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Prof. Lakshman Madurasinghe

September 2006
Job descriptions an their usefulness

An accurate job description, composed with clarify and brevity and based on
the careful analysis of the tasks performed, is essential not only for the
staffing process but for job evaluation and the full range of Human
Resources functions. Without job description as a guideline, interviewing
job candidates would be difficult, selecting the right person would be a
gamble. Performance appraisals would be more guess work, evaluations for
promotions would be subject to personal rather than professional
considerations, selecting for training would be haphazard, and comparison
structure might be invalid. Having a set of job descriptions doe s not
automatically solve all personnel problems. But considering how valuable
and useful they are, it is surprising that many companies avoid them or are
content to use that are too vague or too good to be meaningful.

It is in this context that the following guidelines are issued so that with little
practice and training the companies would be able to develop and update an
on going basis their job descriptions.

Job analysis :

Job analysis and its importance

Job analysis is an attempt to identify the more significant features of a job.

The facts developed by a job analyst are summarised in a written document,
typically a job description.
Job descriptions in turn provide the necessary information about the relative
worth of different jobs within the organization. Therefore, there is a close
inter relationship between job analysis and job description.
Since the Job Description provides essential raw material for recruitment,
job evaluation processes etc., job analysis represents a starter for the
required action and should be taken seriously. misrepresentation of facts,
errors or omissions in basic data could lead to inaccurate assessments which
are costly and harmful to the organization.

In order to develop an effective system of job analysis the analyst must

ensure that certain vital steps are followed.

They are :

a) Gain the support of management at higher and lower levels.

b) Make sure that the purpose of the activity is clearly communicated to the
employees whose jobs are to be analysed.

c) Do the necessary organisational and background research. This

information may be gathered from statement of function or objectives of
the organisation.

d) Gather the necessary specific information about the jobs as they are
analysed and verify them.

Basic consideration in Job analysis

a) The facts obtained and recorded must refer to the ‘Job’ and not the
‘Person’ employed in it.

b) The duties and responsibilities must reflect the content of the job as it
exists now. Not how it has existed in the past, might exist in the future
nor how it could exist under different circumstances. The minimum
requirements must be adequate to support satisfactory performance of
such duties and responsibilities by an average employee.
c) The Job Analyst must verify the facts and ensure that they are essential to
the operation of the unit, accurate, factual and realistic. The analyst’s role
is to record them and not to reach conclusions concerning them.

d) The duties of such job must be cordinated with the duties of other jobs,
above and below, in the organisational unit and with related and
benchmark jobs in other parts of the organisation. Where there is more
than one incumbent in a job only one job analysis form is required.

e) Jobs of equal level of difficulty which are similar in nature should be

combined wherever possible under the same job title to provide
uniformity and permit a greater degree of flexibility.

f) Where the job has more than one application such as Secretary or Clerk,
it is advisable to obtain details of the application in various units in order
to ensure adequate coverage.

Job Analysis Form

The job analysis exercise must be carried out using the job analysis form
which is attached hereto.







Briefly describe the overall goal and purpose of the job. This statement should be a
general summary of the responsibilities of the job.
2. Duties and responsibilities : Percent of time

In this section describe each significant duty of the job as

completely necessary to impart a thorough understanding
to someone who is not familiar with the job. Use concise
and specific statements indicating what the duties are and
where they originate. How and why and specify where
the function ends for the job. Also state the frequency
(daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually, occasionally
etc.,) Estimate the percentage of working time spent on
each task.

Describe the most complex or difficult aspects of the job influenced by

such elements as competitive conditions, legal or contractual
requirements and professional practices. What is the extent of analysis
planning and creative thinking required to resolve these situations.


Indicate the level, frequency and nature of work contacts.

a) Persons contacted b) Frequency c) Nature & performance

(Check applicable item (Daily,weekly etc.,)

& specify)

• Immediate Associates
• Other Divisions
• Div.,/Dept. Heads
• Government Officials
• Public
• Contractors
• Others
5. INDEPENDENCE OF OPERATION : (Check applicable items and
explain as indicated)

Indicate the degree of independence of action in carrying out assigned


a) Type of Assignments b) Extent of check and supervision

- works according to detailed - work is regularly checked and

instructions. closely supervised.

- Works according to standard - completed work is checked by

instructions. supervisor.

