# Design of Solar Thermal

Systems – Calculation Methods

Werner Weiss
AEE - Institute for Sustainable Technologies
A-8200 Gleisdorf, Feldgasse 2
AUSTRIA

Dimensioning - Example
Hotel
80 rooms (120 beds in single/double rooms) B = 120
80 % occupation (O) – 96 persons on average
Hot water demand per person (DHW): medium demand (see table for hotels)
Hot water demand kitchen: 160 litre/day (HWDK):
Cold water:
Hot water (storage)
Hot water at shower:

20°C
55°C
50°C

Average
y - July
y (for
( high
g solar fractions: 75 – 80%))

8 * 40) + 160] x 1.2 = [(120 * 0.Storage g Volume “VST” VSt = [( [(B * O * DHW)) + HWDK ] * 1.2 = 4.000 liter m = 5 m³ .800 liter Not all sizes are available: 5.

hot water temperature and cold water temperature [K] QS = 5 • 1.16 • 35 = 203 kWh .16 kWh/m³K] T temperature difference .Energy gy Demand “Q” Q Qs = (m Cp)  T Qs total heat capacity of the storage tank [kWh] m volume of the storage tank [m³] Cp heat capacity of water [1.

3 Average monthly and yearly values of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in kWh/m² kWh/m Cape p Town – Global radiation in kWh/m² Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year 124 186 163 108 81 67 75 95 124 172 198 231 1624 SR = (81 + 67 + 75) kWh / 92 days = 2.m² .42 kWh/day.SOLAR RADIATION .

92 kWh/m².3 Average monthly and yearly values of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in kWh/m² J h Johannesburg b – Global Gl b l radiation di ti iin kWh/ kWh/m² ² Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year 197 169 165 142 128 112 121 146 162 186 188 201 1917 SR = (128 +112+121) kWh / 92 days = 3.SOLAR RADIATION . day .

.. efficiency of the collector (500 W) SYS .42 • 0.61 • 0.) g ) CY = 2.Collector Co ecto Yield e d “C CY” CY= SR • K • SYS K. efficiencyy of the system y (piping.25 kWh/m² ..85 = 1. storage.... (p p g.

7 0.5 K Radiation: 500 W 0.1 0 0 0.08 K -T (T Km T A) / G T [Km²/W] 0.4 0.5 eta 0.2 0.16 .8 Cold water: 20°C Hot water (storage) 55 55°C C 0.04 0.6 average dT is 17.12 0.Collector efficiency y curve 0.3 0.

Collector Array y “CA” CA= Q / CY CA = 203 / 1.25 = 162 m² 100% solar fraction! 80% Solar fraction ~ 130 m² (91 kW) .

.Orientation of collectors Collector orientation As a general rule. That means in the southern hemisphere facing north and in the northern hemisphere facing south south. the collector should be facing the equator equator.

5 N 20 S 43.5 N 0 - 23.5 S 30 S 53.5 S 30 S 53.5 N 50 N 26 5 26.5 N 40 N 16.5 S 20 N 3.5 N 30 N 6.5 N 10 S 33./March Orientation December Orientation 50 N 26.5 N 10 N 13.5 S 15 N 8.5 S 40 S 63.5 S 10 N 13.5 N .5 S 40 N 16.5 S 15 S 38.5 N 15 S 38.Tilt of collectors Latitude [degree] Best collector tilt in: June Orientation Sept.5 S Equator = 0 23.5 S 30 N 6.5 N 40 S 63.5 S 50 S 73.5 S 10 S 33.5 N 20 N 35 3.5 N 50 S 73 5 73.5 N 15 N 8.5 S 20 S 43 5 43.

Tilt and orientation of collectors ((Cape p Town)) percental mitigation: 0% -5% 5% -10% 10% -15% 15% -20% 20% -25% 25% -30% 30% -35% 35% -40% 40% -45% 45% -50% 90 60 45 30 15 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Azimuth [°] W NW N NE E Inclina ation [°] 75 .

4 788.3 859.3 928.0 535.9 .5 907 8 907.2 496.5 930.2 15 912.5 550.4 90 812.6 921 5 921. Calculated solar fraction ~ 97% Inclination [°] Azimuth [°] 15 W NW N NE E 30 45 60 75 90 -90 820.1 726.6 936.5 748.8 855 2 855.1 891.5 -30 905.7 744.7 825.5 528.7 770.0 763.9 837.2 799.6 703.0 933.1 499.8 951.3 582 5 582.4 863 5 863.4 616.8 730.5 869.0 726.8 941.2 748 3 748.5 661.8 60 865.0 521 2 521.2 850.9 601.4 570.0 -45 45 891 6 891.1 553.3 718.5 953 5 953. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre.7 -15 913.3 745.0 875.6 893.1 681.0 834.4 910.5 852.7 544.8 802.4 572.7 563.7 730.5 714 0 714.5 936 4 936.9 -60 872.0 806.3 869.7 916.2 45 886.Tilt and orientation of collectors Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Cape Town related to different orientations and azimuth angles.5 -75 848.8 707.1 0 916 5 916.0 681.9 878.3 579.4 30 902.3 947.7 75 840.8 855.0 822.

