Automation and Drives

Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives

Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Best Practice Harmonic Mitigation

Harmonics Update

March 2004

1

Automation and Drives

Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives

Agenda
Introduction and background Overview of requirements inc. regulatory issues Specific G5/4 measures Comparisons of harmonic reduction methods including test results from Nottingham University. Recommended “Best Practice” procedures The Siemens offer (Products, Services & Solutions) More information Conclusions..….
Harmonics Update March 2004 2

Automation and Drives

Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives

Practical Effects Of Harmonic Distortion
Malfunction of electronic equipment. Failure of power factor correction capacitors. Faulty readings on kWh meters. Overheating of transformers. Reduced system efficiency Excess neutral currents. Problems with lighting equipment Erratic operation of protective relays. ……………………..
Harmonics Update March 2004 3

Automation and Drives

Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives

Regulatory & System Issues

Not exhaustive!

Control At The Product Level EN61800-3 Variable Speed Drives (EMC) EN61000-3-2 low power equipment* EN61000-3-12 16 to 75A (unrestricted distn)…
* Affects low power single phase drives – require 2% line choke

Control At The Customer/System Level Engineering recommendation G5/4 (U.K.) IEEE519 (USA) No requirements for internal harmonic distortion!! (within a plant) Control At Utility Level EN 50160 System Voltage Requirements

Harmonics Update

March 2004

4

Harmonics Update March 2004 5 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Requirements For “G5/4” Intended to control the harmonic distortion at the “PCC” Specifies voltage and current limits – individual and THD Emphasises principle of compatibility (c/f planning levels) Much more severe than previous “G5/3” – esp. I5 Requires background harmonic knowledge (survey) Specifies harmonics up to 50th (> 25th = advisory until 2005) Includes bursts and voltage notching effects Effectively a “legal” requirement for users to comply Every user in the UK should comply…….

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives G5/4 Current Levels – Stage 2 Based on 100MVA fault level – current levels can be modulated with actual fault level Most VSD systems are assessed under stage 2 limits Harmonics Update March 2004 6 .

Harmonics Update March 2004 7 . Most VSD systems are assessed under stage 2 limits – where background levels are < 75% of the planning levels..Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Voltage distortion figures are normally not negotiable.

. Harmonics Update March 2004 8 ..Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Techniques Very strong power supplies! (high fault levels) Parallel passive filtering Serial passive filtering (Block Filter) Increase converter “pulse number” Clean Power Technology Active filtering Common DC bus solutions….

Harmonics Update March 2004 9 .3% vs 2.9% @ 415V bus Note: For fault levels < 100MVA. the higher the fault level the lower the VTHD.2% @ 415V bus Transformers should be designed for converter operation or should be de-rated accordingly e. Transformer Rating E.2% vs 2. the better.g.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Effect Of Power Supplies 1. by using “K” factor approach.relative to the drive rating. 132kW VSD – 100MVA vs 20MVA VTHD 2. 132kW VSD – 1000kVA vs 500kVA VTHD 1.g. Also. Fault Level E.g. the current limitations should be reduced accordingly 2. Generally. the higher the rating of the transformer.

Not normally recommended due to above constraints Harmonics Update March 2004 10 ..C.Parallel Tuned Filters VSD P. Point of common coupling Transformer M Filter L5 C5 L7 L11 C7 C11 Needs very careful design System parameters rarely available Introduces capacitive reactive power Can introduce resonance Problems with multi ..filter installations Can be expensive.C..Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures .

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Six Pulse Drives Diodes IGBT Transistors 3 ph S u p p l y Ud Cd M o t o r Standard drive configuration Compare with 12 pulse………… Harmonics Update March 2004 11 .

Characteristic Harmonics Present (n) = p x k +/.1 p = Converter Pulse Number and k = a positive Integer Harmonics Update March 2004 12 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 12 Pulse Drive Solution 30 deg phase shift • • • • • Requires 30 degree phase shifted supply Requires 2 input bridges Needs special transformers Well accepted in indusrtry May be extended to 18 / 24 pulse….

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Theoretical Results VS Practical Data Harmonics Update March 2004 13 .

No even or triplen harmonics – in theory!! Harmonics Update March 2004 14 .1 n n= =Harmonic HarmonicOrder Order p = Pulse Number p = Pulse Number kk= =Integer Integer I.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures .E.Harmonic Distortion Idealised harmonic current spectrum 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Idealised 6 pulse Characteristic 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th n = pk +/.

1 n n= =Harmonic HarmonicOrder Order p = Pulse Number p = Pulse Number kk= =Integer Integer Can extended to 18 or 24 pulse systems Can also phase shift groups of drives Harmonics Update March 2004 15 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures – 12 Pulse Idealised harmonic current spectrum 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Idealised 12 pulse Characteristic 5th 7th 11th 13th 17th 19th 23rd 25th n = pk +/.

12 pulse.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Practical Data Extracts Of Results taken by University Of Nottingham Dr Keith Bradley Dr James Campbell Based on 132kW MicroMaster test set up with selectable 6 pulse. series blocking filter and active filter Weak supply c. 20MVA Harmonics Update March 2004 16 . various line reactance.

225A 120 100 Current Amplitude (%) 80 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harmonic Number Harmonics Update March 2004 17 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 6 Pulse Solution – Without Additional Reactors Harmonic Ampitude % .

225A 120 100 80 Current Am plitude (% ) 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harm onic Num ber Harmonics Update March 2004 18 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 6 Pulse Solution – With 2% Line Reactor Harm onic Am pitude %.

