Using Text Evidence and Supports

with Mrs. Seemayer

Quotation Marks
• Rule 1
• Periods and commas always go inside quotation marks, even inside single quotes. • Examples:
• -The sign changed from "Walk," to "Don't Walk," to "Walk" again within 30 seconds. • -She said, "Hurry up." • -She said, "He said, 'Hurry up.'"

Quotation Marks
• Rule 2
• The placement of question marks with quotes follows logic. If a question is in quotation marks, the question mark should be placed inside the quotation marks. • Examples: -She asked, "Will you still be my friend?" -Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war"? Here the question is outside the quote. • NOTE: Only one ending punctuation mark is used with quotation marks. Also, the stronger punctuation mark wins. Therefore, no period after war is used.

Quotation Marks
• Rule 3
• When you have a question outside quoted material AND inside quoted material, use only one question mark and place it inside the quotation mark. • Example: -Did she say, "May I go?"

Quotation Marks
• Rule 4
• Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Note that the period goes inside all quote marks. • Example: -He said, "Danea said, 'Do not treat me that way.'"

Quotation Marks
• Rule 5
• Use quotation marks to set off a direct quotation only. • Examples: -"When will you be here?" he asked. -He asked when you will be there.

Quotation Marks
• Rule 6
• Do not use quotation marks with quoted material that is more than three lines in length. See Colons, Rule 5, for style guidance with longer quotes.

Quotation Marks
• Rule 7
• When you are quoting something that has a spelling or grammar mistake or presents material in a confusing way, insert the term sic in italics and enclose it in brackets. Sic means, "This is the way the original material was." • Example: -She wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister." Should be than, not then.

Framing a Quotation
• What does it mean to frame a quotation?
• Framing a quotation means to add words at the beginning or the end that add important information.

• Why should you frame quotations?
• To signal to the reader information such as where the information came from, who wrote it, or give it context. • A quotation should not stand by itself. Without a frame a quotation is abruptly placed in a paragraph and can shock the reader, disturbing the flow of the writing.

Framing a Quotation
• Frame followed by quotation
• When speaking to various audiences, we need to remember one fact: “[people] listen to speeches about things of interest to them” (Lehman 435).
Author Carol Lehmam has identified “… some important facts [we] can obtain about most audiences: ages, genders, occupations, educational levels, attitudes, values, broad and specific interests, and needs, if any” (435).

• Quotation followed by frame:
• “In addition to these factors, [we] should also consider … the occasion and location” of the oral presentation we are making (Lehman 435). “Patriotic speeches to a group of military veterans will differ from speeches to a group of new recruits, just as Fourth of July speeches will differ from Memorial Day speeches,” writes Carol Lehman (435).

• Quotation within the frame:
• "Books," Lawrence wrote, "are not life" (92).

Signal Phrases for Framing a Quotation
• A signal phrase is used to tell the reader that information is being used from an outside source. One thing to remember when using signal phrases is to vary them as much as possible; your paper will seem repetitive if you continually reuse the same phrasing such as, Jane Doe said, Tiger Woods said, etc. See some possible variations below:|
• • • • • In the words of President Clinton, “…” (29). As Oprah Winfrey has noted, “…” (2). Dr. James T. Kirk points out that “…” (11). “…” claims Mr. John Doe (2). Al Gore offers the argument that “…” (111).

Block Quotations
• When should a block quotation be used?
• When you need to use a quotation of four lines or more. • Block quotations should be used sparingly in longer essays and articles (multiple pages) and rarely in shorter works (1,500 words or less). • Lengthy, wordy quotations should never be used simply to fill pages when the writer has little to say about the topic or issue.

Block Quotations
• How should a block quotation be formatted?
• The sentence before the block quotation should have information introducing the quotation (context) and the author • The sentence before the quotation should end with a colon. • The entire free standing block of the quoted material is indented 1” from the left margin (10 spaces or 2 tabs) and is double-spaced throughout. • Quotation marks are not added at the beginning or end of the quotation. • Be sure to explain how your quotation proves your claim in the remainder of your paragraph.

Block Quotations

Working with Quotations
• Deleting Information
• What are ellipsis?
• Three dots in a row with a space before, after, and between them ( . . . ).

• How are ellipsis points used?
• Ellipsis points are used to show that you used a quotation from a text, but left out unneeded words or information.

• How should ellipsis points be spaced within a sentence?
• Ellipsis points take the place of the words that you left out of a quotation. A space should appear between each of the three dots, as well as before and after the ellipsis.

