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY (DTMF) Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. As a method of in-band signaling. 1984).2 Embedded Applications 2.23. Cellular Phones.

When used to dial a telephone number.4 DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips) Figure 2. A. The row in which the key appears determines the low frequency. although the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four now-defunct menu selector keys.The contemporary keypad is laid out in a 3×4 grid. pressing the '1' key will result in a sound composed of both a 697 and a 1209-hertz (Hz) tone. pressing a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simultaneous pure tone sinusoidal frequencies. *. The original keypads had levers inside. so each button activated two contacts. AND D Page | 6 . and the column determines the high frequency.5 DTMF Event Frequencies TONES #.3 DTMF telephone keypad Figure 2. Figure 2. C. B. For example.

In the end. Page | 7 . and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. This led to the addition of the number sign (#. B.S. relabeled. and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppress caller ID. cutting in over existing calls if need be. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. the lettered keys were dropped from most phones.The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers. military also used the letters. C and D. in their now defunct Autovon phone system. The U. sometimes called' octothorpe' in this context) and asterisk or "star" (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A. Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority.

the DC Fan is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the project.1: The Block Diagram of The Mobile Operated Land Rover In this project. So. In the course of a call. The DTMF tones thus produced are received by the cell phone in the project. 3. This tone is called „dual-tone multiple-frequency‟ (DTMF) tone. from any phone. The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the project acts as a remote. after a ring the cell phone accepts the call.CHAPTER. Page | 8 . a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 3. if any button is pressed. These tones are fed to the circuit by head set of the cell phone.2 WORKING The user in order to control the DC Fan should make a call to the cell phone attached in the project. MT8870 decodes the received tone and sends equivalent binary number to the micro controller. Now the user may press any button on his mobile. The cell phone in the project will be kept in auto answer mode. which can send DTMF tunes on pressing the numeric buttons.3 WORKING 3.

inputs at 1A (2). The microcontroller is programmed in such a way that when the user presses (for ex. So.e. 2A and 1.. delineating every step in data transfer when a digit is pressed DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each key so that the electronic circuit can easily identify it. 3. And the input 1. The PD0 (14). 2A (7) and enable at 1.) „2‟ button. the motor rotates in a direction and 0. 1 causes electrical brake. 2EN pin enabled and if 1A. pressing „5‟ will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to the other end of the line. both the drivers will be activated to make their motors to make a forward motion.3 FLOW CHART Fig 3.2 Flow Chart Page | 9 . 2A pins are provided with 1. The signal generated by the DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation. 2 EN (1) can drive a DC motor connected at 1Y (3) and 2Y (6). the motor driver L293D can drive a DC motor with an enable and two control inputs.As explained previously. 0 as input respectively.2EN pins respectively. in real time. Therefore. with 1. A detailed table is given below. of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine) waves of different frequencies. 1 input makes the motor to run in vice versa. i. PD1 (15) and PD7 (21) pins port D of microcontroller are connected to 1A.

DC motor driver Page | 10 .4 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION 4. The important components of this rover are a DTMF decoder. Fig 4.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Figure 4. Micro controller 3. The built-in dial tone rejection circuit eliminates the need for pre-filtering. DTMF decoder 2.1 Circuit Diagram An MT8870 series DTMF decoder is used here.CHAPTER.1 shows the circuit diagram of the microcontroller-based mobile phone operated land rover. microcontroller and motor driver. respectively. When the input signal given at pin 2 (IN-) in single-ended input configuration is recognized to be effective. the correct 4-bit decode signal of the DTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin 11) through Q4 (pin 14) outputs. Table II shows the DTMF data output table of MT8870. Q1 through Q4 outputs of the DTMF decoder (IC1) are connected to port pins PA0 through PA3 of ATmega16 microcontroller (IC2) after inversion by N1 through N4. All types of the MT8870 series use digital counting techniques to detect and decode all the 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code output. We can divide complete circuit into three major blocks 1.

# etc.2 Pin Diagram of MT8870 Fig 4. Fig 4.9 and other signals (like *.DTMF decoder circuit: As shown in figure. It receives input form cell phone to its pin no 2.3 MT8870 Circuit Page | 11 . it is made up form readily available MT8870 chip that is widely used for DTMF based application. It receives DTMF tones and generates 4-bit digital output corresponding to received DTMF signal of digits 0 . it will produce pulse output on StD (pin no 15).) also. If it receives valid DTMF tone. It amplifies it through internal op-amp amplifier.

3 (external interrupt 1) pin. Fig 4. This negative pulse will generate an interrupt.3. One push button switch (RST) in parallel with 100nF capacitor Page | 12 . It drives two DC motors through port P2 pins P2.0 . interrupt signal is given to P3.3.This is indicated by green LED connected as shown.14 and that is given to micro controller. The StD output is also given to interrupt pin of micro controller through transistor that will generate negative pulse every time when DTMF signal is received. 8-bit micro controller 89C51 is used for controlling purpose.P2. Cell phone digit switches 1 to 8 control all the movements of robotic arm. The 4-bit digital output corresponding to these switches form MT8870 are as given here. It receives 4-bit digital output from DTMF decoder on its port P1 pins P1.0 P1. In addition.4 Output of MT8870 Micro-controller Circuit Part: As shown in figure a 40 pin. A 12 MHz crystal with two 33pf capacitors is connected to crystal pins (18 & 19) to provide basic clock signal to micro controller. The 4-bit digital output is latched on pins 11 .

