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1.COMPANY INDUSTRIAL PROFILE WELCOME TO DIGITECH SOLUTIONS 1.1 Vision Refining, redefining and realizing the potential of technological environment of the nation, to serve as a catalyst in societal advancement 1.2 Mission
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Delivering $uality and tailored solutions through optimal amalgamation of s%ills and technology& 1.3 !i"# in$!o%&'$ion 'hen (olutions and "nformation (ervices )vt&Ltd& came into e*istence in +,,-, our vision .as to /uild a company that .ould /e a single source for all technical solutions from conceptualization to development& !oday Digitec continues to e*ceed that vision& 'e provide today0s /usiness .ith most advanced technical solutions .ith our a.ard .inning team of engineers& 'e create the industry0s most innovative technology solutions under the leadership of our R&D department& "n addition, .e offer state of art em/edded solutions, )C1 designing and fa/rication, relia/le and technically advanced e$uipments, spare parts, maintenance services and consultancies services to /usinesses, industries and educational institutions& Digitec is today a leading electronic e$uipment manufacturer and consulting organization .ith /ranch office in "ndore and several proposed offices dispersed throughout 2)& (ince its inception Digitec has proved itself in very vertical it has committed itself in& !o /e precise Digitec is not 3ust an organization /ut a revolution& 4 revolution that shall redefine your lives, a revolution that .elcomes change, respects innovations and inspire creativity& Digitec as a part of its corporate social responsi/ility promotes R&D in academic institution & also offering s%ill development training programs to engineering & management students to ma%e them industry ready & solve the issue of employa/ility&


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(5#R! !ER2 !he main short6term advantage after completing the training .as an idea of the industrial environment, the strict and disciplined schedule of the company& !his helped me a lot to /uild inside me the zeal to learn more, to /e highly precise and accurate in my .or%ing& "t helped in understanding the relationship that should /e maintained /et.een an officer and a .or%er, officer and a trainee and also /et.een .or%er and trainee& !he good and learning environment helped a lot to understand the difficulties or pro/lems faced during the pro3ect completion& !he short term learning o/3ective .ere to 3ust to see ho. things .or%s and ho. communication is possi/le& L# 7 !ER2 !he introduction to an official as .ell as industrial environment .ould help a lot in future to .or% in a company concerning to the field of communication, to cope up .ith the increasing competition in the mar%et also it .ould help in /uilding up a good relationship /et.een myself and the colleagues& !his industrial training has helped me a lot to stand in the corporate .orld&

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Department of Electronics & Communication, L C! " D#RE

"n training at Em/edded (ystems emphasis .as given on the latest technologies and the /asic fundamentals of communication .hich are re$uired to cope up .ith the diverted needs of communication and study a/out the present day services provided /y Em/edded (ystems& 'e .ere given thorough instructions and %no.ledge a/out almost all the aspects of !he officers also made us familiar .ith the various e$uipments /eing used& !he training deal .ith 8 et.or%ing&


4n em/edded system is a special6purpose computer system designed to perform one or a fe. dedicated functions often .ith real6time computing constraints& "t is usually em/edded as part of a complete device including hard.are and mechanical parts& "n contrast, a general6purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tas%s depending on programming& Em/edded systems control many of the common devices in use today& (ince the em/edded system is dedicated to specific tas%s, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product, or increasing the relia/ility and performance& (ome em/edded systems are mass6produced, /enefiting from economies of scale& )hysically, em/edded systems range from porta/le devices such as digital .atches and 2)9 players, to large stationary installations li%e traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear plants& Comple*ity varies from lo., .ith a single microcontroller chip, to very high .ith multiple units, peripherals and net.or%s mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure& "n general, :em/edded system: is not an e*actly defined term, as many systems have some element of programma/ility& ;or e*ample, 5andheld computers share some elements .ith em/edded systems < such as the operating systems and microprocessors .hich them < /ut are not truly em/edded systems, /ecause they allo. different applications to /e loaded and peripherals to /e connected.

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Figure1: Anatomy of Embedded System

E*+,-."s o# E,/"%%"% S0s$",s Em/edded systems span all aspects of modern life and there are many e*amples of their use& !elecommunications systems employ numerous em/edded systems from telephone s.itches for the net.or% to mo/ile phones at the end6user& Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants =)D4s>, mp? players, mo/ile phones, videogame consoles, digital cameras, D@D players, 7)( receivers, and printers& 2any household appliances, such as micro.ave ovens, .ashing machines and dish.ashers, are including em/edded systems to provide fle*i/ility, efficiency and features& !ransportation systems from flight to automo/iles increasingly use em/edded systems& e. airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and 7)( receivers that also have considera/le safety re$uirements& C1+!+'$"!is$i's Em/edded systems are designed to do some specific tas%, rather than /e a general6purpose computer for multiple tas%s& (ome also have real6time performance constraints that must /e met, for reasons such as safety and usa/ilityA others may have lo. or no performance re$uirements, the system hard.are to /e simplified to reduce costs&

