Consumer Behavior

Influence of Culture on Consumer Buying Behavior “Focus on INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM” Submitted to Prof. Avinash Kapoor

S U B M I T T E D B Y:

Consumer Behavior | 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express sincere thanks to our guide Prof. Avinaash Kapoor, for providing us an opportunity to perform a project on ”” and widen my horizon of knowledge around various aspects of Consumer Behvior. I would also like to thank for invaluable guidance, excellent supervision throughout the course of this report. Also the pragmatic and invaluable advice of Prof. kept me motivated & enthusiastic to go through critical learning of the subject and timely complete our report.

Consumer Behavior | 3 CONTENTS Abstract Introduction Methodology Data Analysis Conclusion Reference 4 4 9 14 17 20 .

which a shopper makes though it was not planned in advance. therefore. The present investigation examined individualist-collectivist orientations and achievement value in two groups of college students studying under different settings in NCR. 2001). if the respondents are aligned with the particular group. Based on a data collected from secondary/primary sources from individualist (secondary source) and collectivist (Indian-born) backgrounds an established scale was used to confirm the cultural values among the participants. and horizontal and vertical aspects of collectivism. A significant positive relationship between achievement value and individualism for general stream students and a significant negative relationship with collectivism for both groups was observed. The Impact of Individualism-Collectivism on Consumer Behavior . Introduction Culture is a powerful force in regulating human behavior. Cultural values are the vehicles. The students differed significantly with respect to their upward striving for achievement in two different settings. Findings indicate significant differences between the two groups with respect to vertical individualism. as well as idiosyncratic values unique to that individual. a key concept that has been successfully used in cross-cultural marketing research. values persist over time and. For example. they are the form in which culture is stored and expressed. One group of students was from management stream while the other group was studying engineering course. Thus. The use of individualism-collectivism for measuring cultural values is. The cultural value system includes cultural elements that people have in common with the group to which they belong. In this study we look at several stages of the consumer decision-making process and identified the possible differences between individualist and collectivist consumers and how it influences purchase decision. These values are socialized into a particular group and are passed on to the next generation. These values are likely to affect consumer behavior and set the choice of criteria used by individual consumers. particularly in management students. he/she experiences the benefits and restrictions of a particular culture. This further influences the choices that individuals make regarding consumer decisions from everyday products to major or important purchases. may have an influence on the way consumers behave. However coexistence of both individualism and collectivism were observed among the students. and those benefits and restrictions may become a major influence upon consumers’ purchasing decisions. therefore. pattern instruction and imitation. which carry culturally determined knowledge from one generation to another. and they share the same values (Hofstede. It consists of a common set of behavior patterns that are transmitted and maintained by the members of a particular society through various means. from the beginning of an individual’s existence. As a result. that is. This is an attempt to find out the factors that affect consumer impulse buying behavior.Consumer Behavior | 4 Abstract Impulse purchase or impulse buying describes any purchase. The study demonstrates the impact of age and educational level on one’s individualist-collectivist orientation and achievement value. members within the same culture have similarities of language.

