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Department of Environmental Sciences

Jahangirnagar University Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh Tel (PABX): (880-2) 7791045- 51, Ext 1370; envsci@juniv.edu

Section-I Compulsory Course (both for Group A & B): Course No. Env. 510 Section-II Optional Courses (both for Group A & B): (Any One) Course No. Env. Env. Env. Env. 520 530 540 550 Title of the Course Global climate changes and environment Natural resource managements Environmental safety and remediation Ecosystem sustainability of Bangladesh Credit 4 4 4 4 Marks 100 100 100 100 Title of the Course Advanced Techniques in Environmental Analysis Credit 4 Marks 100

Syllabus for M.Sc. of Sessions 2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008


The admission to the Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Environmental Sciences will be in the accordance with the ordinance for the degree of Master of Science of this University. Courses leading to the degree of M.Sc. in Environmental Sciences will extend over one academic year and the examination in all courses for a total of 24 credits, as prescribed in this Syllabus, shall be held during or at the end of the academic year. Students admitted into the M.Sc. program will be divided into two groups: (i) General Group (Group A) and (ii) Thesis Group (Group B) Selected students from amongst those obtaining at least first class in the Honours examination and having aptitude for research may be allowed by the Department to offer thesis in M.Sc. course in a suitable field. The selection of the field of study will depend on the availability of the teachers in the Department. Rest students will be considered as general group (Group A). Students of both groups (A & B) will have to take 16 credits of theoretical courses where 4 credits in a compulsory course and 12 credits in 5 optional courses as recommended by the Departmental Committee and approved by the Chairman of the Department. In addition general group students (Group A) have to take one more 2 credits optional course. The total marks for practical/field work/report of general group (A) students will be 4 credits in which 80 marks will be allotted for practical/field work/report and 20 marks for viva/presentation. The total marks for research work (thesis) of thesis group (B) students will be 6 credits in which 100 marks (4 credits) will be allotted for research work (Thesis) and 50 marks (2 credits) for thesis presentation. Students of both general and thesis groups will have a common viva voce examination of 2 credits at the end of their theoretical examination. Outlines of the courses to be offered are stated below: General group (Group-A) Theoretical courses Practical/ Field/ project Viva voce Grand total: Thesis group (Group B) Theoretical courses Thesis Viva voce Grand total: Credits 16 6 2 24 Units 4.0 1.5 0.5 6 Marks 400 150 50 600 Credits 18 4 2 24 Units 4.5 1.0 0.5 6 Marks 450 100 50 600

Section-III Optional Courses: (Five courses have to be taken by general group (Group A) students/ Four courses have to be taken by thesis group (Group B) students): Course No. Env. 505 Env. 515 Env. 525 Env. Env. Env. Env. Env. 535 545 555 565 575 Title of the Course Agroindustrial Pollutants and Management Industrial waste: Treatment and Management Plans EnvironmentalIssues: Bangladesh Perspectives Environmental Pollution and Public Health Biomonitoring of Pollution Environmental Radiation Environmental Management Systems Groundwater Exploration and Management Applied Environmental Biotechnology and Microbiology Aquatic Ecology Credit 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Marks 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

Env. 585 Env. 595 Section-IV

Thesis/Field/Project/Practical (Group A & B): Course No. Env. 501 Env. 511 Title of the Course Practical/Field work/Report (for only general group student) Thesis (for only thesis group student) Credit 4 6 Marks 100 150

DETAIL COURSE CONTENTS FOR ONE YEAR M.Sc. DEGREE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Section I Env. 510 Advanced Techniques in Environmental Analysis (4 Credits, 100 Marks) 1. Advanced Laboratory Management: Concept of clean room, Quality control and quality assurance in environmental analysis, Analysis of real samples; Choice of methods, accuracy in the analysis of complex materials, preparing samples for analysis, effects of uncertainty, sample decomposition and dissolution, sources of errors, eliminating of interferences, the nature of the separation process, separation of inorganic and organic species, sample collection for metal analysis Elemental analyzer: Principal, Instrumentation, calibration and quantitative measurements of Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen (CNH), Elemental analyzerMass spectrometry (EA-MS), Determination of CNH in soil, sediment and biological samples. Molecular Spectroscopic Techniques: UV-Visible Spectroscopy; Instrumentation, calibration and quantitative measurements in UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Methods based on kinetic measurements, Determination of Iron and Manganese in Natural Waters and Sediments, Spectrophotometric determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand of Natural Waters and Wastewaters Using a Standard Method, Determination of iodine in urine samples using Sandell-Kholtohff reaction. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques: Special techniques in AAS, Flame, Electrothermal atomization, Hydride generation AAS, Cold Vapour techniques of atomization. Determination of arsenic in water and biological samples samples, Determination of mercury using CV-AAS. ICP Techniques: Production of plasma and its analytical uses, ICP-OES and ICP-MS, Basic instrumentation in ICP-MS, sample introduction, mass separation techniques and detection, Applications of ICP-MS to problems of environmental analysis. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Principles of operation, retention time and its relation to quantitative analysis, instrumentation and segmented modules, Qualitative and quantitative analysis, Application to environmental chemical analysis with special reference to analysis of pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in environmental samples. Gas chromatography (GC). Principles of GC separation, Instrumentation: packed columns and capillary columns, Injection systems for High Resolution GC, GC-C-MS, Qualitative and quantitative analysis, Specific applications Nuclear Analytical Techniques. Nuclear reactions and types of neutron reactions, Effective cross section, Theory of Neutron Activation Analysis, IBA techniques (PIXE, PIGE), Radioactive decay, Production of radioisotopes, Neutron sources, Detection of radioactivity, INAA and RNAA, Advantages and disadvantages of NAA. X-Ray Methods. Concepts of X-ray absorption and emission and their analytical use, X-ray Sources and Detectors, Details of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) as a multi-element analysis technique, Examples of XRF analysis of environmental samples.