Therefore.5 Microcontroller Circuit Part DC Motor Driver Circuit: - Fig 4.10 & 15 and rotates two DC motors in either direction as per given table. Page | 13 .6 L293D Pin Diagram As shown in figure L293D is quadruple H-Bridge driver chip that is widely used for DC motor and stepper motor driver applications. Fig 4. to move the land rover forward or backward left or right one has to send following data on port. it will control the motion of land rover depending upon the code it receives from DTMF decoder as given in table.forms power on reset circuit to reset the micro controller.7. It receives inputs from micro controller as shown on its input pins 2.

2 COMPONENTS LIST SR NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 COMPONENTS ATMEL 89S52 (MICROCONTROLLER) LCD 16X21 M8870(DTMF) L293(H-BRIDGE) L7805 (5 VOLT REGULATOR) CRYSTAL 11.0592MHZ CRYSTAL 3.7 L293D Circuit Part 4.Fig 4.579545MHZ LED RESISTOR PACK BERG STRIP VARIABLE RESISTOR(50K) CERAMIC CAPACITOR (104) QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 4 Page | 14 .

3 Description of Components 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM Thirty-Two Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag Fast Programming Time Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option Page | 15 .1 AT89S52 FEATURES                  Compatible with MCS®-51 Products 8KB of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10.000 Write/Erase Cycles 4. 100K RESISTORS 2 PIN CONNECTORS DC Fans 1 3 3 2 4.13 14 15 16 330R RESISTOR 330K.3.

which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. 256 bytes of RAM.8 Pin Diagram PIN Description of 8051 The AT89S52 is a low power. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. and clock circuitry. the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller. two data pointers. Watchdog timer. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the Indus-try-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammar. In addition. a full duplex serial port. on-chip oscillator. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. 32 I/O lines.PIN DIAGRAM Fig 4. three 16-bit timer/counters. Page | 16 .

VCC - Supply voltage. This pin is required to act as main supply voltage pin. Usually +5V voltage is applied to this pin. This pin is internally connected to the transistors inside the integrated circuit to provide them necessary supply voltage. The IC cannot function properly if proper supply voltage is not provided to this pin. GND – Ground. This pin is required for return path for the currents in the circuit. Various transistors in the integrated circuit need ground connections which is necessary for their operation. This pin will act as a common ground for all the transistors in the integrated circuit to provide return path for various currents. Port 0 -Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes dur-ing program verification. Port 1 -Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 -Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 3 -Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. RST -Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the
Page | 17

Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG- Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. PSEN -Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP- External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. XTAL1- Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2- Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

4.3.2 16 × 2 CHARACTER LCD
FEATURES      Intelligent, with built-in Hitachi HD44780 compatible LCD controller and RAM providing simple interfacing 61 x 15.8 mm viewing area 5 x 7 dot matrix format for 2.96 x 5.56 mm characters, plus cursor line Can display 224 different symbols Low power consumption (1 mA typical)
Page | 18

  

Powerful command set and user-produced characters TTL and CMOS compatible Connector for standard 0.1-pitch pin headers

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data.

Fig 4.9 16x2 Character LCD The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.

Page | 19

paging systems. personal computers. credit card systems.58 MHz time base Single 5 volt power supply Dial tone suppression Applications include telephone switch equipment.3.Fig 4.11 Description of Pin Diagram 4. remote data entry.3 MT8870 DTMF RECEIVER FEATURES         Low power consumption Adjustable acquisition and release times Central office quality and performance Power-down and inhibit modes (-02 only) Inexpensive 3.10 LCD Pin Diagram Fig 4. Page | 20 .

Fig 4. Page | 21 .Connections to the front-end differential amplifier. VREF (Reference voltage output). Internal pull down. INH*.12 Pin Diagram of MT8870 PIN Description of MT8870 IN+ (Non-inverting input) . GS (Gain select . the M-8870 offers low power consumption (35 mW max) and precise data handling.Inhibits detection of tones representing keys A.Connections to the front-end differential amplifier. clock generator. Logic high powers down the device and inhibits the oscillator. PD* -Power down.May be used to bias the inputs at mid-rail. B. Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. and latched tristate interface bus. C. External component count is minimized by provision of an on-chip differential input amplifier.Manufactured using CMOS process technology. and D. Its filter section uses switched capacitor technology for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection. IN-(Inverting input) .Gives access to output of front-end amplifier for connection of feedback resistor.

VDD -Positive power supply. St/GT (Steering input/guard time output (bidirectional)-.Q4.4 L293D DUAL H‐BRIDGE MOTOR DRIVER Features      Separate Input-Logic Supply Internal ESD Protection Thermal Shutdown High-Noise-Immunity Inputs Functionally Similar to SGS L293 and SGS L293D Page | 22 . Q4 (Pins 11 – 14) -Tri-statable data outputs. (Normally connected to +5V. When enabled by OE. Internal pull up. OSC2 (Clock output).3. ESt( Early steering output.579545 MHz crystal connected between these pins completes the internal oscillator.Tri-state-able output enable (input). and its state is a function of ESt and the voltage on St.3. VSS -Negative power supply (normally connected to 0 V).Presents a logic high when a received tone pair has been registered and the output latch is updated. Q1. Returns to logic low when the voltage on St/GT falls below VTSt. provides the code corresponding to the last valid tone pair received StD (Delayed steering output.) 4. Logic high enables the outputs Q1 . Q2.OSC1 (Clock input). The GT output acts to reset the external steering time constant. Q3.) -Presents a logic high immediately when the digital algorithm detects a recognizable tone pair (signal condition). TOE.) .579545 MHz crystal connected between these pins completes the internal oscillator. A voltage greater than VTSt detected at St causes the device to register the detected tone pair and update the output latch. Any momentary loss of signal condition will cause ESt to return to a logic low.3. A voltage less than VT St frees the device to accept a new tone pair.