In Indian Society. and it is given prominence. Friends and family might make suggestions. Individualist consumers rely on internal knowledge based on their personal experience. attitudes and preferences. friends and families. and individualistic and collectivistic tendencies can be found within any given culture at different levels Cross-cultural researchers have recognized culture as one of the most influential determinants of consumer behavior. non-national influencing factors. artha (wealth). kama (sensuous pleasure) and dhara (morality or duty) always go together but dharma governs artha and kama. This lower tier of values i. an inheritance to which every race in India has made its contribution. spending time with dealers etc. peers and social groups in their purchase decisions. In collectivist cultures. The upper tier of value in Hindu culture is moksha or mukti. which is the final end of human aspiration. However. They are likely to utilize a much greater variety of patterns of information source rather than relying on friends and family. but as a tradition or duty . in terms of cellphone purchase. Individualism is mainly reflected in being independent from others and being in control of one’s surrounding environment.. on examination. consumers from individualist cultures may be less likely to rely on others for example family members. every national population shares a national culture. word of mouth. They may also consider advice from friends and family in terms of which information sources are likely to be reliable such as internet. Perhaps the most significant alternative view to Hofstede’s national culture to have emerged is the view that cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism operate in all societies. but also influences the way marketing strategies are developed to target market behaviors. it is the motivating force of human beings. This Hindu culture.e. As a whole. and seek out new experiences to expand upon that knowledge. culturally distinguishing the population of one nation from the population of another. Alternative to Hofstede McSweeney suggested that alternative conceptions of culture should consider multiple. in the situation of buying acellphone. The lower tier of . taking in their totality the sum of human aspirations and needs has classified values as     dharma artha kama moksha. abstract goals that apply across situations. Consumers’ cultural background not only shapes their needs and wants. For example. but decisions are made individually. In Indian culture different patterns are observed in different contexts.Consumer Behavior | 5 According to Hofstede (2001). they may spend a large amount of time looking at websites and extend their internal knowledge through their own personal experience. Its culture has a unity though. Hinduism is meant not only in the usual sense of the word as religion. consumers from collectivist cultures may look for social approval from others. intensely practical. Values are defined as desirable. They function as the criteria that people use to select and justify the actions and to evaluate other people and events. For example. They are less likely to rely on other people’s opinions. ‘National culture’ is the only culture within a nation. it dissolves into a variety of shades and colours”. Values serve as guiding principles in people’s lives. and to consider their advice or opinions before collecting information. Value is the hard core of culture. They are likely to first consult with their colleagues. to complete the information search process. it is expected that one will involve family and friends in the information search process. “Hinduism is an inheritance of thought and aspiration living and moving with the movement of life. consumers from collectivist cultures may seek the opinions of others regarding what information to collect and which types of sources are valuable to use.

Consumer Decision-Making Process: Decision Making Process In the context of making a high involvement purchase. brand evaluation and selection. This concept for the need for achievement is found mostly in individualist societies. These gunas are inseparable in any manifestation of energy. price and innovation. The Indian form of collectivism contains strands of individualism as observed by coexistence of mutually contradictory things either in an individual’s mind or in reality does not show or give surprise to an Indian.Consumer Behavior | 6 values may be regarded as instrumental values. Consumers’ decision-making for high involvement purchases consists of a sequential process involving problem recognition. Consumers attempt to forecast the outcome of each option in order to determine which is best for that particular situation so that they may make a reasoned decision. However. the coexistence of both are observed in the individual’s behavior in Indian culture. It is observed that Australians reflect an individualist orientation in preferred achievement goals. consumers are usually aware of all the positives and negatives of each choice in terms of brand. is a desirable value found in individuals. Values motivate and regulate human action. Energy (prakriti or sakti ) is the causal power which is manifested in all existence and in all forces of human action. to pleasure or to pain. is presented and illustrated diagrammatically. . although they do not necessarily lead to moksha or mukti. sattva which is reflected in the sharpness of intellect. quality. the restlessness for achievement. and tamas is expressed in indifference to feeling. It has three qualitative aspects or gunas. whereas Sri Lankans. The desire to accomplish interesting and challenging tasks and be recognized for this. The influence of cultural dimensions. The aim of this section is to identify the influence that cultural background has upon individualist and collectivist consumers in several stages of their consumer decision-making process. 1989).namely. rajas is expressed in the intensity of desire. at any moment one of the qualities may be dominant while the other two remain less forceful or dormant. such as individualismcollectivism in several stages of the decision-making process. It is also expressed in depression. lethargy and inertia (Yuktananda. purchase and post-purchase. In the context of individualism collectivism also. information search. although predominantly more family and group oriented. still have important individual goals.

and consumers for purchase decision utilize both of these types of search. based on their previous information search activity. . The information search can be divided into the categories of internal and external.Consumer Behavior | 7 Hypotheses Development Cultural Influences and Consumer Purchase Decision Consumer decision-making processes include the main aspects of information search. because the consumer feels that he/she does not have enough existing information with which to make an informed choice. An external or active information search is concerned with obtaining new information to assist in the making of the purchase decision. The internal information search is memory-based and relies on the consumer’s experience with the product. evaluation and selection and purchase behaviorand how cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism influence consumer decision-making within three stages: INFORMATION SEARCH The information search involves an active search for information that is appropriate to the decision being made.

