CHAPTER-1 COMPANY INDUSTRIAL PROFILE

1.COMPANY INDUSTRIAL PROFILE WELCOME TO DIGITECH SOLUTIONS 1.1 Vision “Refining, redefining and realizing the potential of technological environment of the nation, to serve as a catalyst in societal advancement… ” 1.2 Mission
Department of Electronics & Communication, L C! " D#RE

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“Delivering $uality and tailored solutions through optimal amalgamation of s%ills and technology&” 1.3 !i"# in$!o%&'$ion 'hen (olutions and "nformation (ervices )vt&Ltd& came into e*istence in +,,-, our vision .as to /uild a company that .ould /e a single source for all technical solutions from conceptualization to development& !oday Digitec continues to e*ceed that vision& 'e provide today0s /usiness .ith most advanced technical solutions .ith our a.ard .inning team of engineers& 'e create the industry0s most innovative technology solutions under the leadership of our R&D department& "n addition, .e offer state of art em/edded solutions, )C1 designing and fa/rication, relia/le and technically advanced e$uipments, spare parts, maintenance services and consultancies services to /usinesses, industries and educational institutions& Digitec is today a leading electronic e$uipment manufacturer and consulting organization .ith /ranch office in "ndore and several proposed offices dispersed throughout 2)& (ince its inception Digitec has proved itself in very vertical it has committed itself in& !o /e precise Digitec is not 3ust an organization /ut a revolution& 4 revolution that shall redefine your lives, a revolution that .elcomes change, respects innovations and inspire creativity& Digitec as a part of its corporate social responsi/ility promotes R&D in academic institution & also offering s%ill development training programs to engineering & management students to ma%e them industry ready & solve the issue of employa/ility&

CHAPTER-2 O (ECTIVES OF LEARNIN)
Department of Electronics & Communication, L C! " D#RE

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things .ere to 3ust to see ho. L C! " D#RE 3 .2. officer and a trainee and also /et.ell as industrial environment .as an idea of the industrial environment. to /e highly precise and accurate in my .1 LEARNIN) O (ECTIVES (5#R! !ER2 !he main short6term advantage after completing the training .or%er and trainee& !he good and learning environment helped a lot to understand the difficulties or pro/lems faced during the pro3ect completion& !he short term learning o/3ective .or%s and ho.ould help in /uilding up a good relationship /et.O (ECTIVES OF TRAININ) 2.een myself and the colleagues& !his industrial training has helped me a lot to stand in the corporate .ith the increasing competition in the mar%et also it .or% in a company concerning to the field of communication.een . communication is possi/le& L# 7 !ER2 !he introduction to an official as .orld& Department of Electronics & Communication.een an officer and a . the strict and disciplined schedule of the company& !his helped me a lot to /uild inside me the zeal to learn more.or%ing& "t helped in understanding the relationship that should /e maintained /et.ould help a lot in future to .or%er. to cope up .

L C! " D#RE 4 .CHAPTER-3 DETAILS OF TRAININ) Department of Electronics & Communication.

em/edded systems range from porta/le devices such as digital .3. /ecause they allo.. 5andheld computers share some elements . or the systems controlling nuclear po.or%ing& 3. DETAIL OF TRAININ) "n training at Em/edded (ystems emphasis .ith multiple units. dedicated functions often . or increasing the relia/ility and performance& (ome em/edded systems are mass6produced.ith the diverted needs of communication and study a/out the present day services provided /y Em/edded (ystems& 'e . factory controllers. as many systems have some element of programma/ility& .as given on the latest technologies and the /asic fundamentals of communication . L C! " D#RE 5 .er plants& Comple*ity varies from lo. Department of Electronics & Communication. .hich po.er them < /ut are not truly em/edded systems.or%s mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure& "n general. :em/edded system: is not an e*actly defined term. such as a personal computer.or e*ample.ith em/edded systems < such as the operating systems and microprocessors . to very high .ith real6time computing constraints& "t is usually em/edded as part of a complete device including hard.ledge a/out almost all the aspects of !he officers also made us familiar . different applications to /e loaded and peripherals to /e connected. /enefiting from economies of scale& )hysically.ith the various e$uipments /eing used& !he training deal .are and mechanical parts& "n contrast. reducing the size and cost of the product.hich are re$uired to cope up .1 INTRODUCTION TO EM EDDED SYSTEMS 4n em/edded system is a special6purpose computer system designed to perform one or a fe.ith a single microcontroller chip.ith 8 et. can do many different tas%s depending on programming& Em/edded systems control many of the common devices in use today& (ince the em/edded system is dedicated to specific tas%s.atches and 2)9 players. a general6purpose computer. peripherals and net.ere given thorough instructions and %no. design engineers can optimize it. to large stationary installations li%e traffic lights.