Working with Quotations
• Let’s take a look at an example:

• Original direct quotation:
• “[D]riving is not as automatic as one might think; in fact, it imposes a heavy procedural workload on cognition that, especially in difficult driving conditions, leaves little processing capacity available for other tasks” (Salvucci and Taatgen 107).

• Quotation with ellipsis points used correctly:
• • “[D]riving is not as automatic as one might think; in fact, it imposes a heavy procedural workload on cognition that . . . leaves little processing capacity available for other tasks” (Salvucci and Taatgen 107). Note: All of the required spaces have been included in this example.

• Quotation with ellipsis points used incorrectly:
• • “Driving is not as automatic as one might think; in fact, it imposes a heavy procedural workload on cognition that...leaves little processing capacity available for other tasks” (Salvucci and Taatgen 107). Note: All of the required spaces have been incorrectly omitted in this example.

Working with Quotations
• FYI: Do not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points (except in rare instances). The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.

• A word of caution: Ellipses may not be used to alter the quotation in a way that inaccurately or unfairly represents the original text, either in meaning or grammatical construction. Quite simply, do not use ellipses to make a quote say something other than what the author originally intended.

Working with Quotations
• Altering Words to make it Work
• What punctuation should be used when words are inserted or altered in a direct quotation?
• When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation, square brackets—[ ]—are placed around the part that was changed.

• How are square brackets used around clarifying or explanatory words?
• The brackets go around words that are added or changed to clarify meaning, provide a brief explanation, or to help a quotation fit into the writer‟s sentence.

Working with Quotations
• • Let‟s look at an example: Quotation with brackets used correctly around a clarifying word:
• • “It [driving] imposes a heavy procedural workload on cognition that . . . leaves little processing capacity available for oth er tasks” (Salvucci and Taatgen 107). [1] Note: Brackets are placed around the inserted word in this example to let the reader know that „driving‟ clarifies the meaning of the pronoun „it.‟

Quotation with brackets used correctly around an explanatory insert:
• • “[D]riving is not as automatic as one might think; in fact, it imposes a heavy procedural workload [visual and motor demands] on cognition that . . . leaves little processing capacity available for other tasks” (Salvucci and Taatgen 107). Note: Brackets are placed around the inserted words in this example to provide further explanation of the “procedural workload” discussed in the original text.

Integrated quotation with brackets used correctly to indicate a change in letter case:
• • Salvucci and Taatgen propose that “[t]he heavy cognitive workload of driving suggests that any secondary task has the potential to affect driver behavior” (108). Note: Brackets are placed around the lower-case letter “t” to indicate that the upper case “T” in the original is changed to a lower case letter.

Quotation with brackets used correctly to indicate a change in verb tense:
• • “Not coincidentally, drivers [are] increasingly engaging in secondary tasks while driving” (Salvucci and Taatgen 68). Note: Brackets are placed around the word „are‟ to indicate that the verb has been changed to the present tense, which is the preferred tense for most writing in MLA style.

Working with Quotations
• Errors in a quotation

• What do you do if there is an error in the quotation and you don’t want to get blamed?
• Sic is used to show that a mistake was made in the original text and that the quotation is an exact copy, mistake and all. Sic is usually italicized and always surrounded by brackets. Place [sic] right after the error.

• Example: She wrote, “They made there [sic] beds.” • Note: The correct sentence should have been, “They made their beds.”

• Why use [sic] at all? Why not just make the correction?
• If you are quoting material, it is expected that you will copy it exactly as it appeared in the original.

• What is paraphrasing and why would I want to do it?
• Sometimes quotations are too long to include in your paper, or a little too complicated. You can paraphrase, or put the idea from the text in your own words and use it in your paper.

• Here are a few things to remember when paraphrasing:
• Always cite the source of the paraphrased information and list the source on your Works Cited page. • Restate the information using your own words and your own sentences. Never use the same sentence structure as the original author.


Parenthetical Citations
• What is a parenthetical citation?
• A parenthetical citation is a when a writer directly puts into the text a note from where he or she got the information.

• What is the purpose of using parenthetical citations?
• A parenthetical citation allows the reader to know which source a quotation or idea came from.

• Are all parenthetical citations the same?
• Parenthetical citations look different after different types of quotations/paraphrases. See below for examples.

Parenthetical Citations
• Citations for basic print sources:
• To make a parenthetical citation you place the author‟s last name and the page number the information came from inside the parenthesis. The parenthetical citation goes inside the end punctuation.

• Example (quotation): “In 2007, 37 percent of American adults sought medical information from the internet regarding a health problem they were experiencing before consulting a doctor” (Smith 38). • Example (paraphrase): Instead of going to a doctor right away, a recent study found that 37 percent of Americans are now turning to the internet for medical information (Smith 38).