In its common mode of operation.2 Input 1 Output 1 Ground Ground Page | 23 . active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Name Enable 1. Pin No Function 1 2 3 4 5 Enable pin for Motor 1. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15.2A for L293D) Output Clamp Diodes for Inductive Transient Suppression (L293D) Fig 4.   Output Current 1A per Channel (600mA for L293D) Peak Output Current 2A per Channel (1. respectively. both in forward and reverse direction. two DC motors can be driven simultaneously. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor.13 L293d Dual H‐Bridge Motor Driver L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions.

5V (up to 36V) Output 2 Input 2 Vcc 2 Enable 3.3V.1 Description of L293d Dual H‐Bridge Motor Driver 4. 10V. 9-12V (up to 36V) Enable pin for Motor 2. 6V. 12V.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Output 2 for Motor 1 Input 2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage for Motors. 18V and 24V available. 5V. 8V. 9V.4 Input 3 Output 3 Ground Ground Output 4 Input 4 Vcc 1 Table 4. 7V.7V. Thermal overload shutdown protection Short circuit current limiting Output transistor SOA protection Page | 24 .5 LM7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR FEATURES      Output current up to 1A Fixed output voltage of 3.3. 15V. active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Output 2 for Motor 1 Input2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage. 4.

and are functions of the crystal frequency.318 MHz. implemented on-chip in Chrontel products.75 amps. for Chrontel's product line. Page | 25 .3. Rs is the motion resistance. Co is the pin-to-pin capacitance. A simplified schematic of the oscillator circuit used in Chrontel products is shown in Figure. The crystal manufacturer specifies its value.14 LM7805 Voltage Regulator DESCRIPTION The 7805 is a VOLTAGE REGULATOR.Fig 4. but it gets hot. Cs is the motion capacitance and Ls is the motion inductance. It looks like a transistor but it is actually an integrated circuit with 3 legs and it turns the input voltage into a nice. It can handle around . You need to feed it at least 8 volts and no more than 30 volts to do this. which provides DC bias to the inverting amplifier. which are not specified. Use a heat sink Use it to power circuits than need to use or run off of 5 volts. Rbias is a feedback resistor. Its value is associated with the crystal electrode design and the crystal holder. typically 14.5 to . 4.6 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR This application note addresses issues commonly raised during the selection of the reference crystal. Note that the typical 2-pin crystal has been replaced by its equivalent circuit model. smooth 5 volts DC.

16 Crystal Specifications 4. are each approximately 15pF to 20pF. the values of the internal capacitance C1 and C2. including pin parasitic capacitance.C1 and C2 are total capacitance-to-ground at the input and output nodes of the amplifier. Fig 4. respectively.7 LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE) Page | 26 .3.15 Crystal Oscillator Crystal Specifications The reference frequencies for Chrontel's products are derived from an on-chip Pierce oscillator with an external crystal. If external capacitance is not added. The oscillator has been designed to function reliably with crystals that conform to the following specifications: Fig 4.

The light emitted from LEDs varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on low voltage and power. Therefore. To overcome this. either low input voltage (equal to forward voltage) or PWM (pulse width modulation) is used to drive the LED.7V-2.3. Learning this color code. The two terminals of LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be identified by their size. They are also used for luminance and optoelectronic applications. LEDs emit photons when electrons recombine with holes on forward biasing. Without this resistor. a coding system based on bands of distinctive colors was developed to assist in identification.2V) is lower than the voltage supplied (5V) to drive it in a circuit. a current limiting resistor is used in series with LED. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components and are mostly used as indicators in circuits.8 RESISTORS Many resistors are so small that it would be difficult to print their value and percentage tolerance on their body in digits. Fig 4. is not as necessary as it used to be (thanks to accurate.17 LED Based on semiconductor diode. low cost digital Page | 27 . The forward voltage of LED (1. The longer leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is negative terminal.Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. 4. Using an LED as such would burn it because a high current would destroy its p-n gate.

check the apparent coded value against the allowed E12 or E24 values to see if its legal or check with a digital multi meter. Blue (6) and grey (8) sometimes look very similar.5. Note that the steps between these values are always very close to 20%.e. There are only a finite number of different nominal values allowed. 10.0. 12. Normalized these are 1. Multiples of these values are simply repeated in each decade. The 5-band system is generally used for 2% and closer tolerance resistors. Here how both systems work in practice: 4-band resistors will usually have values in the E12 series. just to make sure. 100 1kW.. The next thing to know is that there are two different resistor color-coding systems in use: one using four-color bands. 4.2. the main difference is that 5-band resistors have an additional third band. Most common resistors have values in the E12 series.multi meters!).g. 3. 18 and so on. which has 12 additional allowed values per decade as shown in the table. which only has 12 allowed values per decade. but it‟s not hard to learn and it‟s quite useful knowledge anyway.8. 1.100W. 15. brown (1) and orange (3). As before. 1k . modern 1% tolerance resistors are made in a larger range of values: the E24 series.8 and 8. from 10 . 3. The first thing to know is that in each decade of resistance. these nominal values are simply repeated in each decade. which is usually BLACK to represent a third digit of zero.9.7. 2. 1. 5. because depending on the resistor‟s body color. e. So if you are in doubt. and the other five.7. as do red (2). 1.2. because the E12 series dates from the days of resistors with ± 10% tolerance. 2. The table at right shows both the E12 and E24 allowed values for comparison. To allow greater accuracy in circuit design. while 5-band resistors can have any value in the E24 series? This is worth remembering. i.6. 6. Page | 28 . etc.10kW. Both systems use the same band colors to represent the various digits..3.2. some of the band colors may not be easy to distinguish. even though the 4-band system is quite capable of handling any resistors with E12 or E24 values.

