An amplifier is a circuit that receives a signal at its input and delivers an undistorted larger version of the signal at its output. The operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain amplifier to which feedback is added to control its overall response characteristic. An external feedback resistor is connected between the output terminal and (-) input terminal. This type of circuit is called a negative feedback circuit. The objective of this experiment is to implement two types of amplifiers i.e. inverting and non-inverting amplifier using this negative feedback concept. Invert n! "#$% & er: The circuit shown in ig.! is an inverting amplifier which is one of the most widely used op-amp circuits. "losed-loop gain from #i to $% of this amplifier is set by the two resistors &i and the feedback resistor &f.


' &f * !% kΩ

' #i &i *.kΩ


ig.! 'nverting amplifier (ince one side of &i is at #i and the other is at % $) the current through &i is '*#i + &i ,ecause of the infinite ( practically very high ) input resistance of the op-amp) all the input current flows through &f. (o the output voltage is the negative of the voltage drop across the feedback resistor &f. $% * - $&f * - ' × &f * - #i × &f + &i (o the closed loop gain or simply the gain of the amplifier is Av * A"- * $% + #i * - &f + &i The minus sign indicates that the polarity of the output of the output is inverted with respect to #i . That is why) this circuit is called an inverting amplifier.


1ow the current through &! resistor is ' * # i + &! .ecause of the very high input resistance ) the current through & ! will also flow through the feedback resistor. E()IPMENTS Trainer board 35-A/5 (67!) &esistance /ultimeter 3scilloscope ! ! . The above e4uation shows that the voltage gain of the amplifier is always greater than !.kΩ 0 . The voltage across the feedback resistor is $&f * ' × &f * #i × &f + &! (o the output voltage $% is the total voltage drop across &! and &f which is $o * #i 2 #i × &f +&! 3r $o * ( ! 2 &f +&! ) × #i (o the gain of the amplifier is A".nvert n! "#$% & er: $ery often there is a need for an amplifier whose output is to ) and in phase with) the input) and in addition & i *∞ and &o *%) so that the source and load are in effect isolated. 0.kΩ &f * !% kΩ ' $% #i ig. ' &! * .* $% + #i * !2&f + &! (ince the gain is positive) so this amplifier is called non-inverting amplifier.%kΩ) !%kΩ) . 0 1on-inverting amplifier (ince the input resistance of the non-inverting amplifier is extremely high and there is practically % $ between the inputs of the op-amp) so both pins are at the same potential #i which appears across &!. /ore ideal characteristics can be obtained by using an operational amplifier having a non-inverting terminal for signals and an inverting terminal for the feedback voltage) as shown in ig.N'n.

'mplement the non-inverting amplifier circuit in ig. 0. &epeat step 8 and 7 for a s4uare wave input signal. :.%kΩ and repeat steps 0 and 8. Apply an input voltage #!* .. "hange the resistance to . &epeat steps 0 to .riscoll 8 . 6. . . 3perational Amplifiers and 'ntegrated "ircuits --"oughlin = . .$ and measure the output voltage. volt p-p in the input and observe the output waveform. 0. 's there any phase shift9 7. <hat is a voltage follower9 <hat is the use of this circuit9 8. REPORT !. 'mplement the inverting amplifier circuit as shown in ig. 8. 0. #lectronic ./illman = >alkias 0.. !.evices and "ircuits --.PROCE*)RE !.raw the input and output waveforms of the amplifier circuits. Again apply a sinusoidal waveform of .etween the two types of amplifiers which one will you prefer and why9 REFERENCES !.