-Works according to well - Work is reviewed upon

defined procedures and craft completion of short assignments.
or clerical standards.
- Supervisor keeps advised of
-Works according to established work progress and spot-checks
or standard procedures. Completed work.

-Works according to specialized - Work assignments are subject

clerical or technical standards. To review and direction.

- Consults with supervisor on

main issues relating to principles
or policies. Completed work
assignments or projects are
subject to general review.

- Refers to supervisor only major

problems such as those pertai-
ning to complex administrative
-Determine work methods from matters, manpower or materials.
several existing alternative Work accomplishments are
methods according to established subject to managerial review and
policies and professional direction.

-Works under broad assignments

according to general directives,
policies and programs.

Specify nature of assignments and Specify nature of problem

Explain : referred to supervisor :


6.1. Describe the most important decisions and judgements

required in the duties of this job. Indicate if they are :-

a) Self made :
b) Shared :
c) Normally recommended to higher authority for approval.

6.2 How do the decisions in 6.1 above impact on the following :-

a) Increasing revenue and costs

b) Controlling and reducing costs
c) Improving the quality of service
d) Broadening the range of company’s services
e) Protecting, conserving or increasing the company’s assets.

Indicate the supervisory responsibility of the job in terms of number

and grades of employees supervised, including those supervised
through sub ordinate levels under (a). If no supervision is involved but
incumbent provides work direction and controls the work of other
employees including contractor personnel, information should be
provided under (b)

(a) Employees supervised (b) Work Direction and Control

Number : Nature :

Grades : From To Level :

(Specify category of jobs, eg.

Contractors, etc.)

Indicate the amount, type and duration of physical effort required in the
job and the tools, equipment and machinery operated.

(a) Nature and duration of (b) Tools, equipment and

physical effort machinery used

- Standing/Walking : % of work time - Tools : % of work time

- Climbing : % of work time - Equipment % of work time
- Sitting : % of work time - Machinery % of work time
- Lifting : % of work time
- pushing/pulling % of work time
- other % of work time

(Where applicable, explain the Give example of tools used.

actions in relation to what is


Indicate the normal work conditions encountered during the day to day
performance of the job. (Check applicable items)

a) Environment b) Degree of Exposure c) Period of Exposure

Slight Moderate Intensive

- Clean, Pleasant -- -- -- - % of work time

- Dirt, Grease or oil -- -- -- - % of work time
- Heat -- -- -- - % of work time
- Fumes -- -- -- - % of work time
- Noise -- -- -- - % of work time
- Other -- -- -- - % of work time

Indicate the minimum academic, commercial, technical or professional

qualifications and knowledge of languages required for successful
performance of the full duties of the job.

(a) Education (b) Technical, Trade or

Commercial Training

- None - None
- Literacy - Years of training up to
- Years of schooling secondary level
(elementary thro’ secondary) - Years of training beyond
- Years of University secondary level

Indicate certificate or degree, Indicate certificate or Diploma

If required if required.

© Professional Qualifications (d) Knowledge of Languages –

Written/Spoken, Typing
Telex, skills, etc.

1) Does this have a direct

bearing on the job ?

2) Also indicate typing

Telex proficiency, etc.
Indicate the minimum experience required, with specified educational
background, to acquire practical knowledge to perform the whole job.

(a) Field of experience (b) Type of job

© Minimum related experience (d) Minimum on Job Familiarization

__________ Years ________ months _________ Years ____________ months


Job Title : Compiled by :

Date : Date :

Job Description

Job Description Definition

As mentioned earlier, the process of job analysis typically results in a written

summary for each significantly, different combination of duties and
responsibilities undertaken by one or more employees, which is called a job
description. Job descriptions and job specifications are the building blocks
of job evaluation, recruitment etc. Job analysis and descriptions assist in
resolving the problems of equity within the organization. They likewise
service other purposes with respect to Personnel policy in hiring, promoting,
setting up of performance standards and employee training and

Basic issues

a) Identification

The job Description must be confirmed to those duties, responsibilities

and qualifications specifically relating to the job.

b) Precision

The description must be precise and use specific terms, clear in layman’s
language, aimed at defining each function fully.

c) Conciseness

A verbose rambling description will only confuse the reader. Therefore it

must be precise, concise and well organized.

d) Organisation

Information must be organized and presented in a logical sequence.