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Em/edded systems are not al.ays standalone devices& 2any em/edded systems consist of small, computerized parts .ithin a larger device that serves a more general purpose& ;or e*ample, the 7i/son Ro/ot 7uitar features an em/edded system for tuning the strings, /ut the overall purpose of the Ro/ot 7uitar is, of course, to play music&B+C (imilarly, an em/edded system in an automo/ile provides a specific function as a su/system of the car itself&

?& !he program instructions .ritten for em/edded systems are referred to as firm.are, and are stored in read6only memory or ;lash memory chips& !hey run .ith limited computer hard.are resourcesD little memory, small or non6e*istent %ey/oard andEor screen& Si,-." s0s$",s (imple em/edded devices use /uttons, LEDs, and small character6 or digit6only displays, often .ith a simple menu system& Co,-."* s0s$",s 4 full graphical screen, .ith touch sensing or screen6edge /uttons provides fle*i/ility .hile minimizing space usedD the meaning of the /uttons can change .ith the screen, and selection involves the natural /ehavior of pointing at .hatFs desired& S-"'i#i' !".i+/i.i$0 iss&"s ,+0 in'.&%"2 !he system cannot safely /e shut do.n for repair, or it is too inaccessi/le to repair& E*amples include space systems, undersea ca/les, navigational /eacons, /ore6 hole systems, and automo/iles&

!he system must /e %ept running for safety reasons& :Limp modes: are less tolera/le& #ften /ac%ups are selected /y an operator& E*amples include aircraft navigation, reactor control systems, safety6critical chemical factory controls, train signals, engines on single6engine aircraft&

!he system .ill lose large amounts of money .hen shut do.nD !elephone s.itches, factory controls, /ridge and elevator controls, funds transfer and mar%et ma%ing, automated sales and service&

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2.2 Pinout Description

Pins 1-32 )ort G Each of these pins can /e configured as an input or an output& Pin 6D R( 4 logic one on this pin disa/les the microcontroller and clears the contents of most registers& "n other .ords, the positive voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller& 1y applying logic zero to this pin, the program starts e*ecution from the /eginning& Pins14-172 )ort ? (imilar to port G, each of these pins can serve as general input or output&
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1esides, all of them have alternative functionsD Pin 142 RHD (erial asynchronous communication input or (erial synchronous communication output& Pin 112 !HD (erial asynchronous communication output or (erial synchronous communication cloc% output& Pin 122 " !, "nterrupt , input& Pin 132 " !G "nterrupt G input& Pin 182 !, Counter , cloc% input& Pin 152 !G Counter G cloc% input& Pin 192 'R 'rite to e*ternal =additional> R42& Pin 172 RD Read from e*ternal R42& Pin 13: 162 H+, HG "nternal oscillator input and output& 4 $uartz crystal .hich specifies operating fre$uency is usually connected to these pins& "nstead of it, miniature ceramics resonators can also /e used for fre$uency sta/ility& Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a fre$uency of , 5z up to over -, 5z& Pin 242 7 D 7round& Pin 21-232 )ort + "f there is no intention to use e*ternal memory then these port pins are configured as general inputsEoutputs& "n case e*ternal memory is used, the higher address /yte, i&e& addresses 4I64G- .ill appear on this port& Even though memory .ith capacity of J9K/ is not used, .hich means that not all eight port /its are used for its addressing, the rest of them are not availa/le as inputsEoutputs& Pin 262 )(E "f e*ternal R#2 is used for storing program then a logic zero =,> appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a /yte from memory& Pin 342 4LE )rior to reading from e*ternal memory, the microcontroller puts the address /yte =4,64L> on ), and activates the 4LE output& 4fter receiving signal from the 4LE pin, the e*ternal register =usually L95C!?L? or L95C!?L- add6on chip> memorizes the state of ), and uses it as a memory chip address& "mmediately after that, the 4LM pin is returned its previous logic state and ), is no. used as a Data 1us& 4s seen, port data multiple*ing is performed /y means of only one additional =and cheap> integrated circuit& "n other .ords, this port is used for /oth data and address transmission& Pin 312 E4 1y applying logic zero to this pin, )+ and )? are used for data and address transmission .ith no regard to .hether there is internal memory or not& "t means that even there is a program .ritten to the microcontroller, it .ill not /e e*ecuted& "nstead, the program .ritten to e*ternal R#2 .ill /e e*ecuted& 1y applying logic one to the E4 pin, the microcontroller .ill use /oth memories, first internal then e*ternal =if e*ists>&
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Pin 32-362 )ort , (imilar to )+, if e*ternal memory is not used, these pins can /e used as general inputsEoutputs& #ther.ise, ), is configured as address output =4,64L> .hen the 4LE pin is driven high =G> or as data output =Data 1us> .hen the 4LE pin is driven lo. =,>& Pin 842 @CC N-@ supply&


.o'; Di+<!+, o# 3451 Mi'!o'on$!o.."!