digital cameras.ashing machines and dish. L C! " D#RE 6 .Figure1: Anatomy of Embedded System E*+. for reasons such as safety and usa/ilityA others may have lo."s o# E.ave ovens. mp? players. rather than /e a general6purpose computer for multiple tas%s& (ome also have real6time performance constraints that must /e met. D@D players. or no performance re$uirements. efficiency and features& !ransportation systems from flight to automo/iles increasingly use em/edded systems& e. ./"%%"% S0s$". such as micro.are to /e simplified to reduce costs& 1. mo/ile phones.or% to mo/ile phones at the end6user& Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants =)D4s>.ashers.s Em/edded systems span all aspects of modern life and there are many e*amples of their use& !elecommunications systems employ numerous em/edded systems from telephone s. 7)( receivers. allo.itches for the net. Department of Electronics & Communication. videogame consoles. are including em/edded systems to provide fle*i/ility. and printers& 2any household appliances. airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and 7)( receivers that also have considera/le safety re$uirements& C1+!+'$"!is$i's Em/edded systems are designed to do some specific tas%.ing the system hard.-.

-.Em/edded systems are not al. of course.ritten for em/edded systems are referred to as firm.lash memory chips& !hey run .hatFs desired& S-"'i#i' !". the 7i/son Ro/ot 7uitar features an em/edded system for tuning the strings. and are stored in read6only memory or . /ore6 hole systems.s (imple em/edded devices use /uttons. or it is too inaccessi/le to repair& E*amples include space systems. L C! " D#RE 7 . automated sales and service& 3. undersea ca/les.i$0 iss&"s .hen shut do. small or non6e*istent %ey/oard andEor screen& Si. navigational /eacons.or e*ample.-. often .i+/i.ith a simple menu system& Co.+0 in'. ?& !he program instructions . .ith touch sensing or screen6edge /uttons provides fle*i/ility . and selection involves the natural /ehavior of pointing at .ays standalone devices& 2any em/edded systems consist of small.n for repair. factory controls. /ridge and elevator controls."* s0s$".ithin a larger device that serves a more general purpose& .are resourcesD little memory.&%"2 !he system cannot safely /e shut do. /ut the overall purpose of the Ro/ot 7uitar is.itches. !he system . reactor control systems.ith the screen. LEDs. computerized parts .ill lose large amounts of money .s 4 full graphical screen. to play music&B+C (imilarly. funds transfer and mar%et ma%ing.are.hile minimizing space usedD the meaning of the /uttons can change .ith limited computer hard. train signals. safety6critical chemical factory controls. an em/edded system in an automo/ile provides a specific function as a su/system of the car itself& 2. !he system must /e %ept running for safety reasons& :Limp modes: are less tolera/le& #ften /ac%ups are selected /y an operator& E*amples include aircraft navigation. Department of Electronics & Communication.nD !elephone s. and small character6 or digit6only displays." s0s$". and automo/iles& 1. engines on single6engine aircraft& 2.

ords. the program starts e*ecution from the /eginning& Pins14-172 )ort ? (imilar to port G.2 ARCHITECTURE OF 3451 MICROCONTROLLER 2.2 Pinout Description Pins 1-32 )ort G Each of these pins can /e configured as an input or an output& Pin 6D R( 4 logic one on this pin disa/les the microcontroller and clears the contents of most registers& "n other . the positive voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller& 1y applying logic zero to this pin. L C! " D#RE 8 .3. each of these pins can serve as general input or output& Department of Electronics & Communication.

and uses it as a memory chip address& "mmediately after that.er address /yte =4. the microcontroller puts the lo. L C! " D#RE 9 . 5z& Pin 242 7 D 7round& Pin 21-232 )ort + "f there is no intention to use e*ternal memory then these port pins are configured as general inputsEoutputs& "n case e*ternal memory is used.hether there is internal memory or not& "t means that even there is a program . the higher address /yte. "nterrupt . used as a Data 1us& 4s seen. cloc% input& Pin 152 !G Counter G cloc% input& Pin 192 'R 'rite to e*ternal =additional> R42& Pin 172 RD Read from e*ternal R42& Pin 13: 162 H+. this port is used for /oth data and address transmission& Pin 312 E4 1y applying logic zero to this pin. Counter .add6on chip> memorizes the state of ). the rest of them are not availa/le as inputsEoutputs& Pin 262 )(E "f e*ternal R#2 is used for storing program then a logic zero =.ith no regard to .ords.ritten to e*ternal R#2 . the 4LM pin is returned its previous logic state and ).ill /e e*ecuted& 1y applying logic one to the E4 pin. . miniature ceramics resonators can also /e used for fre$uency sta/ility& Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a fre$uency of . is no.ritten to the microcontroller.64L> on ).ill use /oth memories. input& Pin 132 " !G "nterrupt G input& Pin 182 !. and activates the 4LE output& 4fter receiving signal from the 4LE pin. all of them have alternative functionsD Pin 142 RHD (erial asynchronous communication input or (erial synchronous communication output& Pin 112 !HD (erial asynchronous communication output or (erial synchronous communication cloc% output& Pin 122 " !. )+ and )? are used for data and address transmission .ill appear on this port& Even though memory .> appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a /yte from memory& Pin 342 4LE )rior to reading from e*ternal memory. port data multiple*ing is performed /y means of only one additional =and cheap> integrated circuit& "n other .hich specifies operating fre$uency is usually connected to these pins& "nstead of it. it . the e*ternal register =usually L95C!?L? or L95C!?L.1esides.ith capacity of J9K/ is not used. the program . 5z up to over -. the microcontroller . first internal then e*ternal =if e*ists>& Department of Electronics & Communication.hich means that not all eight port /its are used for its addressing. i&e& addresses 4I64G.ill not /e e*ecuted& "nstead.. HG "nternal oscillator input and output& 4 $uartz crystal .