225A 225A 120 100 Polygonal transformer with inter-bridge reactors Current Amplitude (%) 80 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harmonic Number Harmonics Update March 2004 19 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 12 Pulse Drive Solution – Without Additional Reactors Harmonic Ampitude % .

225A 120 100 Polygonal transformer with inter-bridge reactors 80 Current Am plitude (% ) 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harm onic Num ber Harmonics Update March 2004 20 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 12 Pulse Drive Solution – With Additional 2% Line Reactors Harm onic Am pitude %.

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives 12 Pulse Drive Solution – 3 Winding Transformer (6%) 225A Harmonic Ampitude % .200A 120 100 Isolating transformer without inter-bridge reactors Tests from Notts University Current Amplitude (%) 80 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harmonic Number Harmonics Update March 2004 21 .

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures – Series Blocking Filters Harmonics Update March 2004 22 .

C.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures – Series Blocking Filters P. data and calculation? More work to be done Harmonics Update March 2004 23 . VSD Transformer M Passive Block Filter Blocks the harmonic currents (band pass designs) Can be more effective than 12 pulse Should be smaller and more cost effective Resonance problems on high impedance supplies? Not currently accepted by the market (open)?? Availability.C.

225A 120 100 C u rre n t A m p litu d e (% ) 80 60 40 20 0 DC 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Harmonic Number Harmonics Update March 2004 24 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures – Series Blocking Filters Harmonic Ampitude % .

USA Market Leader On load harmonic testing Harmonic Current A Siemens Block Filter Fundamental current USA Market Leader Harmonics Update March 2004 25 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Series Blocking Filters – v.

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives CLEAN POWER TECHNOLOGY 3RD generation AFE Sinusoidal pre-controlled PWM technique The best technical solution in the market Harmonics Update March 2004 26 .

.. Active Front End MasterDrive Harmonic distortion is negligible under all conditions Other benefits such as regeneration and ride through power dips etc No complex harmonic filters or 12/24 pulse solutions…..Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Clean Power Technology (CPT) Fast internal switching together with a special filter ensures a near perfect sinusoidal current waveform is drawn from the supply. Harmonics Update March 2004 27 ..

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives CPT – Turned Off (Background Harmonics Only) 5th harmonic current distortion (background) Harmonics Update March 2004 28 .

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives CPT – Turned On – Running At 132kW 5th harmonic current distortion (with drive running at full load) Harmonics Update March 2004 29 .

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures . 6% Load 400V.0% 3.Example 6.0% 5.5MVA fault rating Transformer 350kVA 500V:400V.0% 1.0% 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 9 11 14 18 10 12 13 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Harmonic Order Harmonics Update March 2004 30 . Master Drive.0% Primary 500V 3.0% 0.0% Clean Power Tech 12 pulse 6 pulse 2. 132kW Inverter with 132kW load 2% reactor for 6 and 12 pulse systems Harmonic Voltage Level 4.Comparisons Harmonic Voltage Distortion .

Active Filtering Active Filter Sized against harmonic current rating Programmable compensation Single filter compensates many drives Not subject to passive filter problems Can be retro – fitted…..Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures . Network M M Harmonics Update March 2004 31 .

Measurements Network current iN Filter current iS Load current iL Line-to-neutral voltage Harmonics Update March 2004 32 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Active Filtering .

Comparisons Harmonics Update March 2004 33 .Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures .

Comparisons MEASURE 6 Pulse – No Choke 6 Pulse – 2% Choke 6 Pulse – 4% Choke 12 Pulse Auto/IBR – No Choke 12 Pulse Auto/IBR + 2%Choke 12 Pulse Isolation transformer Siemens Block Filter USA Series Filter Clean Power Technology ABB “AFE” ITHD @ 415V 45% 36% 28% 13% 12% 12% 8% 23% 0.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonic Mitigation Measures .1% 4%* *ABB claimed figure Examples only – actual values depend on product design and system characteristics Active filters selected according to requirements!!!! Harmonics Update March 2004 34 .

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives System Analysis Process Establish background distortion levels (survey) Calculate effects of new equipment (Siemens) Calculate new distortion levels under specified load Compare with G5/4 regulations Define any necessary filtering etc After installation. repeat survey to confirm compliance Harmonics Update March 2004 35 .

active filtering where needed Complete product range…….Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives The Siemens Offer System design consultation. Site survey – 7 day G5/4 measurement Harmonic calculation for additional product Evaluation of optimum harmonic solution – cost & size System responsibility inc. Harmonics Update March 2004 36 ..

g.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonics . Clean Power… Harmonics Update Confirm Action March 2004 37 . Active or Passive no No action needed yes Individual source control e. 12 Pulse..Methodology Identify and characterise possible harmonic sources Determine system response characteristics Calculate distortion levels in the system -pc based tools Any harmonic problems yes Possible to control harmonic sources no Design filters….

uk Harmonics Update March 2004 38 .org.gambica.Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Further information: Free “pdf” download from www.

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Conclusions Variable speed drives can offer significant application benefits All “non linear” equipment produces supply harmonics Harmonics disturbances can cause practical problems Need to observe regulatory requirements such as G5/4 Traditional solutions include 12 pulse drives and passive filters Consider innovative solutions such as CPT and active filtering Systematic solution based on site specific parameters…………. Harmonics Update March 2004 39 ..

Automation and Drives Power Frequency Harmonics & Variable Speed Drives Harmonics Update March 2004 40 .