Fi<&!" 3.1.1 A%%!"ss /&s-;or a device =memory or "E#> to /e recognized /y the C)M, it must /eassigned an address& !he address assigned to a given device must /e uni$ue& !he C)M puts the address on the address /us, and the decoding circuitry finds the device& D+$+ /&s-!he C)M either gets data from the deviceor sends data to it& Con$!o. /&s-)rovides read or .rite signals to the device to indicate if the C)M is as%ing for information or sending it information&

3.2.3 M",o!0 +n% R"<is$"!s

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!he I,-G microcontroller has a total of +-J /ytes of R42 in .hich G+I is visi/le or user accessi/le and e*tra G+I is for special function registers& !he user accessi/le R42 is used for temporary data storage& !he user accessi/le R42 is from the address range ,, to L;h& ;rom the user accessi/le R42, ?+ /ytes of R42 is used for registers and rest for (tac% operations& !he ?+ 1ytes of R42 is divided into four register 1an%s i&e& 1an%,, 1an% G, 1an% +, 1an%?& Each of these /an%s have I Registers i&e& R, to RL each& R42 locations from , to L are set aside for /an% , of R, 8 RL .here R, is R42 location ,, Rl is R42 location G, and R+ is location +, and so on, until memory location L, .hich /elongs to RL of /an% ,& !he second /an% of registers R, 8 RL starts at R42 location ,I and goes to location ,;5& !he third /an% of R, 8 RL starts at memory location G,5 and goes to location GL5& ;inally, R42 locations GI5 to G;5 are set aside for the fourth /an% of R, 8 RL&

Fi<&!" 3.1.2 7enerally for normal operations, Register /an% 1an%, is set /y default& 1ut .e can s.itch to other /an%s /y using )(' Commands&

Fi<&!" 3.1.3 3.1.3 SFRs =S-"'i+. F&n'$ion R"<is$"!> 6 !hese Registers are in e*tra G+I /ytes of the memory& !his part of memory is not user accessi/le and these registers are used for special purposes& !hese registers range from I,h to ;;h& !here are a total of only +G (;Rs in this range and all other addresses from I,h to ;;h are invalid and there use can cause errors and not valua/le results& (ome of the (;Rs are !C# , (1M;, 4CC, 1, (C# , !2#D (), ),, )(', !L,, and !LG& !hese all the registers have some specific function that has to /e performed after they are
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programmed& =i> 0$" A%%!"ss+/." SFR ?i$1 /0$" +%%!"ss () 8 (tac% printer 8 IG5 D)!R 8 Data pointer + /ytes D)L 8 Lo. /yte 8 I+5 D)5 8 5igh /yte 8 I?5 !2#D 8 !imer mode control 8 IO5 !5, 8 !imer , 5igher order /ytes 8 IC5 !L, 8 !imer , Lo. order /ytes 8 I45 !5G 8 !imer G 5igh /ytes P I,5 !LG 8 !imer G Lo. order /yte P IJ5 (1M; 8 (erial data /uffer P OO5 )C# 8 ) control 8 IL5& 3.1.8 DPTR 6 D+$+ Poin$"! in 3451 GJ /it registerA it is divided into t.o parts D)5 and D)L& D)5 for 5igher order I /its, D)L for order I /its& D)!R, D)5, D)L these all are (;Rs in I,-G&

3.3 TIMERS AND COUNTERS 3.3.1 Ti,"!s

!he I,-G comes e$uipped .ith t.o timers, /oth of .hich may /e controlled, set, read, and configured individually& !he I,-G timers have three general functionsD G> Keeping time andEor calculating the amount of time /et.een events, +> Counting the events themselves, ?> 7enerating /aud rates for the serial port& 1oth !imer , and !imer G are GJ /its .ide& (ince I,-G has an I6/it architecture, each GJ6/its timer is accessed as t.o separate registers of lo. /yte and high /yte& #ne timer is !"2ER, and the other is !"2ERG& !he t.o timers share t.o (;Rs =!2#D and !C# > .hich control the timers, and each timer also has t.o (;Rs dedicated to itself =!5,E!L, and !5GE!LG>&
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!he upper higher /its are !5, and !5G and the /its are !L, 4 D !LG !he !2#D and !C# are t.o control registers for the t.o timers&

Fi<&!" 7.6

=i> TMOD R"<is$"!