(imilar to )+. Di+<!+. if e*ternal memory is not used.1 A%%!"ss /&s-.rite signals to the device to indicate if the C)M is as%ing for information or sending it information& 3. these pins can /e used as general inputsEoutputs& #ther. and the decoding circuitry finds the device& D+$+ /&s-!he C)M either gets data from the deviceor sends data to it& Con$!o.>& Pin 842 @CC N-@ po.o'."! Fi<&!" 3.er supply& 3. ). =.2.64L> .2 .Pin 32-362 )ort .2. o# 3451 Mi'!o'on$!o. it must /eassigned an address& !he address assigned to a given device must /e uni$ue& !he C)M puts the address on the address /us.or a device =memory or "E#> to /e recognized /y the C)M.hen the 4LE pin is driven lo. L C! " D#RE 10 ..o!0 +n% R"<is$"!s Department of Electronics & Communication.ise. /&s-)rovides read or .1. is configured as address output =4.3 M".hen the 4LE pin is driven high =G> or as data output =Data 1us> .

. 1an% +.rom the user accessi/le R42.inally. and so on. to RL each& R42 locations from . to L are set aside for /an% . F&n'$ion R"<is$"!> 6 !hese Registers are in e*tra G+I /ytes of the memory& !his part of memory is not user accessi/le and these registers are used for special purposes& !hese registers range from I.!he I.3 3.5& !he third /an% of R..h to . . (C# .. !L.h& !here are a total of only +G (..3 SFRs =S-"'i+. )('. 1. Rl is R42 location G. R42 locations GI5 to G.e can s. is R42 location .1. and !LG& !hese all the registers have some specific function that has to /e performed after they are Department of Electronics & Communication. 1an%?& Each of these /an%s have I Registers i&e& R.1. L C! " D#RE 11 . 8 RL starts at memory location G. 4CC. is set /y default& 1ut .Rs in this range and all other addresses from I. until memory location L.5 are set aside for the fourth /an% of R. to L.-G microcontroller has a total of +-J /ytes of R42 in . and R+ is location +.itch to other /an%s /y using )(' Commands& Fi<&!" 3.& !he second /an% of registers R. 1an% G. of R.hich G+I is visi/le or user accessi/le and e*tra G+I is for special function registers& !he user accessi/le R42 is used for temporary data storage& !he user accessi/le R42 is from the address range . )...5 and goes to location GL5& . 8 RL ..hich /elongs to RL of /an% .1. !2#D (). 8 RL& Fi<&!" 3.h to .I and goes to location . (1M.h are invalid and there use can cause errors and not valua/le results& (ome of the (. 8 RL starts at R42 location .. ?+ /ytes of R42 is used for registers and rest for (tac% operations& !he ?+ 1ytes of R42 is divided into four register 1an%s i&e& 1an%.here R.Rs are !C# .h& . Register /an% 1an%..2 7enerally for normal operations.

8 !imer . and each timer also has t. /yte and high /yte& #ne timer is !"2ER." SFR ?i$1 /0$" +%%!"ss () 8 (tac% printer 8 IG5 D)!R 8 Data pointer + /ytes D)L 8 Lo.ith t. and configured individually& !he I. set.1. order /yte P IJ5 (1M. 5igher order /ytes 8 IC5 !L.programmed& =i> 0$" A%%!"ss+/.o timers share t. and !5GE!LG>& Department of Electronics & Communication.er order I /its& • D)!R. /yte 8 I+5 D)5 8 5igh /yte 8 I?5 !2#D 8 !imer mode control 8 IO5 !5.Rs dedicated to itself =!5.o (. 8 !imer .3. D)L for lo.-G has an I6/it architecture.Rs =!2#D and !C# > . L C! " D#RE 12 . and !imer G are GJ /its . each GJ6/its timer is accessed as t.hich control the timers.o separate registers of lo."!s !he I.ide& (ince I.E!L.-G comes e$uipped .Rs in I.1 Ti. +> Counting the events themselves. D)L these all are (.o parts D)5 and D)L& • D)5 for 5igher order I /its.een events.o (. /oth of . order /ytes 8 I45 !5G 8 !imer G 5igh /ytes P I.3 TIMERS AND COUNTERS 3. D)5.hich may /e controlled. read.-G& 3.o timers.er control 8 IL5& 3. 8 (erial data /uffer P OO5 )C# 8 )o.8 DPTR 6 D+$+ Poin$"! in 3451 • GJ /it registerA it is divided into t. ?> 7enerating /aud rates for the serial port& 1oth !imer .5 !LG 8 !imer G Lo. Lo. and the other is !"2ERG& !he t.-G timers have three general functionsD G> Keeping time andEor calculating the amount of time /et.

