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18.12.2000 EN Official Journal of the European Communities C 364/1

CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
(2000/C 364/01

SOLEMN PROCLAMATION
!he European "arliament# the Council an$ the Commission solemnl% proclaim the te&t 'elo( as the Charter of fun$amental ri)hts of the European *nion. +one at Nice on the se,enth $a% of +ecem'er in the %ear t(o thousan$.

PREAMBLE
!he peoples of Europe# in creatin) an e,er closer union amon) them# are resol,e$ to share a peaceful future 'ase$ on common ,alues. Conscious of its spiritual an$ moral herita)e# the *nion is foun$e$ on the in$i,isi'le# uni,ersal ,alues of human $i)nit%# free$om# e-ualit% an$ soli$arit%. it is 'ase$ on the principles of $emocrac% an$ the rule of la(. /t places the in$i,i$ual at the heart of its acti,ities# '% esta'lishin) the citi0enship of the *nion an$ '% creatin) an area of free$om# securit% an$ 1ustice. !he *nion contri'utes to the preser,ation an$ to the $e,elopment of these common ,alues (hile respectin) the $i,ersit% of the cultures an$ tra$itions of the peoples of Europe as (ell as the national i$entities of the 2em'er 3tates an$ the or)anisation of their pu'lic authorities at national# re)ional an$ local le,els. it see4s to promote 'alance$ an$ sustaina'le $e,elopment an$ ensures free mo,ement of persons# )oo$s# ser,ices an$ capital# an$ the free$om of esta'lishment. !o this en$# it is necessar% to stren)then the protection of fun$amental ri)hts in the li)ht of chan)es in societ%# social pro)ress an$ scientific an$ technolo)ical $e,elopments '% ma4in) those ri)hts more ,isi'le in a Charter. !his Charter reaffirms# (ith $ue re)ar$ for the po(ers an$ tas4s of the Communit% an$ the *nion an$ the principle of su'si$iarit%# the ri)hts as the% result# in particular# from the constitutional tra$itions an$ international o'li)ations common to the 2em'er 3tates# the !reat% on European *nion# the Communit% !reaties# the European Con,ention for the "rotection of 5uman 6i)hts an$ 7un$amental 7ree$oms# the 3ocial Charters a$opte$ '% the Communit% an$ '% the Council of Europe an$ the case8la( of the Court of Justice of the European Communities an$ of the European Court of 5uman 6i)hts. En1o%ment of these ri)hts entails responsi'ilities an$ $uties (ith re)ar$ to other persons# to the human communit% an$ to future )enerations. !he *nion therefore reco)nises the ri)hts# free$oms an$ principles set out hereafter.

CHAPTER I DIGNITY
Article 1 Human i!nit" 5uman $i)nit% is in,iola'le. /t must 'e respecte$ an$ protecte$. Article # Ri!$t t% li&e 1. E,er%one has the ri)ht to life. 2. No one shall 'e con$emne$ to the $eath penalt%# or e&ecute$.