"t is used to set the various timer operation mode& 8 !2#D is an I6/it register .here the 9 /its are set aside for timer , and the upper 9 /its are set aside for timer G& MS LS









Ti,"! 1
Fi<&!" 7.14

Ti,"! 4

)ATE2 !o start and stop the timer GATE=1 _HW control: is enabled only while INTx pin is 1 and T!x control pin "in T#$N% is set& GATE=' _(W control ")sed *re+)ently% C@T2 !imer or counter selection #,T = ' _Ti-er "inp)t *ro- internal syste- cloc.% the crystal "1,1/% is )sed to tri00er the ti-er& #,T = 1 _#o)nter "inp)t *ro- Tx inp)t pin% M1 +n% M42 2ode selection for timer and counter
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2ode 2G 2, , , , G?6/it timerEcounter mode G,G GJ6/it timerEcounter mode +G, I6/it auto reload timerEcounter mode ?G G split timerEcounter mode =ii> TCON R"<is$"! MS LS









TIMER 4 Fi<&!" 7.11

TF12 !imer G overflo.s flag T11=1: Ti-er,co)nter 1 o2er*lows& T11=': processor 2ectors to the interr)pt ser2ices& TR1D !imer G run control /it T!1=1: t)rn Ti-er 1 $N T!1=': t)rn Ti-er 1 $11 IE12 E*ternal interrupt G edge flag IE1=1: external interr)pt is detected& IE1=': when interr)pt is processed& IT12 "nterrupt G type control /it IT1=1: *allin0 ed0e& IT1=': low le2el tri00ered external interr)pt& 7ateP,, (E!1 !RG QRun !imer G (E!1 !R, QRun !imer , 7ateP,, CLR !RG Q#;; !imer G CLR !R, Q#;; !imer ,

Ti,"! Mo%" 4

3ode ': 145bit Ti-er,co)nter -ode '''' 6 1111H

Ti,"! Mo%" 2
2ode +D I6/it auto reload !imerEcounter mode =,, R ;;5>& "n auto reload, !5 is loaded .ith the initial count and a copy of it is given to !L& !his reloading leaves !5 unchanged still holding a copy of original values& !his mode has many applications, including setting the /aud rate in serial communication& Mo%" 2 P!o<!+,,in< 7 bit 5 '' 611H TH copy to T8
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(tart (ET9 T!': or T!1 T8 increased 11H "$; -onitorin0% TH reloads to T8&

3.2.2 Co&n$"!s
Counter is used to count input pulses& C@TA42 4s !ime, using I,-G0s crystal as the source ofthe fre$uency& C@TA1D 4s counter, a pulse outside of the I,-G that increments the !5 and !L register& 'hen the CE!PG, the counter counts up as pulses are fed from )ins )?&9 =for counter ,> or )?&- =for counter G>&


4n 4rduino is an open6 source microcontroller development /oard& "n plain English, you can use the 4rduino to read sensors and control things li%e motors and lights& !his allo.s you to upload programs to this /oard .hich can then interact .ith things in the real .orld& 'ith this, you can ma%e devices .hich respond and react to the .orld at large& ;or instance, you can read a humidity sensor connected to a potted plant and turn on an automatic .atering system if it gets too dry& #r, you can ma%e a stand6alone chat server .hich is plugged into your internet router& #r, you can have it t.eet every time your cat passes through a pet door& #r, you can have it start a
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pot of coffee .hen your alarm goes off in the morning& 1asically, if there is something that is in any .ay controlled /y electricity, the 4rduino can interface .ith it in some manner& 4nd even if it is not controlled /y electricity, you can pro/a/ly still use things .hich are =li%e motors and electromagnets>, to interface .ith it& !he possi/ilities of the 4rduino are almost limitless& 4s such, there is no .ay that one single tutorial can cover everything you might ever need to %no.& !hat said, "Fve done my /est to give a /asic overvie. of the fundamental s%ills and %no.ledge that you need to get your 4rduino up and running& "f nothing more, this should function as a spring/oard into further e*perimentation and learning& A!%&ino is a single6/oard microcontroller to ma%e using electronics in multidisciplinary pro3ects more accessi/le& !he hard.are consists of an open6source hard.are /oard designed around an I6/it 4tmel 4@R microcontroller, or a ?+6/it 4tmel 4R2& !he soft.are consists of a standard programming language compiler and a /oot loader that e*ecutes on the microcontroller& 4rduino /oards can /e purchased pre6assem/led or as do6it6yourself %its& 5ard.are design information is availa/le for those .ho .ould li%e to assem/le an 4rduino /y hand& "t .as estimated in mid6+,GG that over ?,,,,,, official 4rduinos had /een commercially produced& Pin D"s'!i-$ion O# A!%&ino