10. Methods for determination of Environmental Radioactivity. Occurrence and monitoring of radioactivity in the environment, counting instruments for , and emitting radionuclides, Methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, Gamma spectroscopic method and its applications, total radioactive strontium and Sr-90 measurement in water and wastewater samples. 11. Microscopic Methods in Environmental Analysis: Dark field microscopy, Bright-field microscopy, Fluorescent microscopy, Phase contrast microscopy, Electron microscopy, Transmission electron microcopy, scanning electron microscopy; Analytical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques, Application of Digital Microscopy, Phytoplankton and zooplankton counting techniques, Determination of chlorophyll and biomass. 12. Microbiological Examination of Environmental Samples: Equipment, collection and preservation of mirobiological samples, QA and QC, special techniques, bacterial strengths, preparation of culture medium, fecal coliform test.
Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Skoog D. A., et. al. (5th ed.), Saunders College, Philadelphia, 1998. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Skoog D. A. and West D. M. (3rd ed), Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976 Chemistry for Environmental Engineers, C. N. Sawyer, P. L. McCarty and G. F. Parkin (4th ed), McGraw-Hill, 1994. Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, G W Ewing (Ed), Marcel Dekker, NY, 1997 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Theory, Design and Application, S. D. Haswell (ed.), Elsevier, Vol. 5, 1991 Neutron Activation Analysis in Geosciences, G. K. Muecke (ed.), Mineralogical Association of Canada, Halifax, 1980. Laboratory Experiments in Environmental Chemistry, D. Neal Boehnke and R. Del Delumyea, CHIPS, Texas, 1998. Biological Degradaation and Bioremidiation of Toxic Chemicals, D.D. Hale, W. Reimek and J. Wiegl, Chapman and Hall, Co, New York. Bargeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth Edition, Buchanan and Gibbons, 2d, Willium and Willkin, New York.

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Section II Env. 520 Global Climate Changes and Environment (4 Credits, 100 Marks) 1. The climate System: Climate and the climate system, Natural forcing of the climate system, Natural variability of climate, Extreme events, human influence on the climate system, modelling and projection of anthropogenic climate change, observing anthropogenic climate change. Observed climate variability and change: Land-surface, sea surface temperature, sea air temperature, Temperature of the upper air, changes in the cryosphere. Temperature of the past 1000 years, volcanic and solar effects, changes in precipitation and related variable (Land, Palaeodrought, Ocean), water vapor, evaporation, clouds the atmospheric / oceanic circulation change, extreme weather and climate events.

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Radiative Forcing of climate change: Radiative forcing, forcing-response relationship, well-mixed greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone, land-use change, solar forcing of climate, global warming potentials, Global mean radiative forcing, Time evolution of radictive forcing. Model evaluation: Mean state and variability in climate models, model Hierarchy, coupled climate models-some methodologies, coupled climate models-means, 20th century climate and climate variability, coupled model Phenomena, extreme events, coupled models-dependence on resolution, sources of uncertainty and levels of confidence in coupled models. Projections of future climate change: Climate and climate change, global mean response, patterns of future climate change, range of temperature response, factors that contribute of the response, changes in variability, charges of extreme events. Changes in Sea level: Factors contributing to sea level change, Past sea level changes, future sea level changes, reducing the uncertainties in future estimates of sea level change. Mitigation options: Energy supply mitigation options, transportation sector, human settlements, agricultural management of forests. Industry, options,

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Plants and wildlife resources: History of plant and animal extinction, saving endangered species-integrated species management, legal solution Mineral resources: Abundances and formation of mineral resources, location, mining and processing of mineral resources, population, technology and resources, Key resources in Bangladesh; hard rock and coal mining Energy resources: Types of energy resources, brief history of energy resources, fossil fuel, energy concepts: energy quality, energy efficiency, and net useful energy, non-renewable energy resources-valuating energy resources, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional natural gas, coal, renewable energy resources; direct solar energy for producing heat and electricity, indirect solar energy from falling water and ocean waves, indirect solar energy from thermal gradients in ocean and solar ponds, indirect energy from wind, indirect solar energy from biomass.