Ri!$t t% li+ert" an )ecurit" E. the prohi'ition on ma4in) the human 'o$% an$ its parts as such a source of financial )ain# .ernin) the e&ercise of this ri)ht. No one shall 'e re-uire$ to perform force$ or compulsor% la'our. 2.er%one has the ri)ht to li'ert% an$ securit% of person. No one shall 'e hel$ in sla.e it rectifie$.er%one has the ri)ht to respect for his or her ph%sical an$ mental inte)rit%.2 Article ' Ri!$t t% t$e inte!rit" %& t$e (er)%n 1. E.er%one has the ri)ht to free$om of thou)ht# conscience an$ reli)ion. Article . CHAPTER II FREEDOMS Article .er%one has the ri)ht of access to $ata (hich has 'een collecte$ concernin) him or her# an$ the ri)ht to ha. Article 12 Free %m %& t$%u!$t3 c%n)cience an reli!i%n 1. E. the free an$ informe$ consent of the person concerne$# accor$in) to the proce$ures lai$ $o(n '% la(# . Article 11 Free %m %& e4(re))i%n an in&%rmati%n 1.e clonin) of human 'ein)s. Article 1 Ri!$t t% marr" an ri!$t t% &%un a &amil" !he ri)ht to marr% an$ the ri)ht to foun$ a famil% shall 'e )uarantee$ in accor$ance (ith the national la(s )o. 2. E. 2. !raffic4in) in human 'ein)s is prohi'ite$.er%one has the ri)ht to the protection of personal $ata concernin) him or her. Article 0 Pr%tecti%n %& (er)%nal ata 1. Article * Pr%$i+iti%n %& t%rture an in$uman %r e!ra in! treatment %r (uni)$ment No one shall 'e su'1ecte$ to torture or to inhuman or $e)ra$in) treatment or punishment. E.er%one has the ri)ht to respect for his or her pri. !his ri)ht inclu$es free$om to chan)e reli)ion or 'elief an$ free$om# either alone or in communit% (ith others an$ in pu'lic or in pri. Pr%$i+iti%n %& )la-er" an &%rce la+%ur 1. 2. !his ri)ht shall inclu$e free$om to hol$ opinions an$ . 3.ance. E.er% or ser. 3uch $ata must 'e processe$ fairl% for specifie$ purposes an$ on the 'asis of the consent of the person concerne$ or some other le)itimate 'asis lai$ $o(n '% la(. the prohi'ition of the repro$ucti.er%one has the ri)ht to free$om of e&pression.ate an$ famil% life# home an$ communications. the prohi'ition of eu)enic practices# in particular those aimin) at the selection of persons# . Article / Re)(ect &%r (ri-ate an &amil" li&e E. Compliance (ith these rules shall 'e su'1ect to control '% an in$epen$ent authorit%. 3.itu$e. !he ri)ht to conscientious o'1ection is reco)nise$# in accor$ance (ith the national la(s )o. /n the fiel$s of me$icine an$ 'iolo)%# the follo(in) must 'e respecte$ in particular9 .ernin) the e&ercise of these ri)hts.ate# to manifest reli)ion or 'elief# in (orship# teachin)# practice an$ o'ser.

e$ of his or her possessions# e&cept in the pu'lic interest an$ in the cases an$ un$er the con$itions pro. Free %m t% c%n uct a +u)ine)) !he free$om to con$uct a 'usiness in accor$ance (ith Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices is reco)nise$.ocational an$ continuin) trainin). E. !he use of propert% ma% 'e re)ulate$ '% la( in so far as is necessar% for the )eneral interest. /ntellectual propert% shall 'e protecte$. Article 1. No one ma% 'e remo. Article 1' Free %m %& t$e art) an )cience) !he arts an$ scientific research shall 'e free of constraint.i$e$ for '% la(# su'1ect to fair compensation 'ein) pai$ in )oo$ time for their loss.ene. E. Collecti. Article 10 Ri!$t t% a)"lum !he ri)ht to as%lum shall 'e )uarantee$ (ith $ue respect for the rules of the . 2. :ca$emic free$om shall 'e respecte$.er%one has the ri)ht to o(n# use# $ispose of an$ 'e-ueath his or her la(full% ac-uire$ possessions. No one ma% 'e $epri.e an$ impart information an$ i$eas (ithout interference '% pu'lic authorit% an$ re)ar$less of frontiers.er%one has the ri)ht to e$ucation an$ to ha. 2.ic matters# (hich implies the ri)ht of e. Article 11 Pr%tecti%n in t$e e-ent %& rem%-al3 e4(ul)i%n %r e4tra iti%n 1.ention of 28 Jul% 1<=1 an$ the "rotocol of 31 Januar% 1<6> relatin) to the status of refu)ees an$ in accor$ance (ith the !reat% esta'lishin) the European Communit%. !his ri)ht inclu$es the possi'ilit% to recei.ices in an% 2em'er 3tate.er%one to form an$ to 1oin tra$e unions for the protection of his or her interests. !he free$om an$ pluralism of the me$ia shall 'e respecte$. Article 1* Ri!$t t% e ucati%n 1. 2. Article 1# Free %m %& a))em+l" an %& a))%ciati%n 1. Free %m t% c$%%)e an %ccu(ati%n an ri!$t t% en!a!e in 5%r6 1.er% citi0en of the *nion has the free$om to see4 emplo%ment# to (or4# to e&ercise the ri)ht of esta'lishment an$ to pro.3 to recei. "olitical parties at *nion le. E.els# in particular in political# tra$e union an$ ci.e free compulsor% e$ucation. E. E.e$# e&pelle$ or e&tra$ite$ to a 3tate (here there is a serious ris4 that he or she .a Con.alent to those of citi0ens of the *nion. 2.i$e ser. !he free$om to foun$ e$ucational esta'lishments (ith $ue respect for $emocratic principles an$ the ri)ht of parents to ensure the e$ucation an$ teachin) of their chil$ren in conformit% (ith their reli)ious# philosophical an$ pe$a)o)ical con. 2. Nationals of thir$ countries (ho are authorise$ to (or4 in the territories of the 2em'er 3tates are entitle$ to (or4in) con$itions e-ui.e access to .er%one has the ri)ht to en)a)e in (or4 an$ to pursue a freel% chosen or accepte$ occupation.ernin) the e&ercise of such free$om an$ ri)ht. 2. 3.el contri'ute to e&pressin) the political (ill of the citi0ens of the *nion. Article 1. Article 1/ Ri!$t t% (r%(ert" 1.e e&pulsions are prohi'ite$. 3.er%one has the ri)ht to free$om of peaceful assem'l% an$ to free$om of association at all le.ictions shall 'e respecte$# in accor$ance (ith the national la(s )o.

