Number 3

Volume 18 march 2012

Journal of Engineering

BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOOTINGS RESTING ON DUNE SAND
Dr. Bushra S. Albusoda Le !urer" C#$#l E%&. De'ar!(e%! U%#$ers#!) o* Ba&hdad E+,a#l- albusoda.)ahoo. o( Lub%a A. /h. Sale( B.S . C#$#l E%&. De'ar!(e%! U%#$ers#!) o* Ba&hdad E+,a#l- lub%asale(01234.)ahoo. o(

ABASTRACT As a result of the growth of economic, demographic and building activities in Iraq, that necessitates carrying out geotechnical investigations for the dune sand to study behavior of footings resting on these soils. To determine these properties and to assess the suitability of these materials for resting shallow foundation on it, an extensive laboratory testing program was carried out. Chemical tests were carried out to evaluate any possible effects of the mineralogical composition of the soil on behavior of foundation rested on dune sands. Collapse tests were also conducted to trace any collapse potential. Loading tests were carried out for optimum water content and different shapes of footing. Loading test recommends manufacturing of steel box and footing models with different shapes and dimensions. The results indicated that, Affe dune sand is predominantly fine sand with non!plastic fines. "ecause the content of sulphate #as $%&' is only (.()*, and the al alinity of dune sand, which reduces the corrosion potential, ordinary +ortland cement can be used in concrete foundation construction in,on dune sands. The results of collapsing tests showed that Affe dune sand exhibit a slight to moderate potential depending on stress level. -ue to $oa ing by water, the reduction in bearing capacity of optimum state was about .)*. The bearing capacity of square footing was greater than those of the circular and rectangular footings. 56789:;< ET7>@67 OP U:5VW67 X:P36 I00JK F73L7 2M83N67 OP Q5R7 ,S73H67 ED F:@567 G:06:HD8 2345678 29:;1<=7 >?@A6 BC01/ B0g:g=7 B[351j?67 G:R>e\A6 iP:/3b cd8 IK .BAeN67 fg=7 h?eK `Aa X:P367 _^Y Z3;K B[:\]8 B