Chapter7: Beam problems (Element :BEAM3-2D- Elastic Beam

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BEAM3 - 2-D Elastic Beam geometry

Element Description BEAM3 is a uniaxial element with tension, compression, and bending capabilities. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the nodal zaxis. Assumptions and Restrictions
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The beam element must lie in an X-Y plane and must not have a zero length or area. The beam element can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moment of inertia can be computed. However, the stresses are determined as if the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber is one-half of the height. The element height is used only in the bending and thermal stress calculations. The applied thermal gradient is assumed linear across the height and along the length. The moment of inertia may be zero if large deflections are not used.

BEAM3 Input Data Figure 7.1: "BEAM3 Geometry" shows the geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element. The element is defined by two nodes, the cross-sectional area, the area moment of inertia, the height, and the material properties. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by ∆/L, where ∆ is the difference between the element length, L (as defined by the I and J node locations), and the zero strain length. The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix, if any, for the first cumulative iteration.

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GXY. "BEAM3 Input Summary" summarizes the element input. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. ROTZ Real Constants AREA . etc. or DCGOMG commands. Material Properties :EX. You can specify an added mass per unit length with the ADDMAS real constant.Cross-sectional area IZZ . DOMEGA. ALPX (or CTEX or THSX). You specify lateral pressures as a force per unit length. You can use a zero value of SHEARZ to neglect shear deflection. Node and Element Loads describes element loads. The shear deflection constant (SHEARZ) is optional. If only T1 and T2 are input.1: "BEAM3 Geometry". End "pressures" are input as a force. Element Input contains a general description of element input. J Degrees of Freedom UX. It is based on equilibrium (free body of a portion of the element) considerations and is not valid if: • • • stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF. DENS. The shear modulus (GXY) is used only with shear deflection. BEAM3 Input Summary Nodes I.Total beam height SHEARZ . T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. The area and moment of inertia must be input on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis. shown by the circled numbers in Figure 7. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Positive normal pressures act into the element. If all other temperatures are unspecified.You can use the element in an axisymmetric analysis if hoop effects are negligible. You can specify temperatures as element body loads at the four "corner" locations shown in Figure 7. If SHEARZ = 0.Initial strain ADDMAS . For any other input pattern. KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. they default to T1. such as for bolts.Added mass per unit length Note :SHEARZ goes with the IZZ. You can specify pressures as surface loads on the element faces.Area moment of inertia HEIGHT . UY. See Shear Deflection for details.ON] more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA] any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA.Shear deflection constant ISTRN . KEYOPT(9) is used to request output at intermediate locations. DAMP Surface Loads Pressure -face 1 (I-J) (-Y normal direction) face 2 (I-J) (+X tangential direction) face 3 (I) (+X axial direction) face 4 (J) (-X axial direction) (use a negative value for loading in the opposite direction) 75 . slotted cylinders.1: "BEAM3 Geometry". there is no shear deflection in the element Y direction.

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.J.T1. YC TEMP PRES SDIR SBYT SBYB SMAX SMIN EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT Definition Element Number Element nodes . Figure 7. Y indicates that the item is always available.indicates that the item is not available. P3 at I. ESOL].I. J Element material number Element volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T1.1 BEAM3 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. T2. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. P2 at I. Table 3. OFFST2 at I. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. T4 Pressure P1 at nodes I.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.J. T3. and a .J. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. OFFST1 at I. J. T3. T2. In either the O or R columns. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.2: "BEAM3 Stress Output" illustrates several items. P4 at J Axial direct stress Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress) Minimum stress (direct stress .1: "BEAM3 Element Output Definitions". T4 BEAM3 !tp!t Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: • • Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution Additional element output as shown in Table 3.Body Loads Temperatures -.bending stress) Axial elastic strain at the end Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam Axial thermal strain at the end Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam O R Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 76 .

7: "BEAM3 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 9)" all use the following notation: Name output quantity as defined in the Table 3.1: "BEAM3 Element Output Definitions" Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. The item repeats for end I. Table 3. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)). Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y) Member forces in the element coordinate system X and Y direction 1.2: "BEAM3 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0)" through Table 3.Name EPTHBYB EPINAXL MMOMZ Definition Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam Initial axial strain in the element Member moment in the element coordinate system Z direction O R 1 1 1 1 2 Y 2 Y MFOR(X. If KEYOPT(6) = 1. 3.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILN sequence number for data at Intermediate Location N Table 3. and end J. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 2.2 BEAM3 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0) Output Quantity Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 7 I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 J 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 3 4 7 8 12 77 .