6 =i> TMOD R"<is$"! "t is used to set the various timer operation mode& 8 !2#D is an I6/it register .here the lo.cloc. L C! " D#RE 13 . 4 D !LG !he !2#D and !C# are t.o control registers for the t.o timers& Fi<&!" 7."! 4 )ATE2 !o start and stop the timer • GATE=1 _HW control: is enabled only while INTx pin is ‘1 and T!x control pin "in T#$N% is set& • GATE=' _(W control ")sed *re+)ently% C@T2 !imer or counter selection • #.T = 1 _#o)nter "inp)t *ro.er /its are !L.14 Ti. and the upper 9 /its are set aside for timer G& MS LS )+$" C@T M4 M1 )ATE C@T M4 MI Ti."! 1 Fi<&!" 7.er 9 /its are set aside for timer .Tx inp)t pin% M1 +n% M42 2ode selection for timer and counter Department of Electronics & Communication.1/% is )sed to tri00er the ti-er& • #. and !5G and the lo.% the crystal "1.internal syste.T = ' _Ti-er "inp)t *ro.!he upper higher /its are !5.

!imer .G GJ6/it timerEcounter mode +G. QRun !imer . Q#. !5 is loaded .."! Mo%" 4 • • 3ode ': 145bit Ti-er.. ."! Mo%" 2 2ode +D I6/it auto reload !imerEcounter mode =.ith the initial count and a copy of it is given to !L& !his reloading leaves !5 unchanged still holding a copy of original values& !his mode has many applications.5>& "n auto reload. L C! " D#RE 14 ... !imer G CLR !R. including setting the /aud rate in serial communication& Mo%" 2 P!o<!+.in< • 7 bit 5 '' 611H • TH copy to T8 Department of Electronics & Communication.11 TF12 !imer G overflo. G?6/it timerEcounter mode G.co)nter -ode '''' 6 1111H Ti. .2ode 2G 2.s flag • T11=1: Ti-er.. R . (E!1 !RG QRun !imer G (E!1 !R.. Ti.co)nter 1 o2er*lows& • T11=': processor 2ectors to the interr)pt ser2ices& TR1D !imer G run control /it • T!1=1: t)rn Ti-er 1 $N • T!1=': t)rn Ti-er 1 $11 IE12 E*ternal interrupt G edge flag • IE1=1: external interr)pt is detected& • IE1=': when interr)pt is processed& IT12 "nterrupt G type control /it • IT1=1: *allin0 ed0e& • IT1=': low le2el tri00ered external interr)pt& 7ateP. I6/it auto reload timerEcounter mode ?G G split timerEcounter mode =ii> TCON R"<is$"! MS LS TF1 TIMER 1 TF4 TR1 TR4 IE1 IE4 TIMER1 IT1 IT4 TIMER4 TIMER 4 Fi<&!" 7. CLR !RG Q#.. . 7ateP.

you can use the 4rduino to read sensors and control things li%e motors and lights& !his allo.hich respond and react to the .• • • (tart (ET9 T!': or T!1 T8 increased 11H "$.or instance. you can read a humidity sensor connected to a potted plant and turn on an automatic .orld& 'ith this. L C! " D#RE 15 . using I. you can have it t.hich can then interact .eet every time your cat passes through a pet door& #r. the counter counts up as pulses are fed from )ins )?&9 =for counter .3 INTRODUCTION TO ARDUINO 4n 4rduino is an open6 source microcontroller development /oard& "n plain English.=for counter G>& 3.-G that increments the !5 and !L register& 'hen the CE!PG.2.ith things in the real . you can have it start a Department of Electronics & Communication.atering system if it gets too dry& #r.> or )?&. you can ma%e a stand6alone chat server .s you to upload programs to this /oard .2 Co&n$"!s Counter is used to count input pulses& C@TA42 4s !ime. you can ma%e devices .hich is plugged into your internet router& #r. -onitorin0% TH reloads to T8& 3.-G0s crystal as the source ofthe fre$uency& C@TA1D 4s counter. a pulse outside of the I.orld at large& .

