Chapter 6: PROBLEMS ON AXIAL LOADING Link 1 ( Bar OR r!

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14. &in' N('a$ Di"p$a)e%ent" Stre""e" an' rea)ti(n *(r)e" *(r the *($$(+in, pr(-$e% !"in, Link1 E$e%ent. Gi/en 'ata: A1 0 12%%34 A3 0 32%%3 E035125 N6%%3

SOLUTION:
1. File>change job name > Enter “a5ia$1” 2. Ansys Main Menu > Preferences > structural > O !. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > E#EME$% ty"e > A&&'e&it'&elete > a&& > $ink73D Spar1> O( ). Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > *eal constants > A&&'e&it'&elete > A&& > O( > set real +onstant $O, - 1 cross sectional Area - ).> A""ly > +hange *eal constant $o, - 2/ +ross sectional Area - 2. > O( >+lose 0. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Material Pro"erties > Material Mo&els > 1tructural > #inear > Elastic 8 2sotro"ic> 1"ecify Material $o,- 1> O(> 3oungs mo&ulus- 2E0/ Poisson4s ration Minor- ..! > O( 5. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor >Mo&eling> +reate > $o&es > 2n acti6e +1 > 1et $o&e $o, - 1/ 7-./3-./ 8-. > A""ly > 1et $o&e $O, -2/ 7- 2./ 3-./ 8-. > A""ly > 1et $o&e $o, - !/ 7-5./ 3-./ 8-. > O( 9. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling > +reate > elements > %hru $o&es > Pic 1 : 2 no&es > O( ;. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling > +reate >elements >Elements Attributes> 1et Element %y"e $o 1 #2$(1 1et Material $o. 1 1et real constant set $O, - 2 > O( <. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling> +reate> elements > %hru $o&es> Pic no&es 2: ! no&e> O( 1.. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > loa&s =efine #oa&s > a""ly > 1tructural =is"lacement > On $o&es > Pic 1 > O > all =oF > O

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Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > #ist *esults > *eaction 1olutions > 1elect all items > O( > B$ote the reaction solutionC 19.. FE Fy 1 Check ∑Fx= ∑Fy= 59 .DISPLACEMENTS: $o&e $o. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Plot *esults > =eforme& 1ha"e > 1elect =ef FGnreforme& > O( BHlue line in&icates &eforme& sha"e an& Ihite line in&icates original sha"e 1. File > 1a6e as > 1elect the user &irectory > AEial 2> O( Results: NODAL SOLUTION. Ansys Main Menu > solution >1ol6e +urrent #1 >O( 1oln =one > +lose 1!. GE Gy 1 2 3 Results: ELEMENTAL SOLUTION..STRESSES: Element $o. 1tress 1 2 Results: REACTION SOLUTION: $o&e $o.by seAuence number@ select LS41B%y"e 1 after selecting #1C > O( > +lose 1).@1. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > #ist *esults > $o&al 1olution > =of solution > E com"onent of =OFs > O B$ote the $o&al &is"lacement resultsC 15.. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Element %able > #ist Element %able > 1elect 1%*E11 > O( > $ote the stress in elements 10. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Plot *esults > +ontour Plots > #ine Element *esults > 1elect #ab1-"tre"" > O Bsee the stress in the membersC 19. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor >loa&s =efine #oa&s > a""ly > 1tructural > Force'Moment > On $o&es > Pic ! $o&e > O > 1elect F7 > A""ly as +onstant ?alue an& 1elect ?alue of Force'Moment .S RESS/ select item/ com"/ results &ata item .11.> O( 12. ansys main menu > general "ost "rocessor > Element table > =efine table > A&& > set user label for item .

