Giuseppe Garibaldi Italy became unified in a unique and unusual way; Italian unification revolved around the works

of Cavour, Mazzini, and Garibaldi. Cavour was considered the “brains.” Mazzini was considered the “soul” and Garibaldi was the “sword.” Dennis Smith in his article suggests that Garibaldi played a much larger role in Italian unification. He embodied not only the sword, but the brains and soul as well. Garibaldi has traditionally been considered the sword of Italian unification. He sought justice wherever it was needed; he was always fighting for a noble cause. He aided in the fight for justice in Brazil and Argentina where he learned guerrilla tactics. He brought this unconventional warfare back to Italy where it became very successful. With only a few men, he bravely battled Austria in 1848. In 1849 he defended Rome from France; after which, he became a national figure. In 1860, he led an army of 1,000 men through all of southern Italy trying to unite the nation. “…In a few months conquered almost half of Italy” (Smith). Garibaldi was able to achieve great military success. Smith suggests that Garibaldi should be considered the brains of Italian unification. Traditionally Cavour has been considered the brains because of his decisive realistic plan of unification. Cavour’s strategy was to gradually take control of northern Italy by putting the opponents of Italian unification against each other. However, without Garibaldi there would not be a unified Italy. He willingly gave King Victor Emmanuel II, whom he despised, control of southern Italy. Garibaldi realized that Italy would never be truly unified without it. He sacrificed his dream of an Italian Republic with universal suffrage for Cavour’s constitutional monarchy with limited suffrage. Garibaldi knew that nationalism was a far greater force than liberalism. Cavour only sought to unify northern

Italy. Garibaldi was able to see the bigger picture; he wanted all of Italy united. Garibaldi was the real “brains” behind Italy’s unification. Smith suggests that Garibaldi should be considered the “soul” of Italian unification. Traditionally Giuseppe Mazzini was considered this because he started the idea. However, his ideas and approach were considered radical and did not gain traction until later. Garibaldi was truly the “soul” of Italy. “ He appealed directly to the common people, just because he himself was the embodiment off the common man…” Garibaldi was loved my many and became Italy’s internationally known hero. Mazzini started the idea, but Garibaldi was able to spread it. He “succeeded in accustoming the rest of Europe to the idea of an Italian nation, and he who forced Cavour to go faster…” Garibaldi was able to relate to the Italy’s largest classes, the working class and peasants. Through them, he was able to unify the majority of the population behind the cause. The unification of Italy was truly a unique moment in history. A country that had not been unified for centuries was able to come together through the actions of three men - Cavour, Mazzini, and Garibaldi. However, Garibaldi according to Smith played a larger role than what was previously recognized. He was the “sword” of Italy due to his successful military campaigns. He was the “brains” due to his foresight of handing over southern Italy to Cavour. He was the “soul” due to his relatabilty to the majority of the population and his likable character. Garibaldi truly loved his country and did everything he could to unite his nation. That is why he is the “sword, brains, and soul” of Italian unification.