are consists of an open6source hard.pot of coffee .hich ma%es many common inputEoutput operations much easier& Msers only need define t.& !hat said. "Fve done my /est to give a /asic overvie.as estimated in mid6+. of the fundamental s%ills and %no.ould li%e to assem/le an 4rduino /y hand& "t .GG that over ?..ith it& !he possi/ilities of the 4rduino are almost limitless& 4s such. if there is something that is in any . the 4rduino can interface . . you can pro/a/ly still use things . or a ?+6/it 4tmel 4R2& !he soft.o functions to ma%e a Department of Electronics & Communication...hich are =li%e motors and electromagnets>.are li/rary called :'iring: from the original 'iring pro3ect.are consists of a standard programming language compiler and a /oot loader that e*ecutes on the microcontroller& 4rduino /oards can /e purchased pre6assem/led or as do6it6yourself %its& 5ard. there is no .ay controlled /y electricity.are /oard designed around an I6/it 4tmel 4@R microcontroller. official 4rduinos had /een commercially produced& Pin D"s'!i-$ion O# A!%&ino 4rduino programs are .. this should function as a spring/oard into further e*perimentation and learning& A!%&ino is a single6/oard microcontroller to ma%e using electronics in multidisciplinary pro3ects more accessi/le& !he hard.ith a soft. to interface .are design information is availa/le for those . L C! " D#RE 16 .ritten in C or CNN& !he 4rduino "DE comes .ith it in some manner& 4nd even if it is not controlled /y electricity..hen your alarm goes off in the morning& 1asically.ledge that you need to get your 4rduino up and running& "f nothing more.ay that one single tutorial can cover everything you might ever need to %no.ho .

L C! " D#RE 17 .een pin G? and groundA a convenient feature for many simple tests& BOC !he previous code . L#'>A .. 4@R (tudio or the ne... and uses avrdude to upload programs to the /oard& 4s the 4rduino platform uses 4tmel microcontrollers..rite a program li%e this !he integrated pin G? LED Sdefine LEDQ)" G? void setup => T pin2ode =LEDQ)" . #M!)M!>A .hen the user clic%s the :Mpload to "E# /oard: /utton in the "DE.are for the 4rduino& Department of Electronics & Communication. Enable pin 14 *or di0ital o)tp)t U void loop => T digital'rite =LEDQ)" . may also /e used to develop soft.>A . T)rn on the 8E< delay =G. 5"75>A . Wait one second "1''' -illiseconds% digital'rite =LEDQ)" .ers off 4 typical first program for a microcontroller simply /lin%s an LED on and off& "n the 4rduino environment. T)rn o** the 8E< delay =G. to ma%e it a valid CNN program& !he 4rduino "DE uses the 7 M toolchain and 4@R Li/c to compile programs. so . 4tmelFs development environment.. the user might . Wait one second U "t is a feature of most 4rduino /oards that they have an LED and load resistor connected /et.er 4tmel (tudio.runna/le cyclic e*ecutive programD • • setup=>D a function run once at the start of a program that can initialize settings loop=>D a function called repeatedly until the /oard po... a copy of the code is .>A .ould not /e seen /y a standard CNN compiler as a valid program.ritten to a temporary file ...ith an e*tra include header at the top and a very simple main=> function at the /ottom.

3.e/ page and youFll see an image of a small )C1 as part of a group of )C1s& !hese )C1s are :/are.: that is. thin. J layers. s$uare. the total num/er of layers that can /e manufactured can e*ceed over 9+ layers& !hese types of /oards are used in e*tremely comple* electronic circuits& 3.ould have to try different angles of light to see them& !hese are .1 Fi!s$: ?1+$ is + PC B "t is a )rinted Circuit 1oard& Loo% to the left of this . thus forming circuits& !hus the name :printed circuit /oard&: 4 company that manufactures electronic products has a cycle of production to go from concept to end user or customer& "t could /e thought of li%e thisD 2ar%eting 6 (ales 6 )roduct Concept 6 Engineering & Design 6 Design for 2anufacturing 6 2anufacturing 6 4ssem/ly 6 )ac%aging 6 Distri/ution& ?&-&+ !ypes of )rinted Circuit 1oards (ingle (ided 1oard !his is the least comple* of the )rinted Circuit 1oards.ever. . I layers.here parts and components are attached to /oth sides of the su/strate& "n such cases. a radio or a telephoneV !he printed circuit /oards inside it are the flat. layers& 5o.ires that are :printed: on the fi/erglass sla/& !hey connect the electrical components. L C! " D#RE 18 .9 PC DESI)N TUTORIAL WITH EA)LE Department of Electronics & Communication.5.5 PC DESI)NIN) 3. dou/le6sided )C1s that have connecting traces on /oth the sides are used& Dou/le6sided )rinted Circuit 1oards usually use through6hole construction for assem/ly of components& 2ulti Layered 1oard 2ulti layered PC consists of several layers of su/strate separated /y insulation& 2ost common multilayer /oards areD 9 layers. since there is only a single layer of su/strate& 4ll electrical parts and components are fi*ed on one side and copper traces are on the other side& Dou/le (ided 1oard !his is the most common type of /oard. and G. they do not have any electrical components mounted on them as yet& 5ere is another e*ample of oneD 5ave you ever loo%ed inside your computer. usually green fi/erglass sla/s that have electrical components attached& 5arder to see are copper traces running underneath the green covering& Wou .