E0/ Poisson4s ration Minor. Pr(-$e% !"in./ 8-. Data: A1 0 3122 %%34 E10:2512. File>change job name > Enter “aEial2” 2..2/ +ross sectional Area ..1> O(> 3oung4s mo&ulus. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > *eal constants > A&&'e&it'&elete > A&& > O( > set real +onstant $O.E0/ Poisson4s ration Minor. N6%%3 A3 0 622 %%34 E3 0322512.. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > #oa&s > =efine #oa&s > a""ly > 1tructural =is"lacement > On $o&es > Pic 1 an& !> O > all =OF > O 62 .. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Material Pro"erties > Material Mo&els > 1tructural > #inear > Elastic 8 2sotro"ic> 1"ecify Material $o. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling> +reate> elements > %hru $o&es> Pic no&es 2: ! no&e> O( 1. 2 1et real constant set $O. .1/ 7-.P*OH#EM1 O$ A72A# #OA=2$D B+OMPO12%E MA%E*2A#1C LINK1 ( BAR OR TRUSS) ELEMENT 15.1 cross sectional Area . Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor >Mo&eling> +reate > $o&es > 2n acti6e +1 > 1et $o&e $o./ 8-. Ansys Main Menu > Preferences > structural > O !. Link E$e%ent./ 3-. ./ 3-.2 > O( <.. . Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling > +reate > elements > Auto numbere& > %hru $o&es > Pic 1 : 2 no&es > O( .! > a""ly > 1"ecify Material $o./3-.!. -2/ 7. N6%%3 SOL< ION: 1./ 8-. > A""ly > 1et $o&e $o. Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > E#EME$% ty"e > A&&'e&it'&elete > a&& > lin @2= 1"ar1> O( ).5.!/ 7-9... .. > O( >+lose 0. &in' N('a$ Di"p$a)e%ent"4 Stre""e" an' Rea)ti(n *(r)e" *(r the *($$(+in.2). . Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor > Mo&eling > +reate >elements >Elements Attributes> 1et Element %y"e $o 1 #2$(1 1et Material $o. > A""ly > 1et $o&e $O.2> O(> 3oung4s mo&ulus.2. > A""ly > +hange *eal constant $o.! > a""ly > O( 5... > O( 9. . .9.

1%*E11/ select item/ com"/ results &ata item . GE Gy 1 2 3 Results: ELEMENTAL SOLUTION. File > 1a6e as > 1elect the user &irectory > AEial2 > O( 11. 1tress 1 2 Results: REACTION SOLUTION: $o&e $o. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > #ist *esults > *eaction 1olutions > 1elect all items > O( > B$ote the reaction solutionC 19.e! > O( 12. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Plot *esults > =eforme& 1ha"e > 1elect =ef FGnreforme& > O( BHlue line in&icates &eforme& sha"e an& Ihite line in&icates original sha"e 1. FE Fy 1 Check:∑Fx= ∑Fy= 61 ..2. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Element %able > #ist Element %able > 1elect 1%*E11 > O( > $ote the stress in elements 10. Ansys Main Menu > solution >1ol6e +urrent #1 >O( 1oln =one > +lose 1!. Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > #ist *esults > $o&al 1olution > =of solution > E com"onent of =OFs > O B$ote the $o&al &is"lacement resultsC 15. Ansys main menu > general "ost "rocessor > Element table > =efine table > A&& > set user label for item . Results: NODAL SOLUTION.by seAuence number@ select #1/ 1 B%y"e 1 after selecting #1C > O( > +lose 1). Ansys Main Menu > Deneral Post Processor > Plot *esults > +ontour Plots > #ine Element *esults > 1elect #ab1-stress > O Bsee the stress in the membersC 19...Ansys Main Menu > Pre"rocessor >loa&s > =efine #oa&s > a""ly > 1tructural > Force'Moment > On $o&es > Pic 2n& $o&e > O > 1elect F7 > A""ly as +onstant ?alue an& 1elect ?alue of Force'Moment .STRESSES: Element $o.DISPLACEMENTS: $o&e $o.

