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Flow diagrams and instrumentation

Flow diagrams describe in a schematic drawing format the flow of fluids and gases through a unit or an entire plant To represent various pieces of equipment, the flow diagram provides the piping designer with an overall view of the operation of facility Student must become familiar with the piping, equipment, instrumentation symbol and abbreviations used on flow diagrams, in order to be able to read and interpret them The flow diagram should be laid out in a very simplistic and logical order and be read from left to right

Uses of flow diagram the flow diagram is used by the piping group to develop and lay out the plot plan

many other factor such as code requirements, client standards and preferences, worker safety , and cost also influence the positioning of equipment

the flow diagram is usually yellowed out as each line is completed and incorporated into the design

Type of flow diagrams Process engineers are responsible for developing flow diagrams. In many large engineering firms, as entire department is dedicated to the development of flow diagrams.

Process flow diagram The process flow diagram is the first flow diagram developed by the flow diagram department. It includes the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Major equipment Main piping Direction of flow Operating pressure and temperature Major instrumentation The process flow diagram will denote the following Conditions to be used for the design of various pieces of equipment(fractionation columns, pumps, heater, etc) required for facility operation Operating and design condition under which a particular unit or piece of equipment will normally operate. Design condition establish the limits that equipment use in the facility can withstand. Design pressure is calculated to be a least 10% above the maximum operating pressure or 25# greater ( whichever is largest). The design temperature will be at least the maximum operating operating temperature , but should be at least 25 degrees above the normal operating temperature Composition of the commodities use in the process sequence as they enter and leave the unit.

Mechanical flow diagram

From the process flow diagram, the mechanical group develops the mechanical flow diagram. The mechanical flow diagram provides much more detailed data than the process flow diagram. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pipe line number and direction of flow Pipe specification and line sizes All equipment All valves All instrumentation with controlling devices

The utility flow diagram


The utility flow diagram shows the piping, valves, and instrumentation for the basic plant utilities. Utilities are services that are essential to the proper function of the plant. These utilities correspond to some of the same utilities used in a typical house, such as water, gas, and sewer drains Some of the common plant utilities are: Steam Fuel Instrument air Drainage system Condensate Utility air Cooling water Flare system

Flow diagram instruments


Instruments function by sensing changes in the variables they monitor. The four basic instrument group are: Flow Level Pressure temperature (F) (L) (P) (T)

The types of instruments used to sense, control and monitor these variable are: Controller Indicator Gauge Alarm recoder (C) (I) (G) (A) (R)

Instrument types Gauges. Gauges are instrument that measure the liquid level inside a vessel or the temperature and/or pressure in the piping system. Level, temperature, or pressure gauge are locally mounted to enable plant operators to obtain a visual reading. Controllers Devices use to maintain a specified liquid level, temperature, pressure, or flow inside vessel or piping system. They active the control valve that regulates the level, temperature, pressure, and flow in and out of the vessel. Alarms Signal via light or hon that indicated the liquid level, temperature, or pressure inside a vessel is too high or low or that there is no flow or reverse flow. Indicator

Devise used to indicate the liquid level, temperature, pressure, or flow rate inside a piping system. Recorders Device use to record the liquid level, temperature, pressure, and flow rate inside a vessel or piping system throughout a certain shift or period of time

Flow plan arrangement The flow plan should be arranged in a logical order of flow. The main flow through the unit should be obvious by even a brief examination of the flow plan.

Avoid crossing lines where possible Space equipment on the sketch to avoid overcrowding Use notes with symbols where necessary for clarity Use arrows to show flow direction Show equipment numbers when it is necessary to identify equipment Show control system on the sketch. The control scheme is frequently the most important part of a flow plan sketch Show important valves, orifice flanges, and control valves Show flow direction through exchangers with arrows Do not run lines diagonally across the drawing Label feed lines entering the unit from the field where the line enters the unit. Label product lines leaving the unit by name Do not draw lines any closer together than necessary