July, 2010


Volume 3

Schr¨ odinger-Langevin Equation with PT-Symmetric Periodic Potential and its Application to Deuteron Cluster
Vic Christianto∗ and Florentin Smarandache†
∗ Present † Department

address: Institute of Gravitaion and Cosmology, PFUR, Moscow, 117198, Russia. E-mail: admin@sciprint.org of Mathematics, University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USA. E-mail: smarand@unm.edu

In this article, we find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schr¨ odinger equation.

Langevin equation [6, 7] with PT-Symmetric periodic potenOne of the most reported problem related to the CMNS (con- tial as we discussed in the preceding paper and its Gamow densed matter nuclear science, or LENR), is the low probabil- integral. The particular implications of this study to deuteron ity of Coulomb barrier tunneling. It is supposed by standard cluster will be discussed later. Another differing part from the previous study is that in physics that tunneling is only possible at high enough energy this study we will also seek clues on possibility to consider (by solving Gamow function). this low probability problem as an example of self-organized However, a recent study by Takahashi (2008, 2009) and criticality phenomena. In other words, the time required beexperiment by Arata etc. (2008) seem to suggest that it is fore CMNS process can be observed is actually the time renot impossible to achieve a working experiment to create the quired to trigger the critical phenomena. To our present CMNS process. knowledge, this kind of approach has never been studied beIn accordance with Takahashi’s EQPET/TSC model fore, although self-organized criticality related to Schr¨ odin[1–3], the proposed study will find out some analytical and ger equation approximation to Burger’s turbulence has been numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for discussed in Boldyrev [8]. Nonetheless there is recent study cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schr¨ odinger equation. It is hoped suggesting link between diffusion process and the self-organized criticality phenomena. that the result can answer some of these mysteries. The result of this study will be useful to better understandOne of the results of recent experiments is the lack of ing of anomalous phenomena behind Condensed matter nusignature of D-D reaction as in standard fusion process; this clear science. is part of the reason to suggest that D-D fusion doesn’t take place [1]. However, Takahashi suggests new possible reaction 2 Schr¨ odinger-Langevin equation in the context of cluster deuterium, called 4D fusion [1–3], this mechanism seems to enable reaction at low temperature The Langevin equation is considered as equivalent and therefore has often been used to solve the time-independent Schr¨ o(CMNS). His result (2009) can be summarized as follows: dinger, in particular to study molecular dynamics. “The ultimate condensation is possible only when the Here we only cite the known Langevin equation [3, p. 29] double Platonic symmetry of 4D/TSC is kept in its dynamic motion. The sufficient increase (super screening) of barrier factor is also only possible as far as the Platonic symmetric 4D/TSC system is kept. Therefore, there should be always 4 deuterons in barrier penetration and fusion process, so that 4d simultaneous fusion should take place predominantly. The portion of 2D (usual) fusion rate is considered to be negligible”. dXt = pt dt , √ d p = −∂ x λ0 (Xt )dt + K pt dt + dWt 2T K . (1) (2)



Takahashi and Yabuuchi also used quite similar form of the stochastic non-linear Langevin equation [7] in order to study the dynamics of TSC condensate motion.

In this respect it can be noted that there are recent reports odinger equation with PT-symmetric periodic posuggesting that hydrogen cluster can get reaction at very low 3 Schr¨ tential temperature, forming the condition of superfluidity [4]. This seems to happen too in the context of Takahashi TSC conden- Consider a PT-Symmetric potential of the form [9, 10] sate dynamics. Other study worth mentioning here is one that (3) V = K1 sin(br) , discussed molecular chessboard dynamics of deuterium [5]. The difference between this proposed study and recent where work of Takahashi based on Langevin equation for cluster |m| b= √ . (4) deuterium is that we focus on solution of Schr¨ odinger−i − 1
V. Christianto and F. Smarandache. Schr¨ odinger-Langevin Equation and its Application to Deuteron Cluster 67

Volume 3


July, 2010

Hence, the respective Schr¨ odinger equation with this potential can be written as follows Ψ (r) = −k2 (r) Ψ(r) , where k(r) = 2m


[E − V (r)] =


E − k1 sin(b r) .


The interpretation of this Gamow function is the tunneling rate of the fusion reaction of cluster of deuterium (for the given data) corresponding to Takahashi data [12], with the difference that here we consider a PT-symmetric periodic potential. The numerical study will be performed with standard package like Maxima etc. Some plausible implications in cosmology modeling should also be discussed in the future.
Submitted on January 20, 2010 / Accepted on March 04, 2010

For the purpose of finding Gamow function, in area near x=a we can choose linear approximation for Coulomb potential, such that V ( x) − E = − α( x − a) . (7) Substitution to Schr¨ odinger equation yields Ψ + 2mα

1. Takahashi A. Basics of the deuteron-cluster dynamics by Langevin equation. In: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook, v. 2, 2010, Chapter 11, 193–217, (ACS Symposium Series, v. 1029). 2. Takahashi A. and Yabuuchi N. Study on 4D/TSC condensate motion using non-linear Langevin equation. In: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, 2008, Chapter 4, 57–83 (ACS Symposium Series, v. 998). 3. Takahashi A. Dynamic mechanism of TSC condensation motion. Proc. Intern. Conf. of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Washington DC, 2008. 4. Mezzacapo F. and Boninsegni M. Structure, superfluidity and quantum melting of hydrogen clusters. arXiv: cond-mat/0611775. 5. Calvert C.R., et al. Quantum chessboards in the deuterium molecular ion. arXiv: quantph/08062253. 6. Zsepessy A. Stochastic and deterministic molecular dynamics derived from the time independent Schr¨ odinger equation. arXiv: condmat/0812.4338. 7. Rusov V.D. et al. Schr¨ odinger-Chetaev equation. arXiv: 0810.2860. 8. Boldyrev S. arXiv: hep-th/9610080. 9. Christianto V. and Smarandache F. On PT-symmetric periodic potential, quark confinement, and other impossible pursuits. Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 1.

( x − a) Ψ = 0 ,


which can be solved by virtue of Airy function. 4 Gamow integral

In principle, the Gamow function can be derived as follows [11] d2 y + P( x) y = 0 . (9) dx2 Separating the variables and integrating, yields d2 y = y or y dy = exp − P( x) dx + C . (11) −P( x) dx (10)

To find solution of Gamow function, therefore the integral below must be evaluated: γ= 2m

10. Christianto V. and Smarandache F. Numerical solution of biquaternion radical Klein-Gordon equation. Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 1; also in: Smarandache F. and Christianto V. (eds.) Hadron models and related new energy issues. InfoLearnQuest Publ., USA, 2008. 11. Coddington E. A. and Levinson N. Theory of ordinary differential equations. Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1955. 12. Takahashi A. Summary of condensed matter nuclear reactions. J. Cond. Matter Nuclear Science, 2007, v. 1.

[V ( x ) − E ] .


For the purpose of analysis we use the same data from Takahashi’s EQPET model [3,12], i.e. b = 5.6 fm, and r0 = 5 fm. Here we assume that E = Vb = 0.257 MeV. Therefore the integral becomes √ Γ = 0.218 m
b r0

k1 sin(br) − 0.257 dr .


By setting boundary condition (either one or more of these conditions) (a) at r = 0 then V0 = −Vb − 0.257MeV; (b) at r = 5.6 f m then V1 = k1 sin(br) − 0.257 = 0.257MeV, therefore, one can find estimate of m; (c) Using this procedure solution of the equation (11) can be found.
68 V. Christianto and F. Smarandache. Schr¨ odinger-Langevin Equation and its Application to Deuteron Cluster