4 (oul$ 'e su'1ecte$ to the $eath penalt%# torture or other inhuman or $e)ra$in) treatment or punishment. Article #* T$e ri!$t) %& t$e c$il 1. /n all actions relatin) to chil$ren# (hether ta4en '% pu'lic authorities or pri.ie(s shall 'e ta4en into consi$eration on matters (hich concern them in accor$ance (ith their a)e an$ maturit%. Article #. . 2. T$e ri!$t) %& t$e el erl" !he *nion reco)nises an$ respects the ri)hts of the el$erl% to lea$ a life of $i)nit% an$ in$epen$ence an$ to participate in social an$ cultural life. !he% ma% e&press their .er% chil$ shall ha.e the ri)ht to such protection an$ care as is necessar% for their (ell8'ein). 3.e the ri)ht to maintain on a re)ular 'asis a personal relationship an$ $irect contact (ith 'oth his or her parents# unless that is contrar% to his or her interests. Article #1 N%n9 i)criminati%n 1. Article #. ?ithin the scope of application of the !reat% esta'lishin) the European Communit% an$ of the !reat% on European *nion# an$ (ithout pre1u$ice to the special pro.our of the un$er8represente$ se&.i$in) for specific a$. E. Chil$ren shall ha. CHAPTER III E7UALITY Article #2 E8ualit" +e&%re t$e la5 E.ersit%. :n% $iscrimination 'ase$ on an% )roun$ such as se&# race# colour# ethnic or social ori)in# )enetic features# lan)ua)e# reli)ion or 'elief# political or an% other opinion# mem'ership of a national minorit%# propert%# 'irth# $isa'ilit%# a)e or se&ual orientation shall 'e prohi'ite$. 3uch .ate institutions# the chil$@s 'est interests must 'e a primar% consi$eration. !he principle of e-ualit% shall not pre. Article ## Cultural3 reli!i%u) an lin!ui)tic i-er)it" !he *nion shall respect cultural# reli)ious an$ lin)uistic $i. Article #' E8ualit" +et5een men an 5%men E-ualit% 'et(een men an$ (omen must 'e ensure$ in all areas# inclu$in) emplo%ment# (or4 an$ pa%.ent the maintenance or a$option of measures pro.ie(s freel%.anta)es in fa. 2. Inte!rati%n %& (er)%n) 5it$ i)a+ilitie) !he *nion reco)nises an$ respects the ri)ht of persons (ith $isa'ilities to 'enefit from measures $esi)ne$ to ensure their in$epen$ence# social an$ occupational inte)ration an$ participation in the life of the communit%.isions of those !reaties# an% $iscrimination on )roun$s of nationalit% shall 'e prohi'ite$.er%one is e-ual 'efore the la(.