18 Resistors 4. However. and tolerance and so on until you know how it works. which can make it a bit tricky to work out the capacitance.Fig 4.9 CAPACITORS Virtually all of the capacitors stocked by Jaycar have their electrical values printed directly on their body. the monolithic type is a type of multilayer ceramic capacitor. which tends to be smaller. voltage rating. designed to combine high capacitance with very low self-inductance Ceramic & Monolithic Capacitors Page | 29 . Incidentally. there is often still a coding system. and in a more tightly controlled rectangular package. This is explained below. in digits and letters.3. dark red or even blue!) are one type of metalized polyester film capacitor. like the MKT type. so-called green caps (which can actually be brown. Similarly.

Normal stepper motors require a minimum 1A power supply. As we vary the voltage speed is also vary. Brushless DC motors use a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor. Fig 4.10 DC GEAR MOTOR Here slow speed dc motor with gearbox to reduce the speed of the platform.19 Capacitors 4. A motor controller converts DC to AC. little or no maintenance. If we use stepper motor then we require a high current supply. which you will need to divide by either one million or one thousand (respectively) if you want the value in microfarads (mF) or nano farads (nF). which is a bit like resistor color coding. With this code. Supply voltage of this dc motor is 6 to 9 volt dc. and more complicated motor speed controllers. Advantages of brushless motors include long life span. Disadvantages include high initial cost.Most of these types have their nominal value either printed directly on them or use the EIA coding system. This type of gear motor is getting from the second hand machine. and high efficiency. but in digits: the first two digits followed by a multiplier showing the number of zeroes. and stationary electrical magnets on the motor housing. It is also possible to use a stepper motor. This design is simpler than that of brushed motors because it eliminates the complication of transferring power from outside the motor to the spinning rotor.3. the value is generally given in pico-farads (pF). Current consumption of dc motor is 200 mA. Page | 30 .

Fig 4.20 DC Gear Motor Page | 31 .

the correct4-bit decode signal of the DTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin 11) through Q4 (pin 14) outputs. Page | 32 . Fig 5.1 SIMULATION DIAGRAM The simulated diagram of DTMF land rover as shown in figure below. The built-in dial tone rejection circuit eliminates the need for pre-filtering. microcontroller and motor driver. When the input signal given at pin 2 (IN-) in single-ended input configuration is recognized to be effective. An MT8870 series DTMF decoder is used here. The important components of this rover are a DTMF decoder. 5.1 shows the block diagram of the microcontroller-based mobile phone operated land rover. All types of the MT8870 series use digital counting techniques to detect and decode all the 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code output.1 Simulation Diagram Fig.5 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION 5.CHAPTER.

to drive two geared DC motors. The L293D is a quad. of driver 1 through driver 4. so current drivers are required for motor rotation. high current. It provides the following Features: 16kB of in-system programmable Flash program memory with read-while-write capabilities. µVision2 supports all of the Keil Page | 33 . drivers 1 and 2 are enabled and the outputs corresponding to their inputs are active. 1kB SRAM. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the arithmetic logic unit. Pins IN1 through IN4 and OUT1 through OUT4 are input and output pins.Table II shows the DTMF data output table of MT8870.2 HOW TO USE KEIL’s µVISION SOFTWARE Fig 5. respectively.2: Keil iVision Logo The Keil development tools for the 8051 offer numerous features and advantages that help you quickly and successfully develop embedded applications. 8-bit. Outputs from port pins PD0 through PD3 and PD7 of the microcontroller are fed to inputs IN1 through IN4 and enable pins (EN1 and EN2) of motor driver L293D.5V to36V. µVision2 IDE is Windows-based software development platforms that combines a robust editor. When enable input EN1 (pin 1) is high. allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. It makes it easier to drive the DC motors. 5. half-H River designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600 mA at voltages from 4. respectively. The ATmega16 is a low-power. Drivers 1 and 2. and make facility. CMOS microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. The microcontroller output is not sufficient to drive the DC motors. and drivers 3 and 4 are enabled by enable pin 1 (EN1) and pin 9 (EN2). respectively. They are easy to use and are guaranteed to help you achieve your design goals. 32 general-purpose input/output (I/O) lines and 32 generalpurpose working registers. respectively. Q1 through Q4 outputs of the DTMF decoder (IC1) are connected to port pins PA0 through PA3 of ATmega16 microcontroller (IC2) after inversion by N1 through N4. 512 bytes of EEPROM. The resulting architecture is more code-efficient. project manager. The L293D consists of four drivers. Switch S1 is used for manual reset.