4rduino programs are .ritten in C or CNN& !he 4rduino "DE comes .ith a soft.are li/rary called :'iring: from the original 'iring pro3ect, .hich ma%es many common inputEoutput operations much easier& Msers only need define t.o functions to ma%e a
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runna/le cyclic e*ecutive programD


a function run once at the start of a program that can initialize settings loop=>D a function called repeatedly until the /oard po.ers off

4 typical first program for a microcontroller simply /lin%s an LED on and off& "n the 4rduino environment, the user might .rite a program li%e this

!he integrated pin G? LED

Sdefine LEDQ)" G? void setup => T pin2ode =LEDQ)" , #M!)M!>A ,, Enable pin 14 *or di0ital o)tp)t U void loop => T digital'rite =LEDQ)" , 5"75>A ,, T)rn on the 8E< delay =G,,,>A ,, Wait one second "1''' -illiseconds% digital'rite =LEDQ)" , L#'>A ,, T)rn o** the 8E< delay =G,,,>A ,, Wait one second U "t is a feature of most 4rduino /oards that they have an LED and load resistor connected /et.een pin G? and groundA a convenient feature for many simple tests& BOC !he previous code .ould not /e seen /y a standard CNN compiler as a valid program, so .hen the user clic%s the :Mpload to "E# /oard: /utton in the "DE, a copy of the code is .ritten to a temporary file .ith an e*tra include header at the top and a very simple main=> function at the /ottom, to ma%e it a valid CNN program& !he 4rduino "DE uses the 7 M toolchain and 4@R Li/c to compile programs, and uses avrdude to upload programs to the /oard& 4s the 4rduino platform uses 4tmel microcontrollers, 4tmelFs development environment, 4@R (tudio or the 4tmel (tudio, may also /e used to develop soft.are for the 4rduino&
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3.5.1 Fi!s$: ?1+$ is + PC B "t is a )rinted Circuit 1oard& Loo% to the left of this .e/ page and youFll see an image of a small )C1 as part of a group of )C1s& !hese )C1s are :/are,: that is, they do not have any electrical components mounted on them as yet& 5ere is another e*ample of oneD 5ave you ever loo%ed inside your computer, a radio or a telephoneV !he printed circuit /oards inside it are the flat, thin, s$uare, usually green fi/erglass sla/s that have electrical components attached& 5arder to see are copper traces running underneath the green covering& Wou .ould have to try different angles of light to see them& !hese are .ires that are :printed: on the fi/erglass sla/& !hey connect the electrical components, thus forming circuits& !hus the name :printed circuit /oard&: 4 company that manufactures electronic products has a cycle of production to go from concept to end user or customer& "t could /e thought of li%e thisD 2ar%eting 6 (ales 6 )roduct Concept 6 Engineering & Design 6 Design for 2anufacturing 6 2anufacturing 6 4ssem/ly 6 )ac%aging 6 Distri/ution&

?&-&+ !ypes of )rinted Circuit 1oards

(ingle (ided 1oard !his is the least comple* of the )rinted Circuit 1oards, since there is only a single layer of su/strate& 4ll electrical parts and components are fi*ed on one side and copper traces are on the other side& Dou/le (ided 1oard !his is the most common type of /oard, .here parts and components are attached to /oth sides of the su/strate& "n such cases, dou/le6sided )C1s that have connecting traces on /oth the sides are used& Dou/le6sided )rinted Circuit 1oards usually use through6hole construction for assem/ly of components& 2ulti Layered 1oard 2ulti layered PC consists of several layers of su/strate separated /y insulation& 2ost common multilayer /oards areD 9 layers, J layers, I layers, and G, layers& 5o.ever, the total num/er of layers that can /e manufactured can e*ceed over 9+ layers& !hese types of /oards are used in e*tremely comple* electronic circuits&


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3.9.1 In$!o%&'$ion
!his e*ercise covers the use of Eagle =Easily 4pplica/le 7raphical Layout Editor> )C1 design soft.are to design an electronic schematic and lay out a printed circuit /oard =)C1>& Eagle is a )C1 design soft.are pac%age consisting of a schematics editor, a )C1 editor and an auto router module& !he soft.are comes .ith an e*tensive li/rary of components, /ut a li/rary editor is also availa/le to design ne. parts or modify e*isting ones& Eagle is made /y Cad (oft =httpDEEcadsoft&de>, and is availa/le in three versions& !he light6version is limited to one sheet of schematics and half euro6card format =I,*G,, mm>, /ut can /e used under the terms of the free.are licence for non6commercial use& !his soft.are can /e do.nloaded from Cad(oft0s homepage, for 'indo.s or Linu*& 'e are investigating the possi/ilities of getting one or more licenses for the professional version,.hich does not have these limitations&