Table 3.3 BEAM3 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 1) Output Quantity Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 ETABLE and ESOL Command Input Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 1 TEMP LBFE 1 E 10 2 2 I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 19 21 23 25 27 3 3 ILI 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 3 4 7 8 12 4 4 J 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 5 6 13 14 18 20 22 24 26 28 Pseudo Node 7" .

a+is1.*.e e8ample a *itle: 9tilit1 $.$ "reate a line 5oinin (e)points 1 and $ 6.).er Beam %oa/s 0ill not be applie/ to the beam sho0n belo0 in or/er to obser. and rotation a.e the /e+lection ca!se/ b1 the 0ei-ht o+ the beam itsel+2 *he beam is to be ma/e o+ steel 0ith a mo/!l!s o+ elasticit1 o+ 233 4(a2 %56333mm7 .lem /e /ill use t!e BEAM3 0Beam $D elastic1 element.ei-ht on a Cantile. 8!is element !as 3 de rees of freedom 0translation alon t!e 9 and : a+es.le: oin to define $ -e)points for t!is .+. Create %ines: (reprocessor : Mo/elin.. Men! : .: Create : %ines : %ines : >n Acti. De+ine the *1pe o+ Element (reprocessor : Element *1pe : A//?E/it?Delete222 7or t!is pro.the (roblem 1. Effects of Self Wei !t for a "antile#er Beam pen preprocessor men!: A)$<$ /%RE%& Main Men! : (reprocessor 3.1 02. ' Modelin ' "reate ' (e)points ' In Acti#e "S.).eam as "oordinates 0+.out t!e .$ %&ED E'AM(%E ) BEAM E%EME)* (roblem24: E++ect o+ $el+ .21 i#en in t!e follo/in (e)point 1 $ 3... 7# . 4i.21 01222..1. De+ine =e1points: %reprocessor (.553mm7 h563mm (reprocessin-: De+inin.ile : Chan-e *itle 222 /title.e Coor/ 4. We are ta.

o Select $ol!tion : De+ine %oa/s : Appl1 : $tr!ct!ral : >nertia : 4ra. 12. De+ine @eal Constants (reprocessor : @eal Constants222 : A//222 In t!e =Real "onstants for BEAM3= /indo/.. De+ine Element Densit1 (reprocessor : Material (rops : Material Mo/els : $tr!ct!ral : %inear : Densit1 In t!e /indo/ t!at appears.All= $ol!tion (hase: Assi-nin.<& 3. De+ine Anal1sis *1pe Solution A@8:%E.?<e>< A.it1222 "3 . 8otal . :oun =s modulus E9: $22222 $.eam /it! a !ei !t of 12 mm and a /idt! of 62 mm. enter t!e follo/in properties: 1. Area moment of inertia I.it1 It is necessar) to define t!e direction and ma nitude of ra#it) for t!is pro. De+ine 4ra. Densit) DE@S: &. %oisson=s Ratio %R9:: 2.lem. enter t!e follo/in eometric properties for steel: 1.3 ?. "ross>sectional area AREA: 622 $. De+ine Mesh $iAe (reprocessor : Meshin. enter t!e follo/in densit) for steel: 1. Appl1 Constraints Solution ' Define 4oads ' Appl) ' Structural ' Displacement ' Bn (e)points 7i+ -e)point 1 0ie all DB7 constrained1 3.: 31<<.<.=%ic. Mesh the +rame %reprocessor ' Mes!in ' Mes! ' 4ines ' clic.%oa/s an/ $ol. De+ine Element Material (roperties eometric %reprocessor ' Material %rops ' Material Models ' Structural ' 4inear ' Elastic ' Isotropic In t!e /indo/ t!at appears.: $iAe Cntrls : Man!al$iAe : %ines : All %ines222 7or t!is e+ample /e /ill use an element ed e len t! of 122mm.2 ' Anal)sis 8)pe ' @e/ Anal)sis ' Static $.in1.eam !ei !t: 12 8!is defines a . &.

8!ere s!ould no/ . 8!e applied loads and constraints s!ould no/ appear as s!o/n in t!e fi ure . $ol.2.1. Also note t!at a positi#e acceleration in t!e ) direction stimulates ra#it) in t!e ne ati#e : direction.ecause t!e units of acceleration and mass must . )ote: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters 0not =mm= as used t!rou !out t!e pro.A44..A. 8!is is .?1m/s$ in t!e ) direction.een D(.o 8!e follo/in /indo/ /ill appear. 3. 7ill it in as s!o/n to define an acceleration of A.lem1.e consistent to i#e t!e product of force units 0@e/tons in t!is case1.the @es!lts 1.e : C!rrent %$ (ostprocessin-: &ie0in. Ban/ Calc!lations Dand calculations /ere performed to #erif) t!e solution found usin A@S:S: 8!e ma+imum deflection /as s!o/n to .? in t!e positi#e ) direction.e 6. A"E4.elo/.&&&mm "6 .e the $1stem $ol!tion SB4CE : $ol. 8!is defined in t!e ) direction.e a red arro/ pointin indicates t!at acceleration !as .

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Also find deflections using SOM approach. 1 2 3 4 Max stress:____________ Max deflection:________________ Slope at tip: Location:____________ Location:____________ Shear Forces on Elements SFD2 SFD8 Bending Moment Values BMD6 BMD12 Shear force diagram Bending moment diagram Compare solutions from SOM.Results: E4EME@8A4 SB4N8IB@> S!ear 7orce and Bendin Moment: Node No. "4 .