Device database for configuring the development tool setting. The following window will be popped-up. Dialogs for all development tool settings. True integrated source-level Debugger with high-speed CPU and peripheral simulator. and object-HEX converter. Project manager for creating and maintaining your projects. macro assembler. and linking your embedded applications.3: Keil uVision Opening Window Page | 34 . linker/locator. Links to development tools manuals. Advanced GDI interface for software debugging in the target hardware and for connection to Monitor-51. Integrated make facility for assembling. STEPS TO ACCESS µVISION: Double Click on the icon present on the desktop. device datasheets & user‟s guides. compiling. µVision2 helps expedite the development process of your embedded applications by providing the following:         Full-featured source code editor. Fig 5.tools for the 8051 including the C compiler.

5: Creating a New Project Page | 35 .Then click on “project” and select “new project” Figure 5. save file with “.e. Then select “New” from “File” menu and save the file as “file_name.4: Project Tab You can create a new folder of your project name.c” extension. Fig 5. Then type in the name of the project.c” i.

Fig 5.6: Selecting the target Configure Device and select clock 11. as shown in the figure below.Select the desired device for target by clicking on Flash as shown in figure below. Page | 36 .0592MHZ by clicking on configure from flash menu.

Fig 5.7: Altering the frequency Also move to the output tab and click the check box “Create HEX. sbit e = P0^7. Then after compiling. Type the application code and don‟t forget to include the .H>”.3 PROGRAMING #include <REGX52. hex file will be created and all you have to do now is to burn it into controller using a bootloader. Page | 37 .H> #define lcd P2 sbit rs = P0^6.8: Checking “Create Hex File” Press right click on the file editor menu and select “INSERT #include<REGF51. this is important. this will put the required header file for the device that you have selected as target previously. 5.Fig 5. File”.c file in the project by right clicking on the source group and select “Add new file” and then browse for the file and add it to the project.

'O'.'E'.'T'.'G'.'G'.'A'. sbit en2 = P3^0.'V'.'I'.' '.'N'.'G'.'A'.'R'.' '}. unsigned char cmd[4]={0x38.' '. sbit en1 = P1^5.' '.'G'. sbit sel3 = P1^2.' '. unsigned char msg4[15]={'M'.' '.' '}.'R'.'I'.'N'.'B'.'V'.index++) { Page | 38 .'R'.'N'. sbit sel2 = P1^1.'A'.'I'.' '.0x06. sbit in4 = P3^2.'R'. sbit sel4 = P1^3.' '.'N'.'O'.index<=3. unsigned char msg3[15]={'M'.' '} . unsigned char msg5[15]={'M'.' '. unsigned char msg2[15]={'M'.' '.' '.'F'.'O'. sbit sel5 = P1^4.' '.sbit sel1 = P1^0.' '.' '. unsigned char index.'O'.'O'.'F'.'T'.'V'. sbit in3 = P3^1.'O'.'H'.'C'.' '.'P'.'D'} . sbit in2 = P1^7.'G'.' '.' '.'W'.' '.'T'.' '. sbit in1 = P1^6.0x01. unsigned int a.'W'. unsigned char msg1[15]={'S'.' '.'D'.'V'.'I'.'L'.' '}.'K'.'I'.0x0c}. void main(void) { for(index=0.

lcd=0x80.a<5000. for(a=0. in3=0. in4=0. e=0.index++) { lcd=msg1[index]. for(a=0. in1=0. e=0. e=1.a<5000.a++). rs=1. rs=0. for(a=0. } while(1) { if(!sel4 && !sel3 && sel2 && !sel1) { Page | 39 .index<=14. rs=0.a++). for(index=0. e=1. in2=0. en2=0.lcd=cmd[index].a<5000.a++). } en1=0. e=1. e=0.

e=1. in4=1. rs=0.index++) { lcd=msg2[index]. in2=1. in1=1.a++). } } if(sel4 && !sel3 && !sel2 && !sel1) { en1=1. for(index=0. en2=1. en2=1.a++). lcd=0x80.a<5000. in3=1. for(a=0.index<=14. rs=0. rs=1. in4=0.a<5000. in3=0. e=1. e=0. in2=0.en1=1. e=1. in1=0.a++). lcd=0x80. for(a=0. Page | 40 . e=0. for(a=0.a<5000.

a++).index++) { lcd=msg3[index]. rs=1.a<5000. e=0.index++) { lcd=msg5[index]. } } if(!sel4 && sel3 && sel2 && !sel1) { en1=1. in1=1.a<5000. Page | 41 .e=0. en2=1. e=0. in4=1. in3=0.a<5000. in2=0. for(a=0. e=1.a++). rs=0. for(a=0.index<=14. rs=1. for(index=0. for(index=0.index<=14. e=1. for(a=0. e=1.a++). lcd=0x80.

a<5000. en2=1. rs=0. for(a=0. in2=1.a++). in3=1. Page | 42 .index++) { lcd=msg4[index]. e=0. e=0.index<=14. } } if(!sel4 && sel3 && !sel2 && !sel1) { en1=1. lcd=0x80. in1=0. } } if(!sel4 && sel3 && !sel2 && sel1) { en1=0. e=1. for(a=0. rs=1. in4=0. for(index=0.a<5000. e=1.e=0.a++). en2=0.