quality. cultures with higher power distance or that are highly individualistic would be more likely to engage in the quality conscious decision-making style. EVALUATION AND SELECTION Once the consumer has gathered the appropriate information. Consumers in different country/culture are expected to be different in terms of the way they perceive international brands. Evaluative criteria may vary according to product type. collectivist consumers’ information searches are likely to focus on friends. H1: There is a significant relationship between cultural background and the number of family members and friends involved in the consumer purchasing decision. so they are also considered perfectionists. since brands are symbols that convey meanings to consumers and fashion consciousness for individuals from an individualistic cultural background. or by comparison. price. family and reference groups as sources of information. which drive consumers to select products that fulfill specific and particular needs Consumers need.g. Consumers’ evaluation and selection processes may be the result of their emotional desires. Brands generally help individualist consumers to reduce time spent on decision-making. attributes they associate with those brands in their memories. Brands are symbols of status and prestige. Collectivist societies have a tendency to appreciate imported brands more than their own products/brands. may influence the pattern of information searches individual consumers are likely to follow for example. Brand: Brand conscious style refers to a consumer’s orientation towards the purchase of expensive and well-known brands. In this line of thought. individualist consumers are less likely to rely on the opinion of others. as the attributes associated with the brands are already familiar. high-quality conscious style belongs to consumers who search for the best quality in products. wealth and power and Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimension of individualism deals with ‘I’ consciousness. The evaluation and selection stage is one of the most complex aspects of the decision-making process because of the wide variety of criteria. H3: There is a significant relationship between cultural background and brand ratings. They are not satisfied with the ‘good enough’ product. e. more systematically. shopping more carefully. and prestige. can be a result how society portrays values in consumers mind. . and members from individualistic cultures might buy brands that they perceive suitable to their personality. Quality: Perfectionist. Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimension of power distance deals with inequality in prestige. Quality-conscious decision-making style implies the perception of a hierarchy of quality levels. they purchase expensive brands as a means of earning high social status However. which one’s identity is based on the individual. Collectivist consumers involve more family members/friends than individualist consumers.Consumer Behavior | 8 The cultural dimension such as individualism and collectivism. brand. It is because images and symbolic meanings attached to brands are shaped by a local society/culture where economic and social values of a brand might vary greatly based on collective ideas about the brand. he/she is likely to assess the product based on a range of evaluative criteria. imported and popular brands are used to convey different meanings to individualist consumers. In contrast. H2: Individualist consumers rely on Internet as the most important source of information. Thus.

Next. vary considerably with the socio-economic and cultural differences among consumer markets. which are primary data and secondary data. The designs of questionnaire have an effect on the reliability and validity of response rate. DATA COLLECTION For data collection we reliedon two main sources in order to gather information. academic journal and website. Consumer needs to be fulfilled through consumption of particular products or brands. The age range of the subjects were from 20-39 years. textbooks. First. It aims to screen the samples to identify whether the respondents are Collective and Individualistic behavior. studying in a leading management college of Delhi-NCR and there were 34 students who were studying in an engineering college. Money attitudes may be independent of income. reliability of the research. 40 students were from general stream. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The questionnaire is the one method and important instrument in order to collecting the primary data. personality. However. age. such as saving and spending. but also because products can be used to express consumers’ cultural backgrounds/values. Demographics and Screening Section The first part is about the demographic and screening section. data collection method and detailed of questionnaire design. H5: Collectivist consumers buy more expensive product than individualist consumers. PURCHASE The purchase stage. This research will create a questionnaire that can be divided into four parts. Methodology The research methodology that is used for the purpose and hypothesis formulating. in that different national cultures have different attitudes toward money and related behaviors. A total of 90 student participants took part in this study. in terms of consumer buying decision. According to study different cultures can have different attitudes toward spending money. sampling method. It is a very helpful and proven appliance for researcher. is the culmination of the decision-making process.Consumer Behavior | 9 H4:Consumers from individualistic cultures are more quality conscious than consumers from collectivistic cultures. consumers may choose particular products/brands not only because these products provide the functional or performance benefits expected. which is to gather the demographic data such as nationality. This part can . It consists of the research process. social status or affiliation (symbolic purposes). secondary data is obtained via the relevant literature and information which have been collected from electronic journal. primary data is collected for a specific research purpose. The subjects were from middle socioeconomic class and from an urban metropolitan city exposed to modern facilities of life. however. and this was also located in Delhi-NCR. gender and the purchasing experience of respondent. Price:Price-value conscious style refers to the characteristic of trying the best product out of the money consumers are willing to spend. Consumers’ product choice and preference for a particular product or brand are generally affected by very complex social influences.