2.in) le)all% (ithin the European *nion is entitle$ to social securit% 'enefits an$ social a$.e an$ to parental lea.elopment or to interfere (ith their e$ucation. Article '* S%cial )ecurit" an )%cial a))i)tance 1.e follo(in) the 'irth or a$option of a chil$.i$e$ for '% Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices. Article '2 Pr%tecti%n in t$e e-ent %& un=u)ti&ie i)mi))al E.er%one resi$in) an$ mo.e a)reements at the appropriate le. Article #0 Ri!$t %& c%llecti-e +ar!ainin! an acti%n ?or4ers an$ emplo%ers# or their respecti.in) a)e# (ithout pre1u$ice to such rules as ma% 'e more fa.ice.er%one shall ha. !o reconcile famil% an$ professional life# e. 2.e action to $efen$ their interests# inclu$in) stri4e action. Article '' Famil" an (r%&e))i%nal li&e 1.e (or4in) con$itions appropriate to their a)e an$ 'e protecte$ a)ainst economic e&ploitation an$ an% (or4 li4el% to harm their safet%# health or ph%sical# mental# moral or social $e. . Aoun) people a$mitte$ to (or4 must ha. !he minimum a)e of a$mission to emplo%ment ma% not 'e lo(er than the minimum school8lea.oura'le to %oun) people an$ e&cept for limite$ $ero)ations.els an$# in cases of conflicts of interest# to ta4e collecti.ices pro. E.%r6er)< ri!$t t% in&%rmati%n an c%n)ultati%n 5it$in t$e un erta6in! ?or4ers or their representati. E.er%one has the ri)ht of access to a free placement ser.anta)es in accor$ance (ith Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices. Article #1 Ri!$t %& acce)) t% (lacement )er-ice) E.er% (or4er has the ri)ht to protection a)ainst un1ustifie$ $ismissal# in accor$ance (ith Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices.i$in) protection in cases such as maternit%# illness# in$ustrial acci$ents# $epen$enc% or ol$ a)e# an$ the case of loss of emplo%ment# in accor$ance (ith he rules lai$ $o(n '% Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices.e or)anisations# ha.e. 2.es must# at the appropriate le.els# 'e )uarantee$ information an$ consultation in )oo$ time in the cases an$ un$er the con$itions pro.er% (or4er has the ri)ht to (or4in) con$itions (hich respect his or her health# safet% an$ $i)nit%.= CHAPTER I: SOLIDARITY Article #/ .e the ri)ht to protection from $ismissal for a reason connecte$ (ith maternit% an$ the ri)ht to pai$ maternit% lea. Article '1 Fair an =u)t 5%r6in! c%n iti%n) 1.er% (or4er has the ri)ht to limitation of ma&imum (or4in) hours# to $ail% an$ (ee4l% rest perio$s an$ to an annual perio$ of pai$ lea. !he famil% shall en1o% le)al# economic an$ social protection. E.e# in accor$ance (ith Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices# the ri)ht to ne)otiate an$ conclu$e collecti. !he *nion reco)nises an$ respects the entitlement to social securit% 'enefits an$ social ser. Article '# Pr%$i+iti%n %& c$il la+%ur an (r%tecti%n %& "%un! (e%(le at 5%r6 !he emplo%ment of chil$ren is prohi'ite$.

CHAPTER : CITI>ENS< RIGHTS Article '1 Ri!$t t% -%te an t% )tan a) a can i ate at electi%n) t% t$e Eur%(ean Parliament 1. E.6 3.er% citi0en of the *nion has the ri)ht to . .er% person has the ri)ht to ha. Acce)) t% )er-ice) %& !eneral ec%n%mic intere)t !he *nion reco)nises an$ respects access to ser. Healt$ care E.e his or her affairs han$le$ impartiall%# fairl% an$ (ithin a reasona'le time '% the institutions an$ 'o$ies of the *nion.i$e$ for in national la(s an$ practices# in accor$ance (ith the !reat% esta'lishin) the European Communit%# in or$er to promote the social an$ territorial cohesion of the *nion.el of human health protection shall 'e ensure$ in the $efinition an$ implementation of all *nion policies an$ acti.ants in the performance of their $uties# n accor$ance (ith the )eneral principles common to the .el of consumer protection.ement of the -ualit% of the en.er% person has the ri)ht to ha. : hi)h le.ersal suffra)e in a free an$ secret 'allot. !his ri)ht inclu$es9 . the o'li)ation of the a$ministration to )i.ities. Article '/ En-ir%nmental (r%tecti%n : hi)h le. Article *1 Ri!$t t% !%% a mini)trati%n 1.elopment. Article '.ote an$ to stan$ as a can$i$ate at municipal elections in the 2em'er 3tate in (hich he or she resi$es un$er the same con$itions as nationals of that 3tate. the ri)ht of e. E.ices of )eneral economic interest as pro.ironmental protection an$ the impro. 2.e health care an$ the ri)ht to 'enefit from me$ical treatment un$er the con$itions esta'lishe$ '% national la(s an$ practices.er% person to ha. Article *2 Ri!$t t% -%te an t% )tan a) a can i ate at munici(al electi%n) E. E. .ironment must 'e inte)rate$ into the policies of the *nion an$ ensure$ in accor$ance (ith the principle of sustaina'le $e. 2.ersel% is ta4en.ert%# the *nion reco)nises an$ respects the ri)ht to social an$ housin) assistance so as to ensure a $ecent e&istence for all those (ho lac4 sufficient resources# in accor$ance (ith the rules lai$ $o(n '% Communit% la( an$ national la(s an$ practices. Article '0 C%n)umer (r%tecti%n *nion policies shall ensure a hi)h le.enti. /n or$er to com'at social e&clusion an$ po.ote an$ to stan$ as a can$i$ate at elections to the European "arliament in the 2em'er 3tate in (hich he or she resi$es# un$er the same con$itions as nationals of that 3tate. Article '.e the Communit% ma4e )oo$ an% $ama)e cause$ '% its institutions or '% its ser.er% citi0en of the *nion has the ri)ht to .e reasons for its $ecisions. 3. 2em'ers of the European "arliament shall 'e electe$ '% $irect uni. the ri)ht of e.i$ual measure (hich (oul$ affect him or her a$.el of en.e access to his or her file# (hile respectin) the le)itimate interests of confi$entialit% an$ of professional an$ 'usiness secrec%.er% person to 'e hear$# 'efore an% in$i.er%one has the ri)ht of access to pre.