a++). for(a=0.a<5000. in3=0.7 ISIS & ARES Core Applications: Fully integrated Shape Based Auto-Router replaces the previous. grid based router.index<=14. Per net 'strategies' are replaced by 'net 'classes'.in1=0. in2=0. All uses can run a pre-configured routing schedule automatically.index++) { lcd=msg1[index]. e=0. e=0. e=1.a++). rs=0.4 SOFTWARE DESIGN SOFTWARE USED: PROTEUS 7. }//for-loop ends here }//if-statement ends here }//while-loop ends here }//main function ends here 5.a<5000. for(index=0. in4=0. and the management of Page | 43 . rs=1. for(a=0. lcd=0x80. e=1. Users of PCB Design at Level 2 and above can drive the router interactively with the ability to route selected nets.

these is incorporated into the Design Rule Manager. for device Proteus VSM Additions: Added syntax highlighting for EASYHDL scriptable generators. Page | 44 . Improved replacement in ISIS. Interactive configuration of the trace diagnostics that is you can enable or disable particular diagnostics whilst the simulation is running.

6. First layout of component side is to be made in accordance with available component dimensions.1 PCB Layout for the project Fig 6. sufficient space should be maintained. High wattage/max. Dissipated components should be mounted at a sufficient distance from semiconductor and electrolytic capacitors.CHAPTER 6 PCB CONSTRUCTION Layout of desired circuit diagram and preparation is first and most important operation in any printed circuit board manufacturing process. The single sided PCB is used for general-purpose application where the cost is to be low and the layout is simple. The following points are to be observed while forming the layout of PCB.    Between two components.1 PCB Layout of the project Page | 45 .

on the other hand.6. a file and a cheap hand drill with a few types of bits. 30. using the second method. is easy to follow and cost-effective and can be used when the requirement are not very large say one to a few pieces at a time. There are two methods of making PCB‟s: (a) Photographic exposure method (b) Etch resistant applicative method The first method needs many costly apparatus along with a darkroom. Therefore. PCB transfers can well be used instead. A set of thin brushes: The type used for water and oil paintings and are available from most pen shops. equipped with moving platforms and several costly chemicals and is rather cumbersome. The few things that are needed in making PCB‟s are listed below: Enamel Paint: The normal black paint used on you doors and windows. What an average beginner needs is a simple and low cost way of making and fabricating PCB‟s. Tools of cutting.2 THE MAKING OF A PCB A PCB is nothing but an epoxy or phenolic board that contains all connections of a circuit in the form of copper tracks. filing and drilling: A hacksaw. These are not needed if transfers are used. The second. Buy the bits in this order:     1 mm for IC‟s 3 mm for screws 1. Ferric Chloride (Fecl2): This brownish powder is available from most chemists and chemical stores in packing of 500 grams each at cost of about Rs. Petrol or spirit: Used for cleaning and removing paint. we give brief guidelines that will enable you to develop high qualit y PCB‟s at low cost.5 mm for diodes and power transistors 8 mm for switches and pots 5 mm for larger screws and heatsinks Page | 46 .

with its copper side facing upwards. The mixture should be thoroughly stirred. If not. 1 mm bit should be used for IC holes. and must be made completely free from dust and other contaminants. The available varieties are shown in fig () In this step.25 mm for resistors and Page | 47 . and a few drops of hydrochloric acid (HCL) may be added optionally to speed up the process. The pattern must be carbon copied onto the laminate with the help of a sharp ballpoint pen and a carbon paper. may be used. The board. In this case the appropriate patters may simply be scratched onto the PCB and no drying is required. These are: Phenolic board Glass epoxy board For general use. About 100 ml of tap water should be heated to 850C and 30-50 grams of ferric chloride (Fecl2) added to it. After etching. The etching process would take 25-60 minutes to complete. The paint should be removed with the help of alcohol or petrol. should be placed in a flat-bottomed plastic tray and the aqueous solution of EeCl2 poured in. depending upon the size of the PCB. The etching solution may be preserved for later use until its color turns green. 1. the phenolic board. all excessive is removed from the board. The position of holes should be marked with care. which is much cheaper that the glass epoxy board.    Transferring the pattern Two types of PC board laminates are in common use nowadays. The copper side if the PCB should be thoroughly cleaned with the help of alcoholic spirit or petrol. After the etching is complete. allow it to stand in the solution for some more time. holes of suitable diameter should be drilled using a power or had drill. The complete pattern may now be made etch-resistant with the help of an enamel paint ad thin brush. Ordinary nail enamel may be used for quick jobs. The entire pattern can be further simplified by using dry pattern transfers. and the printed pattern is left behind. the board should be clearly visible. commercially available sprays may be used for this purpose. The board should be dried for at least six hours before developing.