Related tasks should be grouped under one function.

e) Coordination

Each job forms a part of the organizational structure. Accordingly the job
description must be prepared not in isolation but in close coordination
with other jobs in the organization.
f) Standardization
The description must be compiled in a uniform manner and presented in
a standard form provided for this purpose.
Job description preparation guidelines

The following paragraphs contain certain guidelines to ensure the adequacy

of information which would permit its proper evaluation.

a) Basic purpose of job

This section requires an accurate, concise and undetailed statement

of why the job exists. In other words, it answers the question what is
the primary purpose for being included in the organization ?

The reason for such a concise statement at the very outset is to

Immediately understand the job’s overall Role.

The purpose statement will seldom exceed three or four lines, e.g. the
statement for a Personnel Manager’s job might be as follows :

“To acquire, develop and retain the quality and quantity of employees
required for company operations by planning, developing,
recommending and implementing sound personnel policies and

Please note that the purpose statement is not a list of activities and they
do not describe how the job is achieved.

In order to construct the purpose statement sometimes it is useful to ask

Questions such as :

- what would not get done if the job did not exist ?
- what does this job do that other jobs don’t?
b) Principal Duties

This summarizes the end results required of the job. It should answer the
question about the principal areas in which the job must produce results
in order to achieve its basic purpose.

- Each statement should begin with an action verb and should be

grouped under 5 – 8 headings.

c) Clear statements are :

* Realistic
• Challenging
• Explicit
• Guides to action, suggestive of methods of measurement, e.g. in a
Secretary’s job description, you may find a statement such as :

“creates and maintains all departmental filing systems to facilitate the

efficient storage and retrieval of information.”

In deciding how to formulate these statements, sometimes it is helpful to

Consider what sort of job is being described, e.g.


Planning, performance measurement and control are substantial parts of

the job. Very often they work towards annual objectives and take stock of
progress at intervals.

Often the 1st and 2nd level of coordination above the direct operator
Controlling work within a daily cycle of production. The job is certain to
be governed by procedure or precedent. You may have to explain the
degree of control of staff.


These jobs are designed to support Managers due to the complexity or

Technical intricacy of decisions required. They will have relatively few
Staff to manage.

This should reflect the particular kinds of specialist problems the job is
required to solve.

Operator / Clerk

These operate as per standardized procedures or Supervisor’s instructions.

Work type is semi routine or standardized.

d) Work contacts

This identifies the most important working relationship both within and
outside the company. It contains the nature, frequency and purpose of
such contacts and looks into the level the job represents such as division,
department or company.

e) Responsibility for actions and decisions

This appraises the impact of the job incumbent’s actions,

Recommendations or decisions on the company’s operations and /or
relations. It will cover :-
A) Latitude

- Nature of instructions, procedures, standards to be followed.

- Extent of supervision
- Type and frequency of matters referred upwards for action or decision.

B) Measurable and non-measurable areas upon which the position has

Either direct or indirect impact. The degree of impact varies
according to the potential effect on the company.

Some measurable areas you may consider are :

- Annual total payroll costs of those supervised.

- Annual total operating expenses or budget
- Assets controlled or affected.
- Annual cost of materials purchased and services rendered.

e) Supervisory responsibility and work direction

In this you will include :

- No. of positions directly or indirectly supervised. Indicate

approximate No. Check approved organization charts.
- No supervision is exercised but provides functional supervision
Over personnel without administrative responsibility. State job titles.

f) Physical effort

This will contain :

- Nature or intensity of physical effort

- Duration of effort
g) Work Environment

This will contain :

- Type of work environment – agreeable, disagreeable etc.

- Duration of exposure

h) Minimum Requirement

This will contain the minimum level of Education, training, qualifications

and related experience required to perform a job satisfactorily. The
standards specified should conform to Middle East standards.

Job Description Form

The Job Descriptions shall be developed using the job description form
which is attached hereto.






1. Basic purpose of job : Give a brief statement of the main reason for the job’s
existence. This is roughly equivalent of a one sentence answer to the question “Why
does the company have this job ?”