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select item. comp.D" ' B. 1&.el for item G BMD6. 1?.) seKuence num.er> select $M>$C7 2 08)pe $ after selectin SMIS"1 ' Appl) ' set user la. select item.D" ' B( ' @ote t!e stress in elements 0@ote t!e s!ear 7orces1 Ans)s Main Menu ' Leneral %ost %rocessor ' Element 8a.er> select $M>$C7 " 08)pe ? after selectin SMIS"1 ' Appl) ' set user la. 1<.) seKuence num.el for item G $.ers1 Ans)s Main Menu ' Leneral %ost %rocessor ' %lot Results ' "ontour %lots J4ine Element Results ' Select 4a. $2. 1A.1G$.0see t!e Bendin Moment Dia ram1 7ile ' Sa#e as ' Select t!e user director) ' Beam2 ' B( Results: E4EME@8A4 SB4N8IB@> S!ear 7orce and Bendin Moment: @ode @o.OG BMD62 ' B.0see t!e s!ear forces in t!e mem.er> select $M>$C7 62 08)pe 1$ after selectin SMIS"1 ' Appl) ' B( ' "lose Ans)s Main Menu ' Leneral %ost %rocessor 'Element 8a. S!ear 7orces on Elements S7D$ S7D? Bendin Moment Calues BMD< BMD1$ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Also obtain maximum stress.) seKuence num. select item.D2.D2 and 4a.1GBMD6 and 4a.el for item G $.) seKuence num. comp.er> select $M>$C7 6 08)pe < after selectin SMIS"1 ' Appl) ' set user la.el for item G BMD62. comp.OG $.le '4ist Element 8a. select item.le ' Select BMD67 BMD62 ' B( ' @ote t!e stress in elements 0@ote t!e Bendin Moments1 Ans)s Main Menu ' Leneral %ost %rocessor ' %lot Results ' Deformed S!ape ' Select Def M Nndeformed ' B( 0Blue line indicates deformed s!ape and /!ite line indicates ori inal s!ape Ans)s Main Menu ' Leneral %ost %rocessor ' %lot Results ' "ontour %lots J4ine Element Results ' Select 4a.le ' Add ' set user la. results data item G . results data item G . 16.D27 $. results data item G .le ' Define ta.13. results data item G .maximum deflection and locations "6 . Ans)s main menu ' eneral post processor ' Element ta. comp.le ' Select $.le ' 4ist Element 8a.D".

The force is offset by 100 mm. Loading Deflection (mm) ANSYS Theory Bending Moment (N-mm) ANSYS Theory Max. Deflection (mm) Node No. Bending Moment (N-mm) Element No. Max. Result Node No. Bending Stress (N/mm2) ANSYS Theory Case A F=10KN Case B M=10KNm Case C P=5Mpa Problem – 28 A long cantilever beam with 30 mm square cross-section and 1000 mm length is subjected to an off-centered axial force of 1000 N (see figure below). Bending Stress (N/mm2) ANSYS Analysis Theory "7 .Exercises : BEAM PROBLEMS Problem – 27 A long cantilever beam with 30 mm square cross-section and 1000 mm length (see figure below) is subjected to (a) Concentrated tip force (b) Concentrated tip moment (c) Distributed pressure load Each loading is applied separately.

Bending Stress (N/mm2) ANSYS Analysis Theory "" . Max. A = 50 X 50 Sq. Bending Stress (N/mm2) ANSYS Analysis Theory (roblem E 33 Determine the end forces of a clamped-clamped beam due to a 1 radian imposed rotation at the right end. Deflection (mm) Node No. Deflection (mm) Node No. E = 200 Gpa l=2m Result Node No. Bending Moment (N-mm) Element No. A = 50 X 50 Sq.(roblem E 2# Determine the end forces of a clamped-clamped beam due to a 25 mm settlement at the right end. Bending Moment (N-mm) Element No. E = 200 Gpa l=2m Result Node No. Max.

Bending Moment (N-mm) Element No.lem J 3$ The figure shows a loaded beam subjected to various types of loading E = 200 Gpa I = 4 X 106 mm4 Result Max Deflection (mm) Node No. and (B) a moment M.(roblem E 36 A beam of length L and height h is built-in at one end and loaded at free end with (A) a shear force F. Bending Stress (N/mm2) ANSYS Analysis Theory %ro. Max. Bending Moment (N-mm) Element No. Determine the deflection at the free end. A = 50 X 50 Sq. Bending location Stress 2 (N/mm ) ANSYS Analysis Theory "# . Deflection (mm) Node No. E = 200 Gpa l=2m Result Node No. Max.

Bending Stress (N/mm2) Element No. Max. Bending Stress (N/mm2) Problem – 34 Using three elements to model a steel beam structure as shown in figure. Result ANSYS Analysis Theory Deflection (mm) Node No. find the deflected shape and the reaction forces. Bending Moment (N-mm) Node No. find the deflected shape and the reaction forces at the ends. Bending Moment mm) (N- Element No. Max. Result Deflecti on (mm) Node No. ANSYS Analysis Theory #3 . Node No.Problem – 33 Using the beam elements to model a steel beam structure as shown in figure.

#6 .