3.9.2 T1" Con$!o. P+n".

(tart Eagle& Mnder 'indo.s it should /e located in the (tart menu under )rograms X Eagle Layout Editor 9&GG X Eagle 9&GG& Create a ne. pro3ect named efp& 2a%e sure the pro3ect is saved in a place .here you have .rite access =not in the Eagle directory>& Wou can create a description of the pro3ect /y right6 clic%ing on the pro3ect and choosing Edit Description& o., right6clic% on the pro3ect and select e. X (chematic& !his .ill /ring up the (chematics Editor 'indo.&

3.9.3 D!+?in< $1" s'1",+$i'

!he Eagle tool/ar is sho.n in figure G& !he user interface in Eagle is some.hat special .hen compared to other utilities =and )C1 layout programs>& !his ta%es a little getting time getting used to& (ome of the tools .ill /e descri/ed here, to allo. the user to get to %no. these tools, .hile the tools that constitute the main part of the tutorial .ill /e descri/ed along the .ay& !he copy6tool can /e used to easily clone a component& "f you select copy and clic% on a component, a copy of the component .ill /e attached to the mouse cursor, and can /e placed in the schematic& "f you .ant to copy something to a different schematic, you .ill need to use the cut6tool& !his does not delete the component from the schematic =as you might other.ise assume from the name>, /ut merely copys it to the clip/oard& !he group6tool can /e used to .or% on a group of components etc& ;irst select the group tool and mar% the components you .ant to modify& Wou can either hold the left /utton and drag to dra. a rectangular selection, or clic% the left mouse /utton to ma%e a polygon selection, using the right mouse /utton to end the polygon selection& 'hen the selection is done, you select the tool you .ish to apply, such as move, rotate, cut etc& !hen right6clic% the group to use the selected tool& !he change6tool is used to modify the properties of various o/3ects& 4gain, this is a little different in Eagle .hen compared to other tools you .ould normally /e a/le to right6clic% on an o/3ect and change its properties from a pop6up menu>& ;irst you choose the
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modify6tool and select .hat you .ant to modify =style, size, layer etc&>, then you clic% on the component you .ant to modify& !he command line interface =CL"> can /e used

to ma%e this tas% easier& "f you .ant to modify the value of say G, capacitors to G,,n;, you could use the change6tool and select value& o., each time you clic% a component, a dialog .ill pop up as%ing for the ne. value, .hich you .ill have to type in& "f you instead enter the command value G,,n; in the CL" =the input6/o* 3ust a/ove the main canvas>, you can simply clic% on the components .hose value you .ish to change& 'hen adding components, you .ill notice a small /lac% cross on each device& !his is the origin or handle of the device, and is used to manipulate the device .ith varoius tools& (o .henever you are using a tool, Eagle .ill apply the tool to the entity .hose origin is closest to the mouse cursor& "f t.o or more entities are very close to eachother, Eagle .ill highlight one and as% if this is the one you .ant to modify& Clic% left /utton to accept or right /utton to cycle to the ne*t entity& 'hen you use the smash6tool, the name and value6te*ts .ill /e
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detached from the device and get their o.n origin, them to /e moved individually&

3.9.8 P!in$in< $1" s'1",+$i'

!o print the schematic, you should use the print6command from the file6menu =or clic% the printer6icon on the upper tool/ar>& !here are a couple of things that might /e nice to %no. .hen printing from Eagle& !hey .ill /e e*plained here& !he printer6settings are the same for the schematic, li/rary and /oard editor& 'hile this means that you only have to set the paper6 size in one place, it also has the .ierd side6effect of reme/ering if you printed the last )C1 mirrored =.hich you .ill /e doing for one of the layers .hen you do the )C16layout>, and in this case print your schematic mirrored as .ell, .hich .ill definitely not improve the reada/ility& 4lso note the scale factor setting& 'hile this can /e nice for ensuring that your schematic can /e printed on one sheet, it .ill also scale the )C1 layout, and scaling this to OLY .ill not /e apparent until you are trying to mount the components& (o great precaution is advised .hen using the scale6factor& "nstead, you should use the page limit setting& (etting this to G ensures that your schematic .ill fit on one page& !his means that it .ill /e scaled do.n a lot if you set the printer to portrait and print a schematic dra.n .ith the landscape6frames& 1ut at least .ith the limitations regarding )C16sizes in the free.are version, this .ill not impact the size of the printed )C1s& !he layers printed .ill /e those visi/le .hen the print6command is invo%ed& Mse the Display6/utton on the tool/ar to modify the visi/le layer settings&