for 'indo.hich does not have these limitations& 3.ay& !he copy6tool can /e used to easily clone a component& "f you select copy and clic% on a component.ill need to use the cut6tool& !his does not delete the component from the schematic =as you might other. right6clic% on the pro3ect and select “ e.here you have . X (chematic”& !his . pro3ect named efp& 2a%e sure the pro3ect is saved in a place .n in figure G& !he user interface in Eagle is some.+$i' !he Eagle tool/ar is sho. a copy of the component .irst select the group tool and mar% the components you .9. /ut a li/rary editor is also availa/le to design ne. rotate. a rectangular selection. the user to get to %no. a )C1 editor and an auto router module& !he soft.hen compared to other tools =.are licence for non6commercial use& !his soft. you select the tool you . such as move.ant to modify& Wou can either hold the left /utton and drag to dra.ant to copy something to a different schematic.ith an e*tensive li/rary of components.3..hat special .ill /e descri/ed along the . to allo.are comes . (tart Eagle& Mnder 'indo.ill /e attached to the mouse cursor.ing utilities =and )C1 layout programs>& !his ta%es a little getting time getting used to& (ome of the tools . this is a little different in Eagle . and is availa/le in three versions& !he light6version is limited to one sheet of schematics and half euro6card format =I. .nloaded from Cad(oft0s homepage.ill /ring up the (chematics Editor 'indo.here you .*G.2 T1" Con$!o.hile the tools that constitute the main part of the tutorial ..9.s it should /e located in the (tart menu under )rograms X Eagle Layout Editor 9&GG X Eagle 9&GG& Create a ne. these tools. /ut merely copys it to the clip/oard& !he group6tool can /e used to . cut etc& !hen right6clic% the group to use the selected tool& !he change6tool is used to modify the properties of various o/3ects& 4gain. L C! " D#RE 19 .3 D!+?in< $1" s'1". /ut can /e used under the terms of the free.are to design an electronic schematic and lay out a printed circuit /oard =)C1>& Eagle is a )C1 design soft.or% on a group of components etc& .rite access =not in the Eagle directory>& Wou can create a description of the pro3ect /y right6 clic%ing on the pro3ect and choosing “Edit Description”& o.are pac%age consisting of a schematics editor. and can /e placed in the schematic& "f you .9.hen compared to other dra.1 In$!o%&'$ion !his e*ercise covers the use of Eagle =Easily 4pplica/le 7raphical Layout Editor> )C1 design soft.ish to apply.ise assume from the name>. parts or modify e*isting ones& Eagle is made /y Cad (oft =httpDEEcadsoft&de>.are can /e do. mm>. P+n"..ill /e descri/ed here.ould normally /e a/le to right6clic% on an o/3ect and change its properties from a pop6up menu>& .& 3.s or Linu*& 'e are investigating the possi/ilities of getting one or more licenses for the professional version. using the right mouse /utton to end the polygon selection& 'hen the selection is done. you . or clic% the left mouse /utton to ma%e a polygon selection.irst you choose the Department of Electronics & Communication.

hose value you . size.hose origin is closest to the mouse cursor& "f t. you . in the CL" =the input6/o* 3ust a/ove the main dra. capacitors to G. a dialog . you can simply clic% on the components .ill apply the tool to the entity . .ill have to type in& "f you instead enter the command value G.n. each time you clic% a component. Eagle .. layer etc&>. you could use the change6tool and select value& o.henever you are using a tool.ant to modify the value of say G.ill highlight one and as% if this is the one you . Eagle .modify6tool and select .ant to modify =style. then you clic% on the component you .ing canvas>.ith varoius tools& (o .ant to modify& Clic% left /utton to accept or right /utton to cycle to the ne*t entity& 'hen you use the smash6tool.ill notice a small /lac% cross on each device& !his is the origin or “handle” of the device.. value. L C! " D#RE 20 .n.ant to modify& !he command line interface =CL"> can /e used to ma%e this tas% easier& "f you .ill /e Department of Electronics & Communication.ish to change& 'hen adding components.. the name and value6te*ts .hich you .o or more entities are very close to eachother..ill pop up as%ing for the ne.hat you . and is used to manipulate the device .