(ii)Vertical individualism (VI). My personal identity. based on the original scale of Singelis et al (1995). I get tense and aroused. independent of others. I often do "my own thing. 2. 3. was used in this study. I feel good when I cooperate with others.Consumer Behavior | 10 be save time and resources on analysis on valid/invalid samples. 4. 3. 3. I'd rather depend on myself than others. Horizontal collectivism items: 1. It is important that I do my job better than others. Individualism-Collectivism Scale: Individualism-collectivism scale developed by Triandis and Gelfand (1998). 2. . The well-being of my coworkers is important to me. The respondents were asked to indicate their responses on a seven-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) Horizontal individualism items: 1. Winning is everything. pleasure is spending time with others. Vertical individualism items: 1. When another person does better than I do." 4. To me. 2. I rely on myself most of the time. 4. Measures The following measures were used in this study: 1. The scale has a total of 16 items having four items in each of the following four areas: (i) Horizontal individualism (HI). is very important to me. I would feel proud. and (iv) Vertical Collectivism (VC). Competition is the law of nature. If a coworker gets a prize. (iii) Horizontal collectivism (HC). I rarely rely on others.

It is my duty to take care of my family. Actual Questionnaire used Statement It bothers me when other people neglect my needs. I take other people's needs and feelings into account I'm not especially sensitive to other people's feelings. Parents and children must stay together as much as possible. I often go out of my way to help another person. Family members should stick together.* I believe people should go out of their way to be helpful.* I don't consider myself to be a particularly helpful person. It is important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups. 4. no matter what sacrifices are required. 2. I don't especially enjoy giving others aid. even when 1 have to sacrifice what I want.Consumer Behavior | 11 Vertical collectivism items: 1. I believe it's best not to get involved in taking care of other people's personal (1) Extremely Uncharacteristic of Me (7) Extremely Characteristic of Me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 3.* I expect people I know to be responsive to my needs and feelings. When making a decision.

across culture. I tend to avoid them. multi national.Consumer Behavior | 12 needs. I'm hurt.Google Search and Google Scholar. impact on consumer buying behavior. This is somewhat similar to the need for achievement as conceptualized by McClelland (1961). we have to use the library at MDI as one of the sources in order to check out the books to search and reach the relevant theories to support the research. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Scoring: Items with an asterisk are reverse scored. These two scales were administered on both the groups of students in group situation. consumer behavior. Achievement Value Scale: This forced choice sentence completion scale for measuring Achievement value was developed by Mukherjee (1965).* When I have a need that others ignore.* When I have a need. The high score in this scale indicates an individual’s desire for object ive accomplishment of the task with a standard of excellence. national culture.* I'm not the sort of person who often comes to the aid of others. Keep scoring on a continuous basis 2. This scale is used to assess an individual’s verbalized desire for upward striving and can be regarded as an inner personality factor capable of influencing cognitive behaviors in general and one’s perception of self in particular. . Furthermore.* People should keep their troubles to themselves. impact of culture. I turn to others I know for help. LITERATURE REVIEW In this research use literatures that retrieved from the electronic databases such as Academic journals. When people get emotionally upset. The keywords for the search are cultural. and the effect of different cultural.

That can play important role in . Also. Furthermore. There aims to identify whether significant different in culture effect on the purchasing behavior of consumers. Focus on following factors Individualism & Collectivism:       Team work Being Accepted Reference Group Influence Group Opinion Friends/Family Discussion Increase Interaction Power Distance Factors:       Prestige Impress Other People Successful Present Argument Express Disagreement Status Buying decision factor This part focus on various other buying decision factors such as consumer’s Intention to buy.Consumer Behavior | 13 EMPERICAL DATA Secondary Data The main source of secondary data are documents. online journals and useful website. Hofstede’s Dimension of Individualism and Collectivism and Power Distance This part focus on individualism/collectivism and power distance dimensions. services. social acceptance. feature. quality. price. brand image. there adopts in order to analyze to which extent values of individualism/collectivism. International marketing journal and various academic research reports. We also search to document such as the report of impulsive consumer buying behavior. online materials. promotion. to collect data for Individualistic society we relied heavily on public sources such as Google.