.. No. No.!.! Mo&el the figure Iith 1= bar elements an& fin& t1" &is"lacement +arry out con6ergence stu&y BK @ con6ergenceC by increasing the number of elements B1/2/)/.Problem .2..!. No.C an& "lot gra"h of &is"lacement ?s number of elements an& com"are Iith theoretical 6alue.10 mm/ l . mm/ &2 . mm/ 3oungJs mo&ulus E .5 $/ &1 . Of elements: One [ D1 = (d1+d2) / 2 ] φ φ Displacement ux at node 2 (Tip displacement) = No. 1 1-2 2 2-3 Gpa 63 . he(reti)a$ 'e*$e)ti(n δ 0 (1P$ 6 πE'1'3# φ φ P . D"a/ "oisonJs ratio .16 %a"er ro& @ AEial loa&ing. of elements : Two Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl. Element Node Length C/S No.

No. Element Node No. Nos 1 1 1-2 2 2 2-3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4-5 φD1 φD2 φD3 φD4 d3 = (d1+d4) / 2 = d4 = (d1+d2) / 2 = d5 = (d4+d2) / 2 = [ D1 = (d1+d2) / 2 D2 = (d3+d4) / 2 D3 = (d4+d5) / 2 D4 = (d5+d2) /2 ] Displacement ux at node 5 = 6. .d3 = (d1+d2) / 2 = [ D1 = (d1+d3) / 2 D2 = (d3+d2) / 2 ] Displacement ux at node 3 (Tip displacement) = No. of elements : Four Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Length C/S Sl.

No. Element d1 d2 Node Length mm No. mm mm Nos 1 1 1-2 2 2 2-3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4-5 5 5 5-6 6 6 6-7 7 7 7-8 8 8 8-9 Answer Tip Defection Theoretical 1 C/S D mm A mm2 No. of Finite Elements 2 4 8 Graph of H Convergence 61 .Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl.

17 Taper bar. t = 15 mm. of elements : One D1 = (d1+d2) / 2 Displacement ux at node 2 = A1 = D1.C an& "lot gra"h of ?ti" &is"lacement ?s number of elements an& com"are Iith theoretical 6alue. Theoretical deflection δ = {Pl loge(d1/d2)}/ {E(d1-d2)} P = 30kN.t = 65 . poison's ratio = 0. d2 = 40 mm. ELEMENT TYPE = No. l = 300 mm Young's modulus E = 20 Gpa.3 Mo&el the figure Iith 1= bar elements an& fin& ti" &is"lacement carry out con6ergence stu&y BK @ con6ergenceC by increasing the number of elements B1/2/)/. d1 = 100 mm.Problem .

mm area E (Gpa) 1 1-2 2 2-3 d3 = (d1+d2) / 2 D1 = (d1+d3) / 2 D2 = (d3+d2) / 2 Displacement ux at node 3 = No. No. No. Element Node Length C/S No. No. No. area 1 1 1-2 2 2 2-3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4-5 d3 = (d1+d4) / 2 d4 = (d1+d2) / 2 d5 = (d4+d2) / 2 D1 = (d1+d2) / 2 D2 = (d3+d4) / 2 D3 = (d4+d5) / 2 D4 = (d5+d2) /2 φD1 φD2 φD3 φD4 66 . Element Node Length C/S No. of elements : Two Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl.No. of elements : Four Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl.

mm A. of Finite Elements 2 4 C/S D. mm mm 1 1 1-2 2 2 2-3 3 3 3-4 4 4 4-5 5 5 5-6 6 6 6-7 7 7 7-8 8 8 8-9 Answer Tip deflection Theoretical 1 No. d1 d2 Length mm No. mm2 8 Graph of H Convergence 6: .Displacement ux at node 5 = No. No. of elements : eight Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl. Element Node No.