2. Principal duties – Describe in ascending or descending Percent of

order of importance, the major duties performed regularly working time
to achieve the basic purpose

(Please use additional sheet if necessary)

Frequency Significance of contact

* Immediate Associates
• Other Divisions
• Div./Dept. Heads
• Government Officials
• Public
• Contractors
• Others


a) Job Title : a) Nature :

b) Grade : b) Level :



A) Education & Training

B) Related experience
C) Special standards / skills
D) Other equivalent qualifications :

Compiled by : __________________ Reviewed by : _____________________

Job Title : __________________ Job Title : _____________________
Date : __________________ Date : _____________________
Approved by :__________________
Job Title : __________________
Date : __________________

1. The Job Analysis Interview :

For the proper understanding of the job it is important to interview the

job holder. There may be instances when you would depend on a
preliminary draft submitted by the job holder’s superior but the job
holders should be provided with an opportunity of commenting at least
on the final draft. Whether you initially interview the job holder or his
superior, the effectiveness of the interview will have a significant impact
on the quality of the job description you finally prepare. The best of
writing, cannot compensate for a lack of job understanding or incomplete

The aim of this chapter is to assist you broaden your understanding on

what is involved in conducting a job analysis interview.

1.1. Before the interview

By preparing adequately before the actual meeting takes place it can

affect the quality and thoroughness of the interview and in turn affect
the job description. The time spent before the interview should
therefore be considered a time well spent.

Make sure that the interview is well planned. Set up a definite

appointment with the person to be interviewed. Try to arrange for a
neutral venue as far as possible where you can discuss at ease and be
free from interruptions.

Review your knowledge about the organization unit you will be

working with. Try to separate, known facts from opinions and inter
pretations. Be careful not to prejudge. You may be mistaken.
Job description you develop must communicate the real content of the
job. Equally you must effectively communicate in your job analysis
1.2. Commencing the interview

The first few minutes of an interview are often crucial.

1.3. Get the interview going

Do not waste time at the beginning of an interview or you are

likely to face time pressure later.

1.4 Establish rapport

Put the person at ease, gain his confidence and establish the
atmosphere where effective communication can take place. A
relationship of mutual confidence between you and the interviewee
is necessary to set the best results.

1.5 Explain your role

Often the job holders believe that they are being appraised or
evaluated by you. Explain clearly the nature of your role. Stress
that you are collecting and analyzing information for an objective
description of his job.

You will usually find it easiest to start the interview by getting the
Job holder to sketch out an organization chart showing the job in
the unit. This will help you to place the job in the overall
perspective of the company and indicate the line of questioning.

Avoid dominating the interview. The operating techniques you use

will provide the control needed to prompt relevant responses.
1.6 How to keep the interview going

As you progress always keep in mind the answers to questions :

- What ?
- How ?
- Why ?

will provide the basis of information for a good job description.

The job holder will expect you to ask direct questions but may not
be able to answer them immediately. You can ask him to process
the information before he answers. Listen carefully and decide what
is relevant.

Once the job holder starts talking there are a number of responses
you can use to indicate you are listening.

They include :

a) Non-committal response

This is a neutral response. You understand what the job holder is

saying but want to hear more. You use a non-committal response
such as “I see …….. “or” Oh ?”, etc.

b) Echo response

This merely echoes what the job holder last said. It shows him
that you are listening an encourages him to enlarge on what he
has been saying.
An example

Job holder : “It is often required for me to visit ministries and

government departments”.

Analyst : “……………… visit Government Departments.”

c) This is similar to echo response but adds interpretation to what

is said for example.

“Oh! You must visit Govt. Departments often ?”

This type of response shows that you are listening. But there is
Also a pitfall, when you interpret the job holder may feel that
you are judging or making assumptions. Be cautious !

Taking good notes is extremely critical. Don’t trust too much on

memory but also remember not to get too much involved in
trying to write every word the job holder says. This will
interrupt the proper flow of information.

At times you may find your working with a job holder who is
reluctant to talk. This calls for skill, tact and self-discipline on
the part of the job analyst.

Move him into questions which he cannot possibly answer in


E.g. with a half stated follow-up questions such as :-

“In such cases the action you take is ………….. ?

1.7 Closing the interview

This could be done simply and naturally by a comment such as

“well with a few more questions, we shall be through”

When you reach the end, it will be polite to ask if there are any
questions or comments. This will give the job holder an
opportunity to clarify a point which has been troubling him.

Review your notes as soon as possible after an interview while the

interview is still fresh in your mind.