On the other hand.65** HI = Horizontal Individualism VI = Vertical Individualism HC = Horizontal Collectivism VC = Vertical Collectivism As is obvious.30 .28** Engineering College N=34 16.01 Engineering College N=34 Mean SD 19.5. Dimension Mean SD t-Value **p<. and the lowest for horizontal collectivism (HC). The results are presented in Table 2.90 9. interdependence and sociability. They want to be self-reliant.7 3. standard deviations and t-tests for horizontal and vertical aspects of individualism and collectivism were calculated for the two groups of students and are presented in Table 1.87 23. Table 1.25 2. Though participants scored the highest in vertical individualism. whereas students studying in engineering course are more collectivist.86 Note: *p<0.03 22.00 3.74 VC 18. though living in an urban metropolitan atmosphere. This indicates that both individualist and collectivist orientations coexist among these students. **p<0.43** 3.20 4.92 4. while the members of the in-group are different from each other. They scored the highest in horizontal collectivism and the lowest in vertical individualism.01 Management College N=40 23.38 4.32 5.Consumer Behavior | 14 Data Analysis The means.77 16. Table 1 reveals significant differences between the two groups with respect to vertical individualism. were more collectivist in their orientations than individualists. That is.58 4.58 HC 18. which show that the students studying in management stream are more individualist.37 t-Value 0.02 5. The means and standard deviations for the achievement value scores for the two groups of students were obtained and a t-test was calculated to find out if there is any significant difference between the two groups with respect to achievement value. their scores in the other three areas were more or less similar.29 4.06 3. but at the same time they perceive themselves as an aspect of the in-group. they perceive themselves as being similar to other people and emphasize common goals with others. It is observed that the highest mean score for management stream students was in the area of vertical individualism (VI). SD and t-value for Horizontal and Vertical aspects of Individualism and Collectivism in two groups of students Dimension Management College N=40 Mean SD HI 18. Mean.11* 6. engineering students in the present study. and horizontal and vertical aspects of collectivism.88 VI 19.

90** -.Consumer Behavior | 15 The values reported in Table 2 depict that the students differ significantly with respect to their upward striving for achievement in two different settings. We may explain this on the basis of Indian philosophy. students use the sattva aspect of guna dynamics for a value motivated action. .51** The results reported in Table 3 indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between achievement value and horizontal and vertical aspects of individualism for management students. This indicates that in the engineering students.53** -. The relationship between individualist-collectivist orientation and achievement value was analysed for these two groups of students and the correlation values are presented in Table 3 Correlation of coefficients between Achievement value and different aspects of Individualism-Collectivism in two different groups Dimension HI VI HC VC **p<. This shows that in management students the existence of both trends are present.82** . In case of management students also.65** Engineering College N=34 .31 -. raja guna are dominant among themselves.55** -. Management students are more achievement oriented than engineering students.12 . the less the achievement value for upward striving or vice versa. a significant negative relationship was observed for horizontal and vertical aspects of collectivism with achievement value. On the contrary. the more the collectivist orientation. This shows individualism leads one to accomplish challenging tasks and to achieve higher goals that are related to one’s further self-development or vice versa. On the other hand. It may be that due to the impact of value orientation courses.01 Management College N=40 . That is the students who are more achievement oriented. this guna was not as prevalent in the engineering students. for engineering students a significant negative relationship of horizontal and vertical aspects of collectivism was observed with achievement value.

for example. which the content of the item itself explains. For one HI item for example. These response patterns indicate that collectivism is much more prevalent in engineering students while individualism is more prevalent in general groups of students. “It is my duty to take care of my family. I would feel proud”. “I often do my own thing” the difference between the two groups was not so much. The management scored higher in HC item for example.Consumer Behavior | 16 Management Engineering Analysis of some of the items from four different aspects of individualism. and also in one VC item for example. the mean response of the management students was much higher than the engineering students. even when I have to sacrifice what I want”. “If a coworker gets a prize. In one item of vertical individualism. .collectivism shows that there is variation in the responses of the two different groups. “Winning is everything”.