Element Node No. 1 2 3 Deflection. mm Load / Reaction N Element No Stress MPa Check R1+R3+P = 0 68 . No.Problem .18 Consider the bar shown in figure. Node No. 300 mm p 400 mm 2 1 A1 = 2400 mm2 E1 = 70 x 109 N/m2 A2 = 600 mm2 E2 = 200 x 109 N/m2 Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Length C/S Sl. Determine 1) the nodal displacements and the reaction forces & 2) Element stresses. Nos. No. An axial load p=200 x 103 N is applied as shown. E (Gpa) 1 2 Answer Sl.

Problem .19 Determine the displacement field. E = 20 Gpa A = 250 mm2 P = 60 kN Case A Case B & C Also what will be these values for case B and Case C.2 mm Answer Sl. Case B g =1. No . support reactions & stress in the body shown as loaded. Use 1D bar elements. Case C g = 2 mm CASE A Displac Reaction ement N mm CASE B Displace Reaction ment N mm CASE C Displac Reaction ement N mm 1 2 3 Stresses in element Mpa 69 . Node No.

Node No.7 x 10-6 per°C 3 Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl. Element Node Length C/S Material properties No. Answer Sl. Node No. No. :2 . No.20 a) An axial load P=300 x 103 N is applied at 20°C to the rod as shown in figure. 1 2 3 Deflection. reactions and stresses. Determine displacement.Problem . Determine the nodal displacements. 200 mm 300 mm 1 p 1 Aluminium A1 = 900 mm2 E1 = 70 x 109 N/m2 α1 = 23 x 10-6 per°C 2 2 Steel A2 = 1200 mm2 E2 = 200 x 109 N/m2 α2 = 11. mm Load / Reaction N Element No 1 2 Stress MPa Theory Do you know element load vector due to temperature change. mm Load / Reaction N Element No 1 2 Stress MPa b) If the temperature is raised to 60° C. No. reaction and stresses. No. E (Gpa) α 1 1 1-2 2 2 2-3 Answer Sl. 1 2 3 Deflection.

No. No. Determine the nodal displacements. Load / Reaction Element No Stress Deflection. No. mm Load / Reaction N Element No Stress MPa :1 .21 a) An axial load P=300 x 103 N is applied at 20°C to the rod as shown in figure. 1 2 3 4 b) Solve the same if the temperature is raised to 60° C Answer Sl. reaction and element stresses. 200 mm2 P=300 kN 400 mm2 150mm 150mm 300 mm E = 200 x 109 N/m2 (1 kN = 1000 N) Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl.Problem . 1 2 3 4 Deflection. no. E (Gpa) α 1 1 2 2 3 3 Answer Sl. Node No. Node No. Element Node Length C/S Material properties No.

1 2 3 4 Deflection. The temperature is then raised to 60°C 200 mm2 300 kN 600 kN 400 mm2 150mm 150mm 200mm 200mm E = 200 x 109 N/m2 Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Sl. No. Node No. element stresses and support reactions.22 Consider the bar in figure. Element No. of Length C/S Material properties No. mm Load / Reaction N Element No Stress MPa :3 .Problem . nodes E (Gpa) α 1 2 3 4 Answer Sl. No. Determine the nodal displacements.

No. nodes E (Gpa) α 1 2 3 Answer Sl. support reactions and stresses Answer Sl. Determine the displacements. . mm Load / Reaction N Element No Stress MPa Deflection.7 x 10-6 per°C Bronze Bronze A = 2400 mm2 E = 83 GPa α = 18. 1 2 3 4 Deflection. Node No. 1 2 3 4 b) In the structure is subjected to an increase in temperature of 80°C.Problem – 23 a) Determine the displacements. 800 mm 600 mm 400 mm P1 = 60kN P2 = 75kN P P Aluminiu Stee Steel A = 600 mm2 E = 200 GPa α = 11. of No. Element No. and support reactions. stresses. No.9 x 10-6 per°C Aluminium A = 1200 mm2 E = 70 GPa α = 23 x 10-6 per°C Discretisation (connectivity) and material properties Length C/S Material properties Sl. Node No. mm Load / Reaction N Element No Stress MPa :. No.