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Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Owen O S, Chiras D D and Reganold J P 1998. Natural resources conservationmanagement for a sustainable future, 7th Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey Greenwood NJ and Edward J MB 1979, Human environment and Natural systems, Duxbury press. A New Century for Natural Resources Management by Robert Costanza, Steward Pickett, James Kennedy, and Jack Ward Thoma Water Quality: Management of a Natural Resource by Jim Perry and Elizabeth Leigh Vanderklein Natural Resources Management Practices: A Primer by Peter F. Ffolliott

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Climate Change and Bangladesh: Scenarios, Impacts and adaptation measures. Climate Change and health: Health and environmental effects, Climate sensitive diseases, Climate induced natural hazards and health, Uncertainties.

Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. Climate change 2007 by, J.T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D.J. Griggs, Cambridge University press 2007. Climate Process and Change by Edward Bryant, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Bangladesh: Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability: A Synthesis by Ahsan Uddin Amhed, 2006., Climate Change Cell, Department of Environment, Bangladesh.

Env. 540 Environmental Safety and Remediation (4 Credits, 100 Marks) Part A 1. Introduction: Need for integration of safety, health and environment; Fundamentals of safety; overview of industrial safety management; role of top management and Government in safety management, Legal aspects of safety. 2. Steps of industrial safety management: Security Management of Industrial plants; Safe working practices; Personal protective equipments; Storage and handling of Material and equipment; Safety in transportation and automotive equipments; Electrical safety; Mechanical Hazards; Chemical Hazards; Building design and Fire protection; Radiation Hazards; Safety in Hazardous area, safety in power plants etc. 3. 4. Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS), Scope of OHSAS 18001. Industrial safety analysis: Introduction, locating and defining injury sources, causes of injury, sources of data, safety analysis techniques, fault tree calculations, risk tolerability. Implementation and operation, Structure and responsibility, Training, awareness and competence, Consultation and communication, Documentation, Operational control, Emergency preparedness and response, Social security inside the industries, Insurance.

Env. 530. Natural Resource Managements 1. 2.

(4 Credits, 100 Marks)

Definition, scope and goal of natural resource managements and its relation to environmental sciences Natural resources conservation and management: past present and future, quality of human life on earth, a brief history of resources conservation, environment and sustainability movements, classification of natural resources, approaches to natural resources management, basic reason of the depletion of natural resources and their conservation Water resources: Importance and properties of water, sources and worldwide supply and national consumption, water supply problems, building dams and water diversion projects, groundwater use, water conservation Managing water resources: the water cycle, flooding- problems and solution and adaptation, water shortage-issue and solutions, irrigationissues and solution, groundwater pollution in Bangladesh-a detrimental threat to the safe drinking water supply. Food resources: Food supply, population growth and world food problems, human nutrition, world agriculture system, fish and fish farming, increasing crop yield, climate changes and food security.

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Part B 1. Quality of Information on the Contamination of the Environment: Introduction, Total Quality Management of Environmental Information, Quality Systems for Chemical Analysis, A Measurement Infrastructure for Sustainable Quality of Environmental Analysis, Standard Methods, Reference Materials, Laboratory Performance Studies, Summary. Effluents treatment and cleaning: Effluent treatment plant (ETP), Types of ETP, application of ETP for dying and tannery industries, Sludge treatment and disposal, Municipal wastewater treatment. Methods for Cleaning Contaminated Soils and Sediments: Clean-up of Contaminated Soil: Thermal Treatment of Excavated Soils, In Situ Extractive Treatment of Contaminated Soil, Treatment Soil by Electroclamation, Treatment of soils by Biodegradation of the contaminants, Extensive Biological Treatment for control of DiffusedSources Pollution