Alternative Thought Process Attempts to understand consumer impulse buying behavior based Western point-of-view and Asian point of view. and group needs and desires would seem to discourage impulse buying behavior as it is practiced and described in the West. Due consideration of these differences is warranted. Eastern-collectivist notions of the self. The Western-individualist emphasis on the self. were found to be predominantly horizontal collectivist. On the contrary students who were studying a engineering course. the achievement orientation for upward striving is also high for these students. However. Buying impulses are presumed to be largely universal in nature. interdependence and share common goals with others. Indians try to incorporate both orientations in their preferred modes of behavior. it may be that these students have inherited certain collectivist values from their childhood due to the process of socialization. emotional control and moderation. which emphasize interdependence. In general. In summing up. they were not so achievement oriented for upward striving. whereby emphasis on self development is based on Indian ethics. but their dominant orientation is towards vertical individualism. This may be one of the reasons for opting for this value orientation course even living in an urban atmosphere and exposed to Western education and modern amenities of life. The findings corroborate with the findings of Sinha & Tripathi (1994) and Ghosh (2004) who observed that although individualist and collectivist elements often conflict with each other. due to western influence. The findings of the articles in the Journal of Consumer Psychology confirmed that cultural differences are a significant . This could be explained as an impact of the urban metropolitan atmosphere where students are continuously exposed to Western modern influences and mass media. but local market conditions. That is they emphasize equality. Values as defined in Hindu culture and their manifestations are expressed by students in different degrees in any action under different settings due to socialization practices and the impact of the course curriculum. it can be said that achievement value of students vary with respect to their individualistic-collectivist orientations. There is coexistence of both individualist and collectivist orientations among management students. Sinha & Verma (1994) have also observed in their study that master’s level students express more idiocentric than allocentric orientations. It may be that sattva aspect of guna is predominant among this group students. individual needs and desires. similar juxtaposition of contradictory elements are to be found where dharma (morality or duty) and moksha (salvation) coexist with the pursuit of artha (wealth) and kama (sensuous pleasure). systems of exchange and various cultural forces will impact how consumers operate on impulse. and hedonistic pleasure encourages impulsive buying behavior. This indicates that they try to acquire status and want to become distinguished from others but at the same time believe in family integrity and see themselves as an aspect of the in-group.Consumer Behavior | 17 Conclusion Diverse individualist and collectivist orientations and achievement value are observed in the students studied in the present investigation. values and heritage. immediate life concerns and exposure to mass media. Furthermore. Apart from this. This may be due to the impact of value orientation courses and the fact that they have been living in a family oriented structure till very recently . In Hindu philosophy and ethics also.

One limitation of this study was that the appropriateness of impulse buying was not investigated. Further research is necessary to analyze whether this situation occurred due the specific product (cell phone). Overall. In this type of decision-making style. despite the highly developed shopping culture in East Asia. Our findings demonstrate that culture does have an influence on impulse buying behavior. although the countries included are all considered to be “shopping cultures. and the Americans. It appears to be that even though a country receives a classification with cultural characteristics of Hofstede’s typology of culture. it is also likely that the appropriateness of the behavior would influence the desire and thus the extent of control. there is a weaker correlation between self-reported trait buying impulsiveness and the frequency of impulsive buying behavior for collectivists compared to individualists. in this case. if the power distance dimension stands out. which has been characterized as a highly individualistic. individualism stood out. Therefore we recommend that in future research the adapted scale we used be validated in countries other than the US. An interesting area for future research would be to investigate the interaction between culture and the appropriateness of engaging in impulse buying in different situations. and if individualism stands out. Western would be more quality conscious. Similarly. This finding supports and extends previous research that found that collectivists are able to maintain inconsistent attitude-behavior relationshipsand to put their own feelings aside in order to act in an appropriate manner. if the power distance dimension stands out. Indian would be more quality conscious. Indian were shown to be the most brand loyal. Cultural factors do moderate consumer impulsive buying behavior. a brand conscious decision-making style is characteristic of large power distance and individualistic cultures. and if the individualism dimension stands out. these characteristics do not interact with each other. Although collectivists possess the buying impulsiveness trait in equal measure with individualists. Thus. a quality conscious decision-making style relates to large power distance cultures but also to individualistic cultures. emotionally charged behavior. The results are in line with the theory which states that Indian belongs to a larger power distance and more collectivistic culture than the Americans. Among the cultures. Price-value and impulsive shopping decision-making styles could not be identified accurately because of reliability and validity reasons. The findings show mixed evidence for the application of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to consumer decision-making styles. the Indian proved to be the most confused by overchoice. since the literature indicates that individualistic cultures tend to have a more confused by overchoice decisionmaking style. so Westerns are the most brands conscious. reducing their impulsive buying behavior. Therefore. Indian would be the most brands conscious among the three countries. Westerns would be the most brands conscious. Asian collectivist consumers engage in less impulsive buying than individualist consumers. followed by the Americans.Consumer Behavior | 18 factor and need to be taken into account in the theories of consumer behavior. For instance.” . they suppress this trait impulse and act in a manner that is consistent with cultural norms. In addition. A brand loyal decision-making style is a characteristic of a large power distance and collectivistic culture. Confusion by overchoice is a characteristic of an individualistic culture. Although the ability to control the trait-behavior relationship appears to differ by culture. the least.