3.9.5 PC L+0o&$
!o start laying out the printed circuit /oard, you should open the schematic in Eagles schematic editor and clic% on the /oard6/utton =located on the top tool/ar in Eagle>& Wou .ill /e as%ed .hether you .ant to create a ne. )C1 design from the schematics& Confirm this in$uiry& !his should open Eagle0s 1oard editor .indo.& #nce you have created a /oard for a schematic, you should al.ays have /oth files open .hen .or%ing .ith either the schematic or the circuit /oard layout& !his is important, since it allo.s Eagle to %eep the consistency /et.een the t.o& !his is called for.ard6 and /ac% annotation& "f you close either the schematic .indo. or the /oard .indo. and modify anythin in the other .indo., Eagle .ill /e una/le to trac% the changes you have made, and help you %eep the schematic and )C1 consistent& otice ho. all the components from the schematic have /een placed ne*t to a .hite frame in the /oard editor& !he .hite frame sho.s the ma*imum size of a circuit6/oard designed .ith the free.are version of Eagle& Wou .ill need tostay .ithin these limitations& !he first thing that should /e added to the )C1 is the mounting holes& !his ensures that you do not end up having trou/les finding room for the mounting holes /ecause you have routed a lot of signals in the spot .here the hole should /e&
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!o add the holes, .e need to go /ac% to the schematic editor& !his is /ecause of Eagles for.ard and /ac% annotation, .hich aparently is not too good at /ac%6annotating ne. components& 7o /ac% to the schematic editor and add 9 mounting holes =add mount6pad6round?&,>& !he placement in the schematic is not important& Wou .ill se that the mounting holes appear in the /oard editor right a.ay& Wou should move them to appropriate places on the /oard& "t is a good idea to align the mounting holes on some nice metric positions& (.itch the grid to millimeters .hile placing the mounting holes& Wou pro/a/ly .ant to change it /ac% after.ards, since the G,,mil grid is the standard distance /et.een component pins&

3.9.9 P.+'in< 'o,-on"n$s

o. select the move6tool and move each of the components and placing them .ithin the /oard& !ry to rotate the components .hile moving them =/y right clic%ing>, to untangle as many of the air6.ires as possi/le& !he air6.ires are not automatically updated .henZ moving the components& !o do this you should use the Rats nest6command& (ince changing /ac% and forth /et.een the move6tool and the rats nest6tool is $uite annoying, it is a good idea to define a %ey/oard shortcut for this action& 7o to #ptionsX assign & & & and enter the command rats nestA move for the %ey6com/ination C!RL6E& !his com/ination .ill e*ecute the rats nest6command and change /ac% to the move6command& otice ho. using a semicolon =A> allo.s you to have several commands carried out /y a single shortcut %ey, .hich can /e very useful& 3.9.7 Ro&$in< 'hen all the components are placed appropriately, .e are ready to start routing the )C1& !his can either /e done using the auto router =select the auto6command from the tool/ar>, or using the manual routing =the route6command>& Mse the auto router .ith caution& "n particular pay attention to the signals that should /e routed on a particular side of the )C1 to ma%e room for the soldering& !he auto router can /e restricted to .or% in only one layer /y selecting the other layer as E4& !his may ho.ever generate some errors, since some components =(2D> are not routa/le on the allo.ed layer& ;or manual routing, select the route6tool& o. clic% on an air6.ire and Eagle .ill start routing the connection& Mse right mouse /utton to change the /end of the routed signal& "f you need to change the routing layer during routing =/y inserting a via>, press the middle mouse /utton& 5olding the shift6%ey .hile starting the routing operation allo.s you to route a signal from, not only the end6points of the air6.ires& "f you %eep the shift6%ey depressed .hen ending a .ire, a via .ill /e inserted& "f you need to remove a routed .ire, you should not use the delete6command, since this cannot /e /ac%6annotated /y Eagle& "nstead, use the ripup6command& ote that clic%ing a single time on a connection rips up only this segment of the connection, .hile dou/le clic%ing =actually clic%ing an e*tra time on the air6.ire .ill unroute the entire connection& 'hen routing manually, you s.itch /ac% and forth /et.een the route and ripup6tools a lot& !his can /e much easier if a couple of %ey /indings are set upD Ctrl6E ratsnestAmove
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Ctrl6; .indo. fitA Ctrl6L .indo.A 4lt6R ripup Ctrl6R route