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Wetlands of Bangladesh: History and heritage of wetlands, Importance of wetlands for Bangladesh, Resources of wetlands, Haor basins of Bangladesh as resource base - Haor systems of international importance; Socioeconomic values of wetlands - Over fishing and the vanishing of fish species, impact of flood control and irrigation project on fish species; Marine and estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh; Coral reef - St. Martin island and its significance; Impact of development activities on wetlands, Management and regulations of wetlands - National and global importance of coastal and wetland biodiversity, Coastal wetlands biodiversity management, Mangrove of the Chokoria Sundarbans; Aquaculture and mangrove forestry, International collaboration for management of wetlands. Agricultural Ecosystem: Causes of diminishing arable lands, Structure biotic structure, primary producers, consumers, decomposers; Function primary productivity, energy flow, nutrient cycling; Factors competition, climate, ploughing, shifting cultivation, crop rotation, burning, fertilizers, irrigation, introduction of high yielding varieties, pests and weeds, changing farming patterns in the hill area of Bangladesh. Coastal Afforestation and Environment: Plantation in coastal areas of Bangladesh; Windbreaks and Shelterbelts: Wind and vegetation, functions of windbreaks and shelterbelts, types of windbreaks and shelterbelts for coastal regions. Agro-forestry: Definition, classification of agro-forestry systems, practices and technologies, ecological spread of agro-forestry system, Homestead agro-forestry in Bangladesh, Productive and protective role of agroforestry, Agro-forestry as a sustainable land use for fragile ecosystems, Soil productivity under agro-forestry, Significant nitrogen fixing trees in agro-forestry systems, Design of agro-forestry systems with special reference to Bangladesh. Social Forestry: A new dimension of afforestation in Bangladesh, Social forestry practice, Methods and practice of social forestry and recreation forestry, Benefits of social forestry, Future planning of social forestry. Urban Forestry: Urban greening and green spaces, Importance of urban forestry and aquatic urban habitat for urban landscape developments and environment. Wastelands: Wasteland as a dormant resource base for sustainable development; Development of wastelands -Technology for development of wastelands - coastal sands, dry and rocky areas, wet lands, denuded and eroded hill slopes, land slips and mined areas.

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(ii) Clean up of Contaminated Sediments: Extent of the Problem, Treatment Processes, Practical experience and Costs. 4. Adsorption-filtration: Definition, types of adsorption, adsorption isotherm, adsorption of solutes by solids, hysterisis curves, thermodynamic properties, modes of adsorption by natural and synthetic adsorbents, application of adsorption-filtration process for purification of water and waste water, desorption of solute particles. Green Chemistry: Definition, scope of green chemistry, need for green chemistry research, alternative chemicals, their fate and environmental consequence, recycle versus reuse, green accounting, zero discharge and zero pollution. 5.

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Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Occupational health and safety management systems-Specification, Occupational health and safety assessment series, OHSAS 18001:1999. Bangladesh Labor Law, 2006. American national Standard, Quality Management Systems-Requirements published by American Society for Quality, December, 2000. R. K. Jain and Sunil S. Rao, Industrial Safety, Health and Environmental Management Systems, Khanna Publishers. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida. Salomons W., Forstner U., and Mader P. Heavy Metals (Problems and Solution), Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1995. Alshawabkeh A. N., Acar Y.B. Removal of contaminants from soils by electrokinetics: A theoretical treatise. J. Environ. Sci. Health A27/7, 1835-1861, 1992. Brown G.A., Elliott H.A. Influence of electrolytes on EDTA extraction of Pb from polluted soil. Wat. Air. Soil. Pollution 62, 157-165, 1992.

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10. Impact of artificial trans-boundary barrages on different ecosystems of Bangladesh. 11. National conservation Bangladesh.
Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. Najma Heptulla. 1993. Environment proteetion in developing countries, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. A.P. Dwivedi. 1992. Agroforestry Principles and Practices, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. L. DeVere Burton. 2000. Introduction to Forestry Science. Delmar Publishers, New York. C. Philip Wheater. 1999. Uraban habitats, Routledge Publication Ltd., London.

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Env. 550 Ecosystem Sustainability of Bangladesh 1.

(4 Credits, 100 Marks)

Introduction: Nature of inland water bodies and macrophytes of inland water bodies of Bangladesh; Vegetation of Bangladesh, their economic importance and environmental roles. Forest Ecosystems of Bangladesh: Role of forest dwellers for ecosystem sustainability; Hill forest and Sal forest of Bangladesh as potential resources, The Sundarbans biodiversity conservation, Wildlife of Bangladesh as a resource and their protection.

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Neaz Ahmad Siddiqi. 2001. Mangrove Forestry in Bangladesh. Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong. M. Sitaram Rao. 1979. Introduction to Social Forestry. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. M. Z. Abedin, C.K. Lai and M. Omar Ali. 1990. Homestead Plantation and Agroforestry in Bangladesh. Published by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. P.K.R. Nair. 1994. Agroforestry Systems in the Tropics, Kluwer Academic Publisheres in co-operation with ICRAF, USA. H.L. Gholz, 1987. Agroforestry: Realities, Possibilites and Potentials, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Netherlands.