E.in) its re)istere$ office in a 2em'er 3tate has the ri)ht to refer to the Om'u$sman of the *nion cases of mala$ministration in the acti.er% citi0en of the *nion has the ri)ht to mo. 7ree$om of mo. E. Article *# Ri!$t %& acce)) t% %cument) :n% citi0en of the *nion# an$ an% natural or le)al person resi$in) or ha.e$ )uilt% accor$in) to la(.iolate$ has the ri)ht to an effecti. 2. Article ** Ri!$t t% (etiti%n :n% citi0en of the *nion an$ an% natural or le)al person resi$in) or ha. 2.er% person ma% (rite to the institutions of the *nion in one of the lan)ua)es of the !reaties an$ must ha.e reme$% 'efore a tri'unal in compliance (ith the con$itions lai$ $o(n in this :rticle.in) its re)istere$ office in a 2em'er 3tate has the ri)ht to petition the European "arliament.iousl% esta'lishe$ '% la(.er%one shall ha. Article *' Om+u )man :n% citi0en of the *nion an$ an% natural or le)al person resi$in) or ha.e an$ resi$e freel% (ithin the territor% of the 2em'er 3tates. E.e the possi'ilit% of 'ein) a$.er%one is entitle$ to a fair an$ pu'lic hearin) (ithin a reasona'le time '% an in$epen$ent an$ impartial tri'unal pre. Article *. E.e access to 1ustice. .er% citi0en of the *nion shall# in the territor% of a thir$ countr% in (hich the 2em'er 3tate of (hich he or she is a national is not represente$# 'e entitle$ to protection '% the $iplomatic or consular authorities of an% 2em'er 3tate# on he same con$itions as the nationals of that 2em'er 3tate. Be)al ai$ shall 'e ma$e a. CHAPTER :I ?USTICE Article */ Ri!$t t% an e&&ecti-e reme " an t% a &air trial E. 6espect for the ri)hts of the $efence of an%one (ho has 'een char)e$ shall 'e )uarantee$. E. Article *0 Pre)um(ti%n %& inn%cence an ri!$t %& e&ence 1.ities of the Communit% institutions or 'o$ies# (ith the e&ception of the Court of Justice an$ the Court of 7irst /nstance actin) in their 1u$icial role.in) its re)istere$ office in a 2em'er 3tate# has a ri)ht of access to European "arliament# Council an$ Commission $ocuments.e an ans(er in the same lan)ua)e. Free %m %& m%-ement an %& re)i ence 1. 4.er%one (ho has 'een char)e$ shall 'e presume$ innocent until pro.ise$# $efen$e$ an$ represente$.er%one (hose ri)hts an$ free$oms )uarantee$ '% the la( of the *nion are .> la(s of the 2em'er 3tates. Di(l%matic an c%n)ular (r%tecti%n E.aila'le to those (ho lac4 sufficient resources in so far as such ai$ is necessar% to ensure effecti.ement an$ resi$ence ma% 'e rante$# in accor$ance (ith the !reat% esta'lishin) the European Communit%# to nationals of thir$ countries le)all% resi$ent in the territor% of a 2em'er 3tate. Article *.