which.3 SOLDERING Soldering is the process of joining two metallic conductors. Now the PCB should be scrubbed clean until a shiny finish is obtained. and 8 mm for potentiometers. in the same way the life and reliability of any and all circuits lies in your hands. The position of the components should be marked on the reverse side of the PCB using any marker. The solder cools and solidifies quickly to ensure a good and durable connection between the joined metals. 6. even a layman should be able to construct a circuit perfectly. is rarely forgotten. These are Clean Surfaces: The two surfaces to be soldered must be soldered must be free from dust particles. 1. The PCB is now ready. it must be cleaned thoroughly with petrol. oil. Covering the joint with solder prevents oxidation. which wield this magical rod. often. grease. Good soldering is a major step towards successful circuit building and…This is an art.1 Perfect Soldering Certain conditions are necessary for perfect soldering. due to the fear of destroying costly semiconductors or IC‟s.5 mm for diodes.capacitors. switches and neons. Soldering is more of an art than a technique. If the copper is not tinned. the joint where the two metallic conductors are to be joined or fused is heated with a device called soldering iron and then an alloy of tin and lead called solder is applied which melts and cover the joint. If a PCB is used. once mastered. constructor opts for a costly IC socket. Keeping the tips given here in mind.3. 6. 3 mm or 5 mm for mountings nuts. A dry or shoddy solder joint is often the cause of the failure of a complete system. then it should be given a coat of varnish in order to prevent oxidation. etc. without harming the most delicate semi-conductor devices. The PCB may be tin-plated using an ordinary 35-watt soldering rod along with solder core. which increases the overall circuit cost tremendously. Just as badly tailored clothes can give way at an unexpected moment. Page | 48 .

Now extra lengths of components leads may be cut off. The soldering core containing 60 percent tin and 40 percent lead should be used for general work such as that of low power transistors or IC‟s on PCB‟s. extreme care should be taken while warming the leads of the heat-sensitive semiconductors like IC‟s. and apply the soldering core directly onto the component and not to the tip of the soldering iron. The commercial grade soldering cores dot not usually melt at temperatures below1800C. A hot air blower or a soldering iron may be used for warming up the component leads. Warm Component Leads: If the leads of the components are cold. If not. whereas temperatures exceeding the specified value can lead to over heating and eventually the destruction of the device. However. Remove all dust particles. The two soldering alloys most commonly used contain tin and lead in a ratio if 60/40 and 40/60. component leads must be warmed sufficiently so that the solder can flow easily. Fig shows the correct way of soldering. and this may lead to loose and unstable solder joints. For stabilizing the temperature of the tip of the soldering iron. The tip should be cleaned with a file and tinned occasionally. while soldering the components whose Page | 49 . Soldering Procedure: A perfect solder joint can be obtained by following this procedure. Thus. the solder cannot flow properly.A Clean Bit: The tip of the soldering iron must be shining clean and smooth. Operating tip temperature: The soldering of tip operates at the specified temperature or it will lead to dry and unstable joints. stains of grease or chemicals etc. Proper soldering alloy (core): Soldering core is basically an alloy of tin and lead. These two soldering alloys have low melting points and are sufficient for most electronic work. Apply small amount of flux on the surfaces to be soldered. respectively. a power controller may be utilized. Heat up the component/surface to be soldered slightly. The joint should give shiny bead-like appearance. So. apply a little more flux/solder and heat the joint. The core containing 40 percent tin and 60 percent lead should be used for the soldering of electronic devices that tend to dissipate heat. The flux should remain liquid as long as the joint is being made. An unclean tip may cause loose joints. Clean the two surfaces to be soldered thoroughly.

Power transistors in TO-3 package like 2N 3055 and 2N6253 may be soldered at temperatures as high as 2750 C. A small heat sink made of 1 mm aluminium may be fixed temporarily over the IC pins while soldering to help in dissipating excessive heat. the soldering may be reduced correspondingly. is below the temperature of the soldering core. soldering time being 5 seconds. The 40/60-type core may be used for this purpose. The general precautions given below must be observed while soldering various electronic components. While soldering low voltage ceramic capacitors. or resistors which tend to dissipate heat during operation. Power Transistors: They are sturdy devices. some general precautions should be kept in mind while soldering a device to prevent any kind of damage. Capacitors: While soldering electrolytic capacitors. the temperatures should not exceed 2500C. the soldering temperatures should not exceed 2000C and soldering time should be kept even less than 5 seconds. However. the lead soldering temperatures may go as high as 3000C. the lead temperatures should not exceed 3000c. While soldering germanium diodes the lead soldering temperature should be kept below 2200C. The soldering time being 10 seconds. While soldering a diode on a PCB. The soldering time should be kept less than 15 seconds. Care for them: Besides lead soldering temperatures. Resistors: While soldering resistors.5 mm). soldering time being 5 seconds. while soldering. Soldering core of 60/40 type should be used for soldering low wattage resistors and 40/60 type soldering core should be used for high wattage resistors. While soldering LED‟s the soldering temperature should be kept below 2000C. while soldering light dependent resistors. While soldering IC‟s. length of lead from the PCB surface should be kept at least 2. Diodes: While soldering general-purpose silicon/selenium diodes. it is advisable to keep the lead soldering temperature below 2250 C. it is advisable to keep the lead lengths maximum possible (at least 2. which cannot be easily damaged by the heat generated during soldering.lead soldering temperature as specified by the manufacturer.5 mm in order to prevent damage to the device. This reduces the chances of the destruction of an IC due to overheating. Soldering of the IC‟s should always be carried out insteps of two to four pins at a time. While soldering transistors in TO-1 and T0-39 packages like Page | 50 .