Endospores, and Nutrients, Technology for reuse of water, Recent advances and Future trends in wastewater Treatment Technologies. 3. Joint Treatment of Industrial wastewater with Municipal wastewater: Introduction, Conventional and Advanced Treatment Process used for Removal of Waste water constituents, Advantages of Joint Treatment wetlands, Disinfection process of treated wastewater. 4. The 3Rs Golden rule of Industrial Waste Management: Introduction, Concepts of Sustainable Industrialization, Reducing the environmental cost of industrial production by 3RS approach, Waste Reduction by water conservation Industrial Production, Reuse in Industrial Waste, Recycling of Industrial Waste to recover Useful By- Products, Recovery of Acid and Mould from Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries, Global Waste Trade and Exchange for Non Hazardous Industrial Waste recycling, Environmental Significance of Recycling. 5. Preventing Industrial Waste and Pollution Through Cleaner Production: Introduction, Concept of cleaner production, Changing production process in Industries to reduce Toxicity and Achieve Cleaner production, Equipment modifications for Cleaner Production, Material Change and Substitution to reduce Hazardous Wastes and Achieve cleaner production in industries. 6. Seminar/ presentation on i) Some case studies of Treatment Technologies for Industrial wastes ii) Some case studies of Cleaner Industrial Production
Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. Industrial Waste Treatment Handbook (2nd Edition) By: Woodard & Curran, Inc. 2006 Elsevier. Waste Treatment in the Process Industries: Hung,Howard H. Inc. 2006 Elsevier Lawrence K. Wang, Yung-Tse

10. M. S. Khan, E. Haq, S. Huq, A. A. Rahman, S. M. A. Rashid and H. Ahmed. 1994. Wetlands of Bangladesh, BCAS, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 11. K. C. Misra, 1989. Manual of Plant Ecology, 3rd edition, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., India.

Section III Env. 505 Agroindustrial Pollutants and Management (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. Introduction: Historical perspectives of agrochemical uses, Basic principle of agriculture crop production, types of agrochemicals, Effect of agrochemicals on soil, Fresh water and plant kingdom, Agrochemical residues, misuse of agrochemicals. Agrochemicals properties, the role of pesticides in agriculture. Physicochemical aspects of pesticides formulation and application: Target surfaces for pesticide application, plant leaf cuticle, the insect integument, pesticide formulation and state of application. Agricultural problems related to excessive Trace Metal Contents of Soils : Introduction, Trace Metals in Soils, Excess of Trace Metals in Soils, Availability of Trace Metals to Plants, Permissible Trace Metal Levels and Loads in Soils, Final Remarks Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Introduction, POPs effects on human health and the environment, properties of POPs, POPs as a concern for developing countries, POPs sources and convention Provisions, POPs and sustainable human development. Toxicity and remediation of POPs: Methods development for the degradation of POPs, sample collection and treatment from food and environment, Implementing the Stockholm Convention and role of UNDP-GEF.

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Industrial and Hazardous Wastes: Health Implication and Management Plans: Dr. Rajiv K. Sinha and Dr. Sunil Herat, 2004 Pointer Publishers.

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Env. 525 Environmental Issues: Bangladesh perspectives (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. Bangladesh: Country profile, State of the Environmental Resources (Natural Physical and Biotic), Quality of life (population growth, poverty and malnutrition), Major Environmental Concerns (Agricultural resource base, biomass, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, pollution, deforestation, wetland and fisheries, mangrove ecosystems, salinity, health and sanitation, urbanization, health and sanitation, water pollution) . Land degradation: Pressures, State, Impact and responses, Options and measures need to combat land degradation. Water pollution and Scarcity: Causes, State, Impact and responses, Options and actions for pollution management. Air Pollution: Pressures, State, Impact and responses, Options for air pollution management Biodiversity: Pressures, State, Impact and responses, Options as future measures. Natural Disasters: Pressures, State, Impact and responses, Options as future measures. Case study: Dhaka city

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Recommended References: The Biochemistry and Uses of Pesticides by Kenneth A. Hassall, 2nd edition, 1990, Maclillan Press Ltd.

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Env. 515 Industrial Wastes: Treatment and Management Plans (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. Treatment Technologies for Industrial Wastes: Introduction, Wastewater Treatment Plant, Conventional Methods of Treatment of Industrial Waste: Conventional Physical Treatment Methods, Conventional Chemical Treatment Methods, Microremediation Technology, Phytoremediation Technology. 2. Advanced Treatment Technologies for Industrial Waste: Introduction, Advanced Treatment Technologies to remove new and specific contaminants, Refractory Organics, Toxic gases, Microbial Cysts and

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History of Dhaka City, Environment and Social Situation (Key Environmental Resources- Land, Air, Water, Biodiversity, Social Situation- Population, Nutrition and Human Health, Human Settlement), Key Sectors and Concern (Industry, Transportation Services and Management, Health Care Infrastructure and Services, Occupational Health and Safety, Water Supply and Sanitation, Waste Generation and Disposal), Environmental Legislation and Management. Key Environmental Issues: Air: Status of Air Quality in Dhaka.