3.' Le-el %& (r%tecti%n Nothin) in this Charter shall 'e interprete$ as restrictin) or a$.* Pr%$i+iti%n %& a+u)e %& ri!$t) Nothin) in this Charter shall 'e interprete$ as impl%in) an% ri)ht to en)a)e in an% acti.isions of this Charter are a$$resse$ to the institutions an$ 'o$ies of the *nion (ith $ue re)ar$ for the principle of su'si$iarit% an$ to the 2em'er 3tates onl% (hen the% are implementin) *nion la(. 3. 3u'1ect to the principle of proportionalit%# limitations ma% 'e ma$e onl% if the% are necessar% an$ )enuinel% meet o'1ecti.ention for the "rotection of 5uman 6i)hts an$ 7un$amental 7ree$oms# an$ '% the 2em'er 3tatesC constitutions.ersel% affectin) human ri)hts an$ fun$amental free$oms as reco)nise$# in their respecti. 2. !he se. Article .i$e$ for herein.e protection.i$es for a li)hter penalt%# that penalt% shall 'e applica'le. /f# su'se-uent to the commission of a criminal offence# the la( pro. 6i)hts reco)nise$ '% this Charter (hich are 'ase$ on the Communit% !reaties or the !reat% on European *nion shall 'e e&ercise$ un$er the con$itions an$ (ithin the limits $efine$ '% those !reaties. .e fiel$s of application# '% *nion la( an$ international la( an$ '% international a)reements to (hich the *nion# the Communit% or all the 2em'er 3tates are part%# inclu$in) the European Con.2 Ri!$t n%t t% +e trie %r (uni)$e t5ice in criminal (r%cee in!) &%r t$e )ame criminal %&&ence No one shall 'e lia'le to 'e trie$ or punishe$ a)ain in criminal procee$in)s for an offence for (hich he or she has alrea$% 'een finall% ac-uitte$ or con.it% or to perform an% act aime$ at the $estruction of an% of the ri)hts an$ free$oms reco)nise$ in this Charter or at their limitation to a )reater e&tent than is pro.icte$ (ithin the *nion in accor$ance (ith the la(. :n% limitation on the e&ercise of the ri)hts an$ free$oms reco)nise$ '% this Charter must 'e pro. Article .1 Sc%(e 1.i$in) more e&tensi. /n so far as this Charter contains ri)hts (hich correspon$ to ri)hts )uarantee$ '% the Con. !he pro. 2.i$e$ for '% la( an$ respect the essence of those ri)hts an$ free$oms.8 Article *1 Princi(le) %& le!alit" an (r%(%rti%nalit" %& criminal %&&ence) an (enaltie) 1.ent *nion la( pro. 2. !his Charter $oes not esta'lish an% ne( po(er or tas4 for the Communit% or the *nion# or mo$if% po(ers an$ tas4s $efine$ '% the !reaties.ision shall not pre.# Sc%(e %& !uarantee ri!$t) 1. No one shall 'e hel$ )uilt% of an% criminal offence on account of an% act or omission (hich $i$ not constitute a criminal offence un$er national la( or international la( at the time (hen it (as committe$.e the principles an$ promote the application thereof in accor$ance (ith their respecti.ier penalt% 'e impose$ than that (hich (as applica'le at the time the criminal offence (as committe$. !his :rticle shall not pre1u$ice the trial an$ punishment of an% person for an% act or omission (hich# at the time (hen it (as committe$# (as criminal accor$in) to the )eneral principles reco)nise$ '% the communit% of nations. !his pro.e po(ers. !he% shall therefore respect the ri)hts# o'ser. Article .es of )eneral interest reco)nise$ '% the *nion or the nee$ to protect the ri)hts an$ free$oms of others. CHAPTER :II GENERAL PRO:ISIONS Article .ention for the "rotection of 5uman 6i)hts an$ 7un$amental 7ree$oms# the meanin) an$ scope of those ri)hts shall 'e the same as those lai$ $o(n '% the sai$ Con.ention. Nor shall a hea.erit% of penalties must not 'e $isproportionate to the criminal offence. Article .