1.8 Some additional Guidelines

a) When you ask a question, do so in an inquisitive manner and not

In a challenging way. Do not show approval or disapproval.

b) Be careful not to ask leading questions – ones that suggest that a

Certain answer is desired.

c) Do not be timid about asking probing a supplementary question

whenever needed.

d) Listen to complaints – but be non – committal.

e) When you ask a question, wait for an answer.

f) Do not dominate the discussion.

g) Listen “between the lines”. Things unsaid, hinted at, implied can
be very important.
List of action verbs commonly used in Job Descriptions

Accepts To receive with consent; take without protest

Accomplishes To complete, perform fully, fulfill

Achieves To bring to a successful end, bring about an intended result

Acts To perform a specified function; product an effect; give a

decision or award.

Administers To control and bring into use or operation; to make

application of.

Adopts To take and apply or put into practice; accept formally as a


Advises To give recommendations regarding a decision or course

of conduct, policy or action; i.e. not simply telling or

Allocates To set part for a particular purpose; assign or allot.

Analyses To investigate and study the factors of a situation or

problem in order to determine the solution or outcome;
study various unrelated facts to arrive at a conclusion.

Anticipates To foresee an act, events, trends, consequences or


Appraises To evaluate as to quality, status, effectiveness, etc.

Approves To sanction officially, confirm; accept as sastisfactory

Thereby assuming responsibility for (Used only in a
Situation where the individual has final authority)
Arranges To place in the proper order; prepare a plan or schedule,
e.g. meeting.

Ascertains To find out or learns definitely, determine.

Assembles To fit together the parts of.

Assigns To designate, give or reserve for a specific person or


Assists To give support or aid in some undertaking or effort.

(No authority over the activity is implied)

Assumes To take upon oneself; undertake.

Assures To confirm; make certain of; state confidently.

Attends (i) To look after or take charge of ; apply the mind to or

pay attention to

(ii) is present for the purpose of making a contribution.

Audits To carry out a critical comprehensive and methodical

examination and review a situation, condition or practice
within the enterprise. To conclude with a detailed report
on findings and / or recommendations leading to
conformity with or revision to established policies,
programs, and procedures, if such is indicated or needed.

Authorises To give the power to take action or to require and receive

Performance of actions by others.

Balances To arrange or prove so that the sum of one group equals

the sum of another.

Budgets To determine how much is to be spent on each category

of expenditure during a given time period.
Calculates To determine by using mathematical methods; compute.
To determine by reasoning, commonsense or practical

Carries out To put into operation, practice; to accomplish

Checks To inspect for satisfactory condition, accuracy, safety or


Circulates To cause to pass from place to place or person to person,


Classifies To examine analyze and arrange or organize by class.

Clears To be free from obligation, liability or debt, e.g. customs


Collaborates To work with and acts jointly with others.

Collects To gather facts or data; assemble; accumulate.

Compiles To collect, arrange and put together (document, selections,

etc) in one work.

Completes To bring to an end; finish; execute

Computes To determine by mathematical means; to make


Concurs To agree with a position, statement or action.

Conducts To carry out, has direction of or directs the execution of.

Confers To consult together, compare opinions, carry on a

discussion or deliberation.
Consolidates To bring together; unite; combine

Consults To asks the advice or opinion of another; confer; refer to;

Contacts To communicate with another person

Contracts To enter into an agreement

Contributes To give together with others; furnish ideas etc.

Controls To monitor, direct and regulate. The monitoring of

performance is the starting point of control. In case
performance deviates from what is expected, corrective
action is taken to get the process back on the track.

Cooperates To work or act with others to achieve a desired result,

Or for mutual benefit.

Coordinates To integrate one’s own efforts with those of others to

Achieve a desired objective with a minimum of
duplication or misdirection of effort. Frequently one
speaks of coordinating of efforts with those of people in
other departments.

Correlates To organize so as to advance effectively a common

program work objective.

Counsels To give advice; consult with; to exchange ideas mutually.

Creates To cause to come into existence; to produce with

imaginative skill.

Decides To arrive at a solution that ends uncertainly or dispute

about; make a choice or judgement.
Delegates To assign to a sub-ordinate the authority to accomplish
an objective or specific result. True delegation exists
only when the manager making the delegation confines
himself to establishing the objective and standards and
measures of performance, reviewing the results, and
coaching the subordinate in terms of those results and
their variance from objectives and performance
standards. (A manager may delegate authority to others
but he cannot delegate his responsibility and

Delivers To hand over ; send to an intended destination.

Demonstrates To show clearly; prove or make clear by reasoning or

Evidence; illustrate and explain especially with

Describes To represents or give an account of in words.