CO,SO2,Pb,Cd,HC,H2S,O3,PAH, and particulate matter, Indoor air pollution, Excreta disposal, bore hole latrine. 5. Environmental geochemistry and health: trace element related diseases, groundwater and health, geochemistry of iodine in relation to iodine deficiency diseases. Principal of Epidemiology and Epidemiologic methods: History, Epidemiological approaches, Epidemiological methods (descriptive, analytical and experimental), Tools of measurements, Investigation of an epidemic, Uses of Epidemiology. Some case studies of Environmental pollution and public health aspects; Arsenic and fluoride pollution in groundwater in Bangladesh.

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ii. Water Resources: Surface Water Quality, Threat on Ground Water Resources, Inadequate Water Supply. iii. Land: State of Land Resources, Soil Pollution. iv. Noise: Vehicular Horns, Industrial Operation, Construction and Repairing Activities, Use of Loudspeakers and Microphones, Vehicular Movements on Uneven/ Bumpy Road Surface. v. Environmental Health: Air Pollution and Human Health, Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation and Health, Water Pollution, Increasing Occupational Health Risk, Unhygienic Food. vi. Solid Waste Management: Residential and Commercial Waste, Industrial Waste, Medical Waste. vii. Sewage Management: Sewerage System of Dhaka City, Sewage Treatment Plant, Damage of Sewerage System, Lack of Sewerage Service and Sewage Treatment Facility. viii. Slums and Squatters: Lack of Water Supply and Sanitation Facility, Land Use Violation, Poor Housing Settlement, Biomass Fuel Burning, Unsocial or anti-social activity.

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Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. K. Park (1997) Preventive and social medicine, Banarsidas Bhanot publishers, India. J.D. Appleton (1996) Environmental geochemistry and health, The geological society of London, UK. K.M. Rashid, M. Rahman, and S. Hyder (2004) Community medicine and public health, RHM publishers, Bangladesh. V. K. Muthu (2005) A short book of Public health, Jaypee Brother, New Delhi.

Env. 545 Biomonitoring of Pollution 1. 2.

(2 Credits, 50 Marks)

Pollution and Biomonitoring: An Overview, Chemical versus Biological Pollution Monitoring. Algal Assay Aproaches to Pollution Studies in Aquatic systems: Concepts, algal assay approaches, methods and experimental procedures, toxicity guidelines for natural waters. Plant Bioassay for Monitoring Industrial Wastes: Introduction, microalgae, macroalgae, aquatic vascular plants and rooted vascular plants for monitoring toxicity. Seaweeds for Monitoring Eutrophication and Heavy Metal Pollution: Introduction, seaweeds as bioindicators for eutrophication, biomonitoring at the community level, biominitoring at the species level, seaweeds as bioindicators for heavy metals. Eichhornia crassipes - A new biosystem for metal pollution abatement: Introduction, Experimental designs, Bioaccumulation of metals in Eichhornia, Possible mechanisms of metal tolerance, Biological effects of plant-sequestered heavy metals on Neochetina, Binding of metals in biological systems. Protozoa: Bioindicators of Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Control The biological Peculiarities of Protozoa, Protozoa and environment, protozoa as bioindicators, use of protozoa in water purification plants, protozoa and soil pollution monitoring. Zooplankton for Monitoring Heavy Metal Pollution: Heavy metal accumulation in marine ecosystems, heavy metal accumulation in freshwater ecosystems, zooplankton bioassay.

ix. Natural Disaster: Flood.


Recommended References: 1. Bangladesh: Programme. State of the Environment 2001, United Nations Environmental

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Dhaka City: State of Environment 2005, United Nations Environmental Programme.

Env. 535 Environmental pollution and public health (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. Introduction: Concept of environmental pollution and health, history of public health in Bangladesh, concept of health and health care, screening of disease, International classification disease, concept of prevention, health and socioeconomic profile of Bangladesh. 2. Toxic Chemicals: Classification and identification, sources of chemical wastes, flammable and combustible substances, reactive corrosive substance, transport, effects and fates, the magnitude of the problem, mode of human exposure, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, dose-response assessment. 3. Pollution Prevention: Introduction, pollution prevention planning, structure of planning process, pollution prevention hierarchy, deterrents to prevention strategy, pollution prevention incentives, regulatory framework, life-cycle assessment and its application. Environment and health: water pollution and health, health related chemical constituents; As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Fl, CN, other organic pollutants, Surveillance of drinking water quality, Air pollution: Sources of air pollution, meteorological factors, air pollutants;

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Recommended References: 1. 2. Rana, B.C. 1995. Pollution and Biomonitoring, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New York. Misra, K.C. 1989. Manual of Plant Ecology. Oxford and IBH Publication Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India.

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Env. 555 Environmental Radiation 1.