ill fit on one page& !his means that it .8 P!in$in< $1" s'1".s Eagle to %eep the consistency /et.ith the free. this . you should use the page limit setting& (etting this to G ensures that your schematic .ierd side6effect of reme/ering if you printed the last )C1 mirrored =.ith the “landscape”6frames& 1ut at least . you should use the print6command from the file6menu =or clic% the printer6icon on the upper tool/ar>& !here are a couple of things that might /e nice to %no.hich you .indo. allo.+$i' !o print the schematic.ill not /e apparent until you are trying to mount the components& (o great precaution is advised .are version of Eagle& Wou .9. )C1 design from the schematics& Confirm this in$uiry& !his should open Eagle0s 1oard editor .ill /e una/le to trac% the changes you have made.ill /e those visi/le .ard6 and /ac% annotation& "f you close either the schematic .indo.een the t. you should al.n origin.ill /e as%ed . and help you %eep the schematic and )C1 consistent& otice ho.indo.o& !his is called for.ill need tostay . .ing them to /e moved individually& 3. and scaling this to OLY ..n a lot if you set the printer to “portrait” and print a schematic dra. it also has the .hen the print6command is invo%ed& Mse the Display6/utton on the tool/ar to modify the visi/le layer settings& 3.are version.here the hole should /e& Department of Electronics & Communication.ith either the schematic or the circuit /oard layout& !his is important.indo. and in this case print your schematic mirrored as .ell. since it allo. and modify anythin in the other .hen .s the ma*imum size of a circuit6/oard designed . L C! " D#RE 21 . you should open the schematic in Eagles schematic editor and clic% on the /oard6/utton =located on the top tool/ar in Eagle>& Wou . it .detached from the device and get their o.hite frame sho.5 PC L+0o&$ !o start laying out the printed circuit /oard.hite frame in the /oard editor& !he .ithin these limitations& !he first thing that should /e added to the )C1 is the mounting holes& !his ensures that you do not end up having trou/les finding room for the mounting holes /ecause you have routed a lot of signals in the spot .ill not impact the size of the printed )C1s& !he layers printed . Eagle .ays have /oth files open .hen using the scale6factor& "nstead.hen you do the )C16layout>.ant to create a ne. . li/rary and /oard editor& 'hile this means that you only have to set the paper6 size in one place.hich . or the /oard .ill /e e*plained here& !he printer6settings are the same for the schematic.hether you .ith the limitations regarding )C16sizes in the free.or%ing .ill definitely not improve the reada/ility& 4lso note the scale factor setting& 'hile this can /e nice for ensuring that your schematic can /e printed on one sheet.ill /e scaled do.& #nce you have created a /oard for a schematic.9.ill also scale the )C1 layout.n .ill /e doing for one of the layers .hen printing from Eagle& !hey . all the components from the schematic have /een placed ne*t to a .

ith caution& "n particular pay attention to the signals that should /e routed on a particular side of the )C1 to ma%e room for the soldering& !he auto router can /e restricted to .hich can /e very useful& 3.ires as possi/le& !he air6.hen ending a .hile dou/le clic%ing =actually clic%ing an e*tra time on the air6.itch /ac% and forth /et.hile starting the routing operation allo.ill e*ecute the rats nest6command and change /ac% to the move6command& otice ho.ill se that the mounting holes appear in the /oard editor right a.een the move6tool and the rats nest6tool is $uite annoying. select the route6tool& o.9 P.hile placing the mounting holes& Wou pro/a/ly .hile moving them =/y right clic%ing>.ard and /ac% annotation.ever generate some errors.henZ moving the components& !o do this you should use the Rats nest6command& (ince changing /ac% and forth /et. ..ards. it is a good idea to define a %ey/oard shortcut for this action& 7o to #ptionsX assign & & & and enter the command rats nestA move for the %ey6com/ination C!RL6E& !his com/ination .9.here.ire.ed layer& .ires are not automatically updated . since the G. . you should not use the delete6command. . to untangle as many of the air6. a via .hich aparently is not too good at /ac%6annotating ne. select the move6tool and move each of the components and placing them . since some components =(2D> are not routa/le on the allo.ill start routing the connection& Mse right mouse /utton to change the /end of the routed signal& "f you need to change the routing layer during routing =/y inserting a via>. clic% on an air6. press the middle mouse /utton& 5olding the shift6%ey .ill /e inserted& "f you need to remove a routed .een the route and ripup6tools a lot& !his can /e much easier if a couple of %ey /indings are set upD Ctrl6E ratsnestAmove Department of Electronics & Communication.ires& "f you %eep the shift6%ey depressed .ant to change it /ac% after.s you to have several commands carried out /y a single shortcut %ey.>& !he placement in the schematic is not important& Wou .een component pins& 3.or% in only one layer /y selecting the other layer as E4& !his may ho. not only the end6points of the air6.ithin the /oard& !ry to rotate the components .ay& Wou should move them to appropriate places on the /oard& "t is a good idea to align the mounting holes on some nice metric positions& (.+'in< 'o. use the ripup6command& ote that clic%ing a single time on a connection rips up only this segment of the connection.ire and Eagle .ire .7 Ro&$in< 'hen all the components are placed appropriately.s you to route a signal from any. L C! " D#RE 22 . or using the manual routing =the route6command>& Mse the auto router .or manual routing.-on"n$s o. since this cannot /e /ac%6annotated /y Eagle& "nstead.ire.ill unroute the entire connection& 'hen routing manually. .e are ready to start routing the )C1& !his can either /e done using the auto router =select the auto6command from the tool/ar>. components& 7o /ac% to the schematic editor and add 9 mounting holes =add mount6pad6round?&. you s. using a semicolon =A> allo.9.!o add the holes. .itch the grid to millimeters .mil grid is the standard distance /et.e need to go /ac% to the schematic editor& !his is /ecause of Eagles for.