3.9.3 P!in$in< $1" PC

'hen you are done routing the )C1, you can print it& (tart /y e*perimenting .ith the layers that should /e printed& Li%e the schematic editor, Eagle0s /oard editor prints the layers that are currently active& "t is al.ays a good idea to print a copy of all the normal layers =top, /ottom, pads, vias, t#rigins, /#rigins etc&> on a single sheet of regular paper& !his .ill allo. you to see the real size of the circuit /oard, and can often /e helpfull in determining .hether you have placed the components too close to eachother& 'hen the )C1 is manufactured, a printout of the component placements =pads, vias, t)lace, t#rigins, t ames, t@alues and tDocu> is a good .ay of finding out .here the components should /e placed& )rint a similar sheet for the corresponding /ottom layers& "t is a good idea to put some te*t on the )C1 =in /oth the top and /ottom layer>& !his ma%es it easy to see .hich side is up and do.n, avoiding pro/lems .ith a mirrored circuit /oard& Remem/er the te*t on the /ottom layer should appear mirrored in the /oard editor =since the editor sho.s a top6vie.>& 'hen printing on the special foils for use .ith the )C1 manufacturing process, you should al.ays print each layer on regular paper first, to ensure everything is set up correctly& !he foils are considera/ly more e*pensive than a regular sheet of paper& !he )C1 gets /est if you actually print the foils mirrored& !his allo.s the side of the foils that have the print on them to touch the )C1 during the M@ e*posure, giving a picture that is slightly /etter in focus& Remem/er to reset the scaling to G&,, .hen printing the )C1s& Wou should also chec% the 1lac% and (olid6options .hen printing the )C16traces& 4nd the mirror6option for the appropriate layer=s>&

3.9.6 PC F+/!i'+$ion P!o'"ss

S$"-1. !a%e print out of )C1 layout on glossy paper& 7lossy paper is multilayer paper that is very helpful in )C1 designing& S$"-2. o. measure the length and /reathe of )C1 layout using scale& S$"-3. o. cut a copper clad )C1 of this size& !here are t.o side in this )C1 one is insulation layer that is called top layer of )C1 other one is copper side of )C1 that is called /ottom layer of )C1& (tep9& !a%e a sand paper to ru/ this )C1& !his .ill remove corrosion from )C1 and you can ma%e strong solder .ith )C1& S$"-5. !a%e layout of )C1 and stic% this .ith copper side of )C1=/ottom layer>& Wou can use electrical tap from /ac%side of )C1 for tightly stic% this layout design .ith copper )C1&
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Layout design should come inner side& 2eans layout and copper side should stic% to each other& 1 o. # electrical press =iron press>& S$"-7. o. start press of copper )C1 from /ottom layer& S$"-3. !his process has done till same layout should start print on /ac% side of paper& S$"-6. !his process ta%es time around G- minutes for ne. user and it can also finished in minutes& S$"-14& 4fter come same )C1 trac% on /ac% side of paper %eep this )C1 in to .ater till it /ecome could& !his process .ill ma%e soft paper& S$"-11& Remove paper layer smoothly using our finger till can get layout of )C1& Reminds )C1 should have only trac% on )C1 in this process some e*tra paper also remains in /et.een trac%s of )C1 so .e need to remove them using /lunt e$uipment you can use also scre. driver& "f .e do not remove remaining paper /et.een trac% it .ould case shorting in circuit& 5ere shorting means unnecessary connection& S$"-12& 4fter getting fine trac% on )C1& !a%e +,? spoon fecl? solution in a plastic try& S$"-13& !a%e a glass of hot .ater in try& Keep ta%e care it ma%es fast /u//les for fe. seconds that comes out that so ma%e distance from solution& S$"-18& )ut this )C1 in to the solution and sha%e try for some time also o/serve some part of copper is start remove from )C1& (ha%e solution till copper remove from )C1& copper .ill only remain in trac% of )C1& S$"-15& !a%e out )C1 from solution using tong and .ashed it using .ater then ta%e sand paper and ru/ on this )C1 till capper trac% sho. you properly& S$"-19& o. do drill on pad size using drill machine& S$"-17& "nsert component on right place of circuit and do soldering properly&

Department of Electronics & Communication, L C! " D#RE



E,/"%%"% s0s$",s P 4 computer .hich is integrated into another system, the em/edded system& Em/edded systems are part of a /igger system& Em/edded system programming is programming .ith resource constraints& 4n Em/edded system is /ased on specifications& (pecific re$uirements are defined and /ased on these re$uirements an em/edded system is developed& "n short an em/edded system .or%s for a predefined tas%& #n the .hole a hard.are chip programmed for a dedicated tas% results in an em/edded system& 4s integrated circuits get continuously cheaper, more capa/le and efficient, comple*ity of chip designs are constantly !his is illustrated /y ne. design approaches such as multi6 core technologies& 4s there is no foreseea/le end to this development of em/edded system, higher a/stractions for the design process to /e invented&

Department of Electronics & Communication, L C! " D#RE