(2 Credits, 50 Marks)

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Radioactivity and Interaction of Radiation with Matter: Radioactivity, laws of radioactivity, important decay chains, Transformation mechanism, Decay equation, Interactions with matter. Radiation Effects: Acute effects, Delayed effects, Risk estimates (BEIR III), Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and Weighting factor (WF), Dose equivalent, Basic radiation dose limits and Standards. Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Detection: Radiation detectors, Different methods of detection, Gamma Spectroscopy system, Environmental sample counting and analysis, Dose measuring instruments, Survey meter, Pocket Dosimeters. TLD etc. Radiation Protection: Basic principles, Techniques of radiation protectiontime, distance and shielding, Build-up factor, Half value layer, Internal hazard, Principle of control, Control procedures, National and International legislation system. Dosimetry: Absorbed dose, Exposure rate and measurement, ExposureDose relationship, Bragg-Gray principle, Kerma, Internally deposited radioactive substances, Effective Half life, Total dose commitment, Dose assessment from environmental radioactivity, radioactivity levels in the environment of Bangladesh. Migration Behavior of Radionuclide into the Environment: Basic principle, Sources of Environmental radioactivity, Atmospheric dispersion, migration in soil and ground water, Site characterization- Soil to plant transfer factor, distribution coefficient and Retardation factor, Conceptual model, Radiological consequence analysis. 5.

Implementation and operation: Resources, roles, responsibility and authority; competence, training and awareness; communication; documentation; control of documents; operational control; emergency preparedness and response. Checking: Monitoring and measurement; evaluation of compliance; nonconformity, corrective action and preventive action; control of records; internal audit. Relationships among ISO 9000 (QMS), ISO 14000 (EMS) and OSHAS 18000 (Occupational health, safety and environment).
Environmental Management Systems- Requirements with guidance for use Published by International Organization for Standardization, 2004. Environmental Laws in Bangladesh Published by Environment & Development Alliance, June 1999. Application for certification to ISO 14001:2004 by Bureau Veritas (Bangladesh) Private Limited, July 2007. Descriptive Law on Pollution & Environment by Akalank Kumar Jain, 9th edt, June 2000. A compilation of Environmental Laws published by DoE & BEMP (Bangladesh Environmental Management Program). December, 2002. Report: Workshop on Environment Protection & Pollution Prevention Issues & Initiatives Published by BUET & North-Carolina A&T State University (NCATSU), July, 2002.

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Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Env. 575 : Groundwater Exploration and Management (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. 2. Groundwater exploration methods: principal and applications Static Water level, pumping water level, drawdown, residual drawdown, well yield, specific capacity, cone of depression, radius of influence, Darcy,s law, transmissivity, storage coefficient Equilibrium well equation, nonequilibrium well equation, hydrogeologic condition that effect time drawdown graph, distance drawdown graph and boundary effect, combined use of semilog graph, effect of partial penetration, water well recovery data, theis non equilibrium equation. Well drilling Methods: Different types of well drilling methods, well drilling fluids, function of drilling fluids, properties of water based drilling fluids, drilling fluids additives, typical drilling problems, air drilling. Water well design: casing distance, casing materials, well depth, well screen length, well screen slot openings, pressure release screens, well screen diameter, open area, selection of materials, design of domestic well, design for sanitary protection, special well-design. Development of water-wells: well development, development and well development methods. factors that effect

Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Herman Cember, Introduction to Health Physics, McGRAW-HILL, INC. Glem F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, John Wiley and Sons. Martine and S.A. Harbison, An Introduction to Radiation Protection, London, Chapman and Hall. Measurement of radionuclides in Food and the Environment, LAEA TRS No-295 (1989) Generic Models and Parameters for Assessing the Environmental Transfer of Radionuclides from Routine Release, LAEA TRS No. 57 (1982) Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, LAEA TRS No. 364 (1994).

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Env. 565 Environmental Management Systems 1.

(2 Credits, 50 Marks)

Definition of EMS (Environmental Management System). Scope and objectives of EMS, Key Concepts of Industrial Environmental Management, Environmental Management Approaches. Terminology: Auditor, continual improvement, corrective action, document, environment, environmental aspect, Environmental Balance, environmental impact, environmental objective, environmental performance, environmental policy, environmental target, interested party, internal audit, nonconformity, organization, preventive action, prevention of pollution, procedure, record. General requirements of EMS, Applicability of environmental policy, Environmental aspects; legal and other requirements; objectives, targets and program(s).

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Pumping test: measuring drawdown, well efficiency, step drawdown test, problems of pumping test analysis. Water quality protection for wells and nearby ground water resource, choosing a well site, predicting the pollution potential at a drilling site, well design, disinfecting procedure, sealing well head, horizontal suction lines, sealing abandoned wells, major causes of deteriorating, well performance Groundwater law, water well specification, well contract problems.

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10. Ground Water Monitoring Techniques: Sources of Ground water contamination, effect of aquifer characteristics on the spread of ground water contamination, monitoring contaminant movement, locating monitoring wells, personal safety at monitoring site, design of monitoring wells, sampling monitoring wells, task of ground water protection, aquifer restoration.
Recommended References: 1. Fletcher G. Driscoll, 1986, Groundwater and Wells, 2nd ed. Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesota 55112.