Designs To conceive and plan out in the mind; devise for a

specific function or end; make a drawing, pattern or
sketch of; create, fashion, execute or construct according
to plan.

Determines To come to a decision concerning an action or proposal;

Choose from among alternatives; fix conclusively or

Develops To bring an idea or course of action into a clear; full and

Explicit presentation. To cause to grow, expand or bring

Devises To invent from existing principles or ideas, e.g. to devise

a method.

Dictates To say or read aloud for another to transcribe or for a

machine to record.
Directs To regulates the activities or course of; govern or control;
give guidance to.

Discusses To exchange views for the purpose of arriving at a


Disseminates To spread information or ideas.

Distributes To spread, scatter; to divide into classes of distinct

character, e.g. to distribute work.

Drafts To write or compose papers or documents usually in

rough, preliminary form prior to final form, often for
clearance, revision and approval by others.

Edits To revise or correct, as for publication.

Endorses To approve, support or sustain; to sign one’s name on

the reverse of a document, e.g. cheque or commercial

Ensures To make sure, certain or safe usually by a definite

review, plan or action.

Establishes To bring into existence; bring about; set up on a firm

Basis to show to be valid or true e.g. to establish a fact.

Estimates To determine roughly the size, extent or duration of

something; state what one considers to be the likely cost
or price of something; judge tentatively the value, worth
or significance of something.

Evaluates To determine or set the value or amount; to appraise.

Examines To look at critically or methodically; investigate; inspect;

test by an appropriate method.
Exchanges To part with, give or transfer in consideration for
something received as an equivalent.

Executes To put into effect; carry out or follow through to a


Exercises To bring to bear or employ actively as in exercise of

Authority or influence, to put into action, practice or use.

Expedites To accelerate the movement or progress of.

Experiments To carry out an activity or operation; to make a


Explains To give an intelligible account of; make known in detail.

Extrapolates To forecast using methods that assume that the future

will continue to reflect already established trends.

Facilitates To make easier; assist the progress of.

Follows up To check the progress of; to see if results are


Forecasts To estimate the value of a certain variable in the future,

such as manpower, sales, operating costs, etc.

Formulates To put into a systemized statement; develop or devise a

method, system, plan, policy or procedure.

Furnishes To provides, supply or give

Functions To perform a special action or activity; to act, serve or


Helps To contribute strength or means to; render assistance; to

cooperate effectively with; aid; assist.
Hires To engage the services of for a wage or salary; to grant
the temporary, use of, or the services of, for

Guides To conduct or direct along a course of action.

Implements To carry out; perform acts essential to the execution of a

Plan or a program.

Improves To bring into a more de viable or excellent condition.

Informs To bring into a more de viable or excellent condition.

Initiates To originate; introduce in the first instance; course or

bring to pass by an original act, as in originating a plan,
policy or procedure.

Innovates To initiate activity or development that results in the

adoption of a new product, business or way of doing

Inspects To examine carefully and critically.

Instructs To impart knowledge to; supply direction to.

Integrates To bring together or incorporate; make up, combine or


Interprets To explain the meaning of, translate; elucidate.

Interviews To question in order to obtain facts or opinions.

Investigates To inquire into systematically.

Issues To send out, distribute; to put into circulation.

Keeps To have under one’s care or one’s charge.

Lays out To plan the arrangement of

Maintains To hold or keep, in any condition; keep up to date or

Current, as of records.

Makes To provide; cause to exist or bring out.

Manages To mobilize resources for the achievement of a purpose;

to have charge of or responsibility for.

Modifies To make partial changes; to change somewhat the form

or qualities of.

Monitors To observe or check on a continuing basis.

Motivates To move an individual to action by personal


Negotiates To confer with a view to agreement between the parties


Notifies To give notice to; inform

Observes To keep; follow; adhere to; perceive; watch; take notice


Obtains To gain possession of; acquire.

Operates To conducts or perform an activity

Organizes To assemble and establish the human and physical

resources of the business or any of its sub-units in a
sound and proper relationship that leads to the effective
and economical accomplishment of established
objectives. It involves structure, people, definition and
unity of purpose.

Originates To initiate or give origin to.

The Author Prof.Lakshman Madurasinghe, MA.,MS(Psy).PhD
Chartered Fellow CIPD(Lond) is a Behavioural Scientist with
International HR Consultancy experience