ill allo.here the components should /e placed& )rint a similar sheet for the corresponding /ottom layers& "t is a good idea to put some te*t on the )C1 =in /oth the top and /ottom layer>& !his ma%es it easy to see .ith )C1& S$"-5. and can often /e helpfull in determining .hen printing the )C16traces& 4nd the mirror6option for the appropriate layer=s>& 3.ith copper )C1& Department of Electronics & Communication. Eagle0s /oard editor prints the layers that are currently active& "t is al.9. t#rigins.s a top6vie.n.6 PC F+/!i'+$ion P!o'"ss S$"-1. t)lace.A 4lt6R ripup Ctrl6R route 3.ays print each layer on regular paper first. a printout of the component placements =pads.ill remove corrosion from )C1 and you can ma%e strong solder . !a%e print out of )C1 layout on glossy paper& 7lossy paper is multilayer paper that is very helpful in )C1 designing& S$"-2.hen printing the )C1s& Wou should also chec% the 1lac% and (olid6options .Ctrl6.>& 'hen printing on the special foils for use . pads. avoiding pro/lems . t ames. giving a picture that is slightly /etter “in focus”& Remem/er to reset the scaling to G&. /#rigins etc&> on a single sheet of regular paper& !his . measure the length and /reathe of )C1 layout using scale& S$"-3. /ottom.ith a mirrored circuit /oard& Remem/er the te*t on the /ottom layer should appear mirrored in the /oard editor =since the editor sho. you to see the real size of the circuit /oard. vias. cut a copper clad )C1 of this size& !here are t.ay of finding out .ays a good idea to print a copy of all the normal layers =top.3 P!in$in< $1" PC 'hen you are done routing the )C1. L C! " D#RE 23 . !a%e layout of )C1 and stic% this . to ensure everything is set up correctly& !he foils are considera/ly more e*pensive than a regular sheet of paper& !he )C1 gets /est if you actually print the foils mirrored& !his allo.ith copper side of )C1=/ottom layer>& Wou can use electrical tap from /ac%side of )C1 for tightly stic% this layout design . o.9.indo. vias.hich side is up and do. t#rigins.. you can print it& (tart /y e*perimenting . o. t@alues and tDocu> is a good .hether you have placed the components too close to eachother& 'hen the )C1 is manufactured.ith the )C1 manufacturing process. . .indo. fitA Ctrl6L . you should al.ith the layers that should /e printed& Li%e the schematic editor.s the side of the foils that have the print on them to touch the )C1 during the M@ e*posure.o side in this )C1 one is insulation layer that is called top layer of )C1 other one is copper side of )C1 that is called /ottom layer of )C1& (tep9& !a%e a sand paper to ru/ this )C1& !his .

ill ma%e soft paper& S$"-11& Remove paper layer smoothly using our finger till can get layout of )C1& Reminds )C1 should have only trac% on )C1 in this process some e*tra paper also remains in /et.een trac% it .Layout design should come inner side& 2eans layout and copper side should stic% to each other& 1 o. o. !his process has done till same layout should start print on /ac% side of paper& S$"-6.e do not remove remaining paper /et.ashed it using . driver& "f .ater then ta%e sand paper and ru/ on this )C1 till capper trac% sho.ater till it /ecome could& !his process .ould case shorting in circuit& 5ere shorting means unnecessary connection& S$"-12& 4fter getting fine trac% on )C1& !a%e +.minutes for ne. start press of copper )C1 from /ottom layer& S$"-3.e need to remove them using /lunt e$uipment you can use also scre.ill only remain in trac% of )C1& S$"-15& !a%e out )C1 from solution using tong and . seconds that comes out that so ma%e distance from solution& S$"-18& )ut this )C1 in to the solution and sha%e try slo. !his process ta%es time around G.ater in try& Keep ta%e care it ma%es fast /u//les for fe.ly for some time also o/serve some part of copper is start remove from )C1& (ha%e solution till copper remove from )C1& copper . user and it can also finished in minutes& S$"-14& 4fter come same )C1 trac% on /ac% side of paper %eep this )C1 in to .? spoon fecl? solution in a plastic try& S$"-13& !a%e a glass of hot . # electrical press =iron press>& S$"-7.een trac%s of )C1 so . do drill on pad size using drill machine& S$"-17& "nsert component on right place of circuit and do soldering properly& Department of Electronics & Communication. you properly& S$"-19& o. L C! " D#RE 24 .

higher a/stractions for the design process to /e invented& Department of Electronics & Communication.hich is integrated into another system.hole a hard. more capa/le and po. design approaches such as multi6 core technologies& 4s there is no foreseea/le end to this development of em/edded system.or%s for a predefined tas%& #n the . L C! " D#RE 25 ./"%%"% s0s$".er efficient.ith resource constraints& 4n Em/edded system is /ased on specifications& (pecific re$uirements are defined and /ased on these re$uirements an em/edded system is developed& "n short an em/edded system . comple*ity of chip designs are constantly gro. the em/edded system& Em/edded systems are part of a /igger system& Em/edded system programming is programming .are chip programmed for a dedicated tas% results in an em/edded system& 4s integrated circuits get continuously cheaper.CHAPTER-3 CONCLUSION CONCLUSION E.s P 4 computer .ing& !his is illustrated /y ne.