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Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd edition, 2002. C.J. Hurst et. al.. ASM Press, Washinton DC, USA. Environmental Microbiology, 2006. R.M. Maier, I.L. Pepper and C.P. Gerba. Academic Press, Elsevier. Biowaste and Biological Waste Treatment, 2005. G. Evans. James and James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK.

Env. 595 Aquatic Ecology 1.

(2 Credits, 50 Marks)

Env. 585: Applied Environmental Biotechnology and Microbiology (2 Credits, 50 Marks) 1. An introduction to Environmental Biotechnology: Introduction; Interdisciplinary nature of biotechnology; Historical development of Biotechnology; The main areas of application of environmental Biotechnology. 2. Fermentation technology: Introduction; Substrate for biotechnology; Media design for fermentation; The development of inocula for fermentation; Design of a bioreactor/ fermenter; Solid substrate fermentation; The recovery and purification of fermentation products. 3. Biotechnological methods for pollution detection: General bioassay in pollution monitoring; Cell biology in environmental monitoring; Molecular biology in environmental monitoring; Biosensors in environmental analysis. Microbiology for Metal Mining Industry: Microbiology and chemistry of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), Bioremediation of Metallurgical Operations. Biotechnology and Waste: Conventional waste water treatment strategies using biosystems: Bioreactors for waste water treatments; Landfill technology; Composting; Anaerobic digestion and other biotechnologies for waste treatment. Biotransformation and Biodegradation: Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation; Bioaugmentation; Bioremediation; Biodegradation of hydrocarbons, herbicides- Biodegradation of agricultural Chemicals; Biodegradation of 2, 4-D and dinoseb by pure cultures of bacteria; Biodegradation of 2, 4-D and dinoseb by mixed cultures of bacteria; Biodegradation of Atrazine in soil, pesticides and halogenated solvents; Biodegradation and transformation of nitoaromatic compounds; Biotransformation of polychloronated biphenyls (PCB): Testing for Biodegradability. Biohydrometallurgey and Biomining: Bioabsorbent microbial groups; Macrophytes. Bioleaching, Biosorption;

Introduction: Approaches to the study of aquatic ecology, Botanical approach, Zoological approach, Ecosystem approach, Biotic approach, Habitat approach, Productivity approach, Population approach, Statistical approach. Environmental Factors: Physical factors, Biotic Factors, Temperature factor, Water as a solvent, Hard and soft water, Water Problem in aquatic Environment. Fresh water Ecosystem: Abiotic Factors: Temperature, Light, Turbidity, Wind and Current, Concentration of respiratory gases, concentration of Biogenic salts, Ecological classification of Fresh water organism, Fresh water adaptation. Estuarine Ecology: Classification under Geomorphology, Water circulation and Stratification, System energetics, Flora and Fauna of estuary, Case study: Chakoria and Sunderbones. Marine Ecosystem: Classification of Marine Habitat, Classification of Biota of Marine Ecosystem, Deep sea adaptation. Productivity of Aquatic Habitat: Fundamental steps operated productivity, Factors affecting primary production, Estimation productivity Secondary productivity. in of

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Aquaculture: Fresh water aquaculture of the world, Selection of site for aquaculture, Ecology of fishes, Interrelation among secondary producers, Survival strategy of aquatic organism, Aquatic Biodiversity, Relation between primary and secondary producers, Positive Feedback in aquatic Ecosystem, Interrelationship between fishes and their Biotic and abiotic environment, Significance of fishes for mankind and the biological basis of rational fisheries, Adverse impact of shrimp culture in coastal area of Bangladesh.

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Eco-friendly Bioproducts for Environmental Health: Biopesticides; Biofertilizers; Bioenergy and Biofuels; Biodegradable plastics.
Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology. A.K. Chatterji. 2005 Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application. G.M. Evans and J.C. Furlong. 2003 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Environmental Biotechnology (Industrial Pollution Management), 3rd edition, 2006. S.N. Jogdand. Himalaya Publishing Ltd. Biotechnology, 3rd edition, 1996. J.E. Smith. Cambridge University Press. Principles of Fermentation Technology, 1986. P.F. Stabbury and A.W. Whitaker. Pergamon Press ltd. A Text Book of Biotechnology. R.C. Dubey. 2nd edition, 1995. S. Chand and Company. Ltd, India.

Recommended References: 1. General Ecology H D Kumar , Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Associated Business Corporation and Vikas publishing houes, pvt. ltd. New Delhi, 2000. 2. Aquatic Ecology- G. Ragothaman, R.K. Trivedy; agrobios, India, 2002. 3. Limnology- Pauls and wells, 4. The Ecology of Fishes, G. V. Nikolsky, Academic Press, London and Newyork, 1963.

Recommended References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.