Consumer Behavior | 19 .

Consumer Behavior | 20 Questions for focus groups Research groups were asked to think about their impulse buying behavior at homes while surfing and then asked the following questions. please define your relationship to them?   Yourself Others o Child o Parent o Friend o Spouse This question was asked to see what the focus groups buy and who they buy for. Q3. Do you impulse purchase online or electronic stores for yourself or for others as gift? If for others. Which online shopping portal site you consider best for you      Flipkart SnapDeal Myantra Yebhi Sosasta Q4. If you have extra time at office. what do you most likely do? Do you impulse buy on Online shopping portals to avoid boredom?    Do Online Surfing on Shopping Sites Read News Do Chatting on Wassapp . Q1. From which product categories do you impulse purchase Online?     Apparels Electronic Items Home Appliances Movie Tickets This question was asked to see what the consumers actually purchase by impulse. How much time do you spend on online shopping portals sites every day?     30 mins 1 Hour Between 3-4 Hours More than 5 Hours Q2. Q5.

Temporal factors. Do you feel like your impulse buying behavior at Electronic Shopping Stores differs from your im-pulse shopping behavior elsewhere? How? . exciting is bright colors and fast music) Atmospherics. Situational factors Q11. relaxing music. When experiencing time pressure and feel technically challenged to know about which Smartphone to buy (if you are in a hurry to buy a new smart phone) do you make impulse purchases or do you only make-planned purchases. Does the sales staff at electronic retail stores make you impulse purchase (in ways such as by providing information overload or by creating pressure to buy)? In what way? Malls and Showrooms as special buying environment. Temporal factors. Q8. How do you shop at electronic stores/ Mobile Purchasing?     Pre notion of what to buy? Decide based on Retailer feedback Discounts/Promotions based purchase Brand Stigma Q10. Q6. Please describe in what kind of stores you impulse purchase for electronics or smartphones? Are they soothing or exciting? What makes you enter a store? (Soothing means light colors. Do promotions (in prices) have an increasing effect on your impulse purchasing behavior (at electronic store or online shopping portals)? Promotions and tax-free/in-store stimuli. Q7.Consumer Behavior | 21     Play games on mobile Talk to relatives/friends Listen Songs on Mobile None of the above This question was asked to see whether the focus groups do impulse purchases at office in order to avoid boredom. if any? This question was asked to see whether the focus groups do impulse purchases when experiencing time pressure or technically challenged. Q9.

Do you feel like you are supposed to buy something at Malls electronic showrooms? (for reasons such as it would be common behavior or your companions are making purchases)? Effect of co-consumers. Appropriateness.Consumer Behavior | 22 Q12. which Retail outlet/Showroom and how does it affect your impulse buying behavior in those places? Q14. Retail Stores as a special buying environment Q13. Does it affect whether you are purchasing through credit cards or buying at down payments hard cash? . Do you go through/Check out certain number of retail stores before buying smartphones more than others in your friend circle? If yes.

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