PETROCHEMICALS ASSIGNMENT ON AGROCHEMICALS

By, V.KAILASH (2011307013) B.KALANITHI (2011307014) R.KARTHICK (2011307015) M.KARTHIKEYAN (2011307016)

Many agrichemicals are . agrichemical refers to the broad range of pesticides. hormones and other chemical growth agents.CONTENTS INTRODUCTION: WHY WE NEED CHEMICALS IN AGRICULTURE? TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS: HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS: THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS: HOW WILL A NEW AGROCHEMICAL DO TO THE PEOPLE? COUNTRIES AND THEIR AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT: LIMITATIONS OF USING AGROCHEMICALS: CONCLUSION: Introduction: Agrochemicals contraction of agricultural chemical. is a generic term for the various chemical products used in agriculture. and fungicides. herbicides. including insecticides. and concentrated stores of raw animal manure. It may also include synthetic fertilizers. In most cases.

One of the biggest concerns for farmers is weed control . Nutrients such as carbon. insecticides and fungicides. including improper storage resulting in spillage.  . When weeds grow in farmland they can damage the crops and decrease the crop yeild of the farm.toxic. Insects such as worms and beetles can infest a crop and destroy it. Unfortunately. use of agrichemicals is highly regulated. and safety equipment and procedures for handling. To get rid of the weeds without killing the crop many farmers spray their fields with herbicides. nutrients that the plants also need such as nitrogen. herbicides. proper storage facilities and labeling. Why we need chemicals in agriculture? Many farmers choose to use chemicals to keep weeds and pests from destroying their crops and to add more nutrients to the soil. application and disposal are often subject to mandatory standards and regulations. particularly in the event of accidental spills. All three of these pesticides are used to kill different kinds of pests that can be found on a farm. There are three different kinds of pesticides. and agrichemicals in bulk storage may pose significant environmental and/or health risks. which then increases the crop yield on the farm. On farms. In many countries.   Plants need nutrients in order to grow on a farm. Insectisides are strong chemicals that will kill the insects that will harm the crop without killing the actual crop. phosphorus and potassium can run out. To keep this from happening many farmers will spray their crops with insecticides. Usually. Because insects make up 3/4 of all species on earth. the regulations are carried out through the registration process. Replacing these nutrients back into the soil with fertilizers can help the growth of the plant. oxygen and hydrogen are always available to the plants. emergency clean-up equipment and procedures. they can be a big problem on a farm. Significant penalties can result from misuse. Herbicides are also made up of strong chemicals. Farmers that make the decision not to use any chemicals are called organic farmers. Government-issued permits for purchase and use of approved agrichemicals may be required. To put more of these nutrients back into the soil many farmers will add fertilizers.

However. Agents that attract mainly harmful insect pests by odor or other means. Spreaders History of Agricultural Chemicals: In Japan. Agents for controlling weeds Agents for controlling rats and other rodents Agents to promote or inhibit the growth of field crops. farmers used to walk around the rice paddies in procession yelling. Agents for controlling diseases that damage field crops. which was used until the early Showa Era.Types of Agricultural chemicals: Agricultural chemicals are classified as follows: Insecticides Fungicides Insect-fungicides Herbicides Rodenticides Plant growth regulators Attractants Repellents Agents for controlling harmful insect pests that damage field crops. a new method was invented. In the Edo Era. torches to drive away rice bugs. or naturally derived fungicides such as copper and lime sulphur were used. Agents for having repellent action on harmful mammals and birds that damage field crops. in which whale oil was sprayed on rice paddies to destroy harmful insect pests on rice. This is called "mushi-oi" or "mushi-okuri" (meaning driving away noxious insects). and this continued until herbicides were developed after the . Agents that simultaneously control harmful insect pests and diseases that damage field crops. weed control depended solely on hand weeding. Agents that are mixed with other agricultural chemicals to enhance the adherence of these chemicals. naturally-derived pesticides such as pyrethrums (the same ingredient as that in mosquito coils) and nicotine sulfate (from tobacco). In the days before World War II. with drums. alarm bells.

Inert ingredients can be many substances.Postwar advances in technology saw the advent of chemically synthesized agricultural chemicals. dependent on the type of pesticide. Emulsifiers (such as soap) are also added to distribute the active ingredient evenly throughout the solvent. The Manufacturing Process . and bromine are most common. sulfur. phosphorus. which brought about an increase in crop yield and efficiency in farm work. showing that herbicides had made the weeding work more efficient. Process of producing Agrochemicals: Raw Materials Chlorine. A weeding time of 50 hours per 10 are in 1949 dropped to approximately 2 hours per 10 are in 1999. though water has recently begun to replace kerosene. nitrogen. Liquid pesticides have traditionally used kerosene or some other petroleum distillate as a carrier.war. oxygen. Hand weeding under the scorching sun is very hard labor.

toxicity to humans. etc. and residue in crops. accompanied by the materials to confirm the quality and safety of the relevant agricultural chemicals. and Fisheries.o Synthesizing the pesticide o Formulating the pesticide o Diluting the pesticide o Applying the pesticide Quality Control Pesticides are by their very nature toxic substances. This includes various test results concerning the efficacy against diseases and pests. It takes approximately 10 years and several billion yen to develop a new agricultural chemical (Fig. hence. negative effect on crops. a great deal of concern has centered on safety. Steps to Implement a new Chemical In the Agriculture industry: Manufacturers and importers of agricultural chemicals must apply for registration via the Incorporated Administrative Agency Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center to the Minister of Agriculture. . Forestry. 3).

. and consideration must also be given to their effect on the environment. Sufficient tests should be conducted to ensure the safety of these chemicals and organisms. Procedures for development & research of a new agricultural chemical How will a new agrochemical do to the people? Agricultural chemicals are used in crops for food.Figure 3.

Countries and their agricultural Output: Rank Countries Countries by agricultural output at market exchange rates in 2014 (billions in USD) 986 324 301 104 113 98 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 China India U.s Indonesia Brazil Nigeria Russia Limitations of Using Agrochemicals: These agricultural chemicals were highly toxic to humans. some caused frequent accidents during use. and some were highly residual in soils. Conclusion: Thus agrochemicals plays a major role in agriculture industry. . Though it has limitations it has enormous advantages so use of agrochemicals makes people work easier. some were highly residual in crops (crop residue).