Dimensioning – Example 1 Small hot water system Hot water demand: 500 l/day Cold Co d water: a e 20°C 0 C Hot water (storage) 60°C Dimensioning for 100% solar fraction .

Dimensioning – Example 2 Industry – Bottle Washing Hot water demand: 10.000 l/day Cold Co d water: a e 25°C 5 C Hot water (storage) 80°C Dimensioning for 70% solar fraction .

Tilt and orientation of collectors (Joburg) ( g) percental mitigation: 0% -5% 5%-10% 10%-15% 15% -20% 20%-25% 25%-30% 30%-35% 35%-40% 40% -45% 45%-50% 90 60 45 30 15 -90 90 -75 75 -60 60 -45 45 -30 30 -15 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Azimuth [°] W NW N NE E Inclination [°] 75 .

Tilt and orientation of collectors (Windhoek) ( ) 0%-5% 25%-30% percental mitigation: 5%-10% 30%-35% 10%-15% 35%-40% 15%-20% 40%-45% 20%-25% 90 60 45 30 15 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Azimuth [°] W NW N NE E Inclin nation [°] 75 .

Tilt and orientation of collectors (Maputo) ( p ) 0% 5% 0%-5% 25%-30% percental mitigation: 5% 10% 5%-10% 30%-35% 10% 15% 10%-15% 35%-40% 15% 20% 15%-20% 40%-45% 20%-25% 20% 25% 90 60 45 30 15 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Azimuth [°] W NW N NE E Inclination [°] 75 .

7 790. Calculated solar fraction ~ 97% Inclination [°] Azimuth [°] 15 W NW N NE E 30 45 60 75 90 -90 826.5 749.3 799.2 -45 872 9 872.6 60 863.8 580.8 798.2 764.9 837.7 572.4 695.0 894.8 691.Tilt and orientation of collectors Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Maputo related to different orientations and azimuth angles. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre.30 866.7 858.9 879.8 852.8 670.6 806.3 531.1 75 847.8 523.9 865.3 45 874.4 788 2 788.1 661.6 863.3 90 829.4 798.2 862.4 897.9 546.4 792.9 805.1 565 2 565.4 565.3 895.5 833.3 608.0 525.2 669.5 794.2 685.2 654.2 -30 881.1 565.4 508.9 30 883.6 627.2 .0 847 4 847.1 690.2 693 1 693.2 829.8 887.8 793.8 739.9 0 889.0 -75 845.3 789.2 754.3 858.0 -15 887.8 779.0 15 888.5 772.1 833.2 704.1 670.0 890.4 529.5 547.5 701.1 683.9 876 0 876.3 548.8 862.4 -60 860.

6 964.1 665.0 679.7 -45 947 6 947.0 754.0 946.1 75 913.9 867.6 711.0 766.1 738.1 45 948.8 945.6 943.7 -75 912.8 60 933.2 613.8 830.5 576.6 30 959.2 -30 957.4 767.0 744.0 944 8 944.7 854.8 850 4 850.5 566.9 614.0 722.5 757.4 758 1 758.2 .1 -60 932.2 865.5 868 4 868.4 -15 964.3 882.6 817.4 937.3 934 5 934.2 615.0 944.0 824.7 918.2 979.9 973.0 90 888.8 873.6 545.6 961 3 961.3 909.Tilt and orientation of collectors Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Johannesburg related to different orientations and azimuth angles.1 982 0 982.3 940.4 858.1 869.1 854.1 913.9 823.6 879.4 942.9 15 964.3 975. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre.3 595.0 535 9 535.5 545.4 701 0 701.8 0 966 1 966.0 579.9 549. Calculated solar fraction ~ 97% Inclination [°] Azimuth [°] 15 W NW N NE E 30 45 60 75 90 -90 887.1 607 2 607.2 714.0 629.8 981.1 735.8 870.7 764.9 914.6 858.

5 948.7 855.8 1014.9 739.0 1038.5 1045.7 938.2 997.7 874.2 714.2 694 9 694.6 9 23 972.1 .8 1010.5 619.2 945.3 793.8 1022.7 -60 1013.8 15 1036.8 -15 1036.8 928. Calculated solar fraction ~ 97% Inclination [°] Azimuth [°] 15 W NW N NE E 30 45 60 75 90 -90 90 982 6 982.9 748.5 973 2 973.1 917.2 836 9 836.9 1049.2 1019.4 934.6 1017.3 1036.9 -45 1024.3 943 6 943.4 870.2 628.0 609.Tilt and orientation of collectors Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Windhoek related to different orientations and azimuth angles.4 932.2 1045.7 75 1000 5 1000.0 1013.8 739.5 671.6 60 1015.9 1051.3 777.7 691.0 923.7 -30 1031.2 916 2 916.9 -75 999.4 854.3 967.2 661.0 1012.0 981.2 1023.8 785.9 955.6 891 891.9 45 1026.9 723.5 30 1033.3 0 1037.9 859.3 1005.3 958.1 817.2 1012.9 731 2 731.3 848.0 826.1 1049. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre.7 1002.5 764.6 939.5 998 5 998.2 90 982.7 808 2 808.