while soldering on a PCB. small heatsink may be attached to its tab to help in dissipating heat generated during soldering. it is not advisable to solder memory ICs like 2716 and 2764.AC188 and SL100 respectively. A crocodile clip can also be used for this purpose. microprocessors and the other LSI chips. the soldering time 10 seconds. 4027 etc. so lead soldering temperature should be kept around 1750C. But practically. the soldering time 10 seconds. the lead soldering temperature should be limited to about 220-2400C. TO-18 package (BC179. as specified by most manufacturers is 2650C. BC178 etc. the lead soldering temperature should be kept between 150-2000C . The 60/40 type of soldering core should be used for soldering of ICs. soldering temperatures should be kept around 2500C. 6. CMOS ICs: The lead soldering temperature of most of the CMOS ICs like 4001. For soldering transistors in TO-200 package. TO-91 package. 54/70 Series TTL ICs: These ICs are very sensitive to heat. The 60/40 type-soldering core may be used. until soldering is complete. soldering temperatures should be kept below 2550C. Heat sink may be attached to the metallic case of the device to prevent overheating. While soldering the ICs having SII type pin configuration. The tip of the soldering iron used must be grounded.4 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED The various tools and equipment required for construction of a PCB are given below Solder kit consist of: Page | 51 . A small heat sink may be attached temporarily to the tub of the transistor. General-Purpose (Linear) ICs: The lead soldering temperatures of most linear ICs as specified by majority of manufacturers is 3300C.). in order to prevent overheating. BC548 etc). However. The lead length. But in practice the lead soldering temperatures of such IC‟s should be limited to about 2400C. soldering time being 10 seconds. as a precaution all the pins of the IC must be short circuited with the help of a metallic foil. Low Power Transistors: While soldering transistors in plastic package (BC545. Most of CMOS ICs can be damaged easily by electrostatic discharges so. the soldering time being 10 seconds. should be kept at least 3mm.

Cutter Clipper Breadboard. Soldering wire.              Soldering iron. Add ferric chloride to the water. The component fitted on the PCB should loosely fit. Screw drivers.5 PRECAUTIONS FOR PRACTICAL       The quantity of soldering of component on PCB should be good quantity. Use 25 w pencil bit soldering iron only. Page | 52 . Multi-meter (Measuring instrument.) 6. Flux. not water to the ferric chloride. Tweezers Long nose pliers Pen knife Brushes. Small files. Use ferric chloride safely. Do not touch the PCB layer with hands and for fitting component use long nose liers only. Combination pliers.

Therefore. the DC Fan is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the project. a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. The microcontroller is programmed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in forward direction or backward direction or turn. The result thus obtained was the objective of the project entitled “DTMF Based DC Fan Controller”.CHAPTER. we can see the response in the LCD and the DC Fans run accordingly. In the course of a call. This tone is called DTMF(dual-tone-multiple-frequency).7 RESULT & CONCLUSION 7. if any button is pressed. The (AT89S52) microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder MT8870 processes the received tone.2 CONCLUSION In this project. The mobile phone that makes a call to mobile phone stacked in the project act as a remote. For instance if we call on the mobile attached with the project and dial various keys. 7. The decoder decodes the DTMF tone into its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is sent to the microcontroller. this robotic project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units Page | 53 .1 RESULT The project “DTMF Based DC Fan Controller” works as expected.The STMF Based Fan Controller perceives this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the robot.

Password Protection: Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be operated only if correct password is entered. a project called 'Alarm Phone Dialer' can be built which will generate necessary alarms for something that is desired to be monitored (usually by triggering a relay). Either cell phone should be password protected or necessary modification should be made in the assembly language code. This introduces conditioned access &increases security to a great extent. 3. This would be great to get alerts of alarm conditions from home when user is at work.CHAPTER . DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. Cell Phone Controlled Robot The DTMF Based DC Fan Controller can be turned into a cell phone controller robot. etc.1 FUTURE SCOPE 1. 4. So. IR Sensors: IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the robot goes beyond line of sight. 5. opening of back window. a high water alarm. ULN 2003 Current Driver IC can be used to generate enough current for those motors.8 FUTURE SCOPE & LIMITATIONS 8. When the system is activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the user know the alarm has been activated. Adding a camera Page | 54 . by replacing the fans with motors that can control the movements of a robot. garage door. For example. Alarm Phone Dialer: By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a 'DTMF Transceiver IC‟ CM8880. low temperature alarm. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we are maneuvering it from a distant place. 2.

a Webcam).g. Mobile batteries drain out early so charging problem. Page | 55 . Not flexible with all cell phones as only a particular cell phone whose earpiece is attached can only be used.If the current project is interfaced with a camera (e. 8. Jamming of system is also a limitation.2 LIMITATIONS      Cell phone bill. Cost of project if Cell phone cost included. robot can be driven beyond line-of-sight &range becomes practically unlimited as GSM networks have a very large range.

datasheetcatalog. The Bell system technical journal 39(1): 235–255.com/ http://www. "Pushbutton Calling with a Two. “DTMF Tester”.alldatasheet.com/ Page | 56 .instructables.datasheet4u.com/ http://www.Group Voice -Frequency Code".com/ http://www. „Electronics For You‟ Magazine. L (1960).8051projects.REFRENCES Schenker. Edition (June 2003) http://www.info/ http://www. ISSN 0005-8580.

Electronics for you Magazine. Programming. Stewart. Janice Gillespie Mazidi. and Applications By Ayala. The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture. Embedded Microprocessor Systems by Stuart R.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS      The 8051 microcontroller by James W. Miao The 8051 microcontroller and embedded system by Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Kai X. Ball. Page | 57 .

APPENDIX – A AT89S52 DATASHEET Page | 58 .

APPENDIX – B MT8870 DATASHEET Page | 59 .

APPENDIX – C L293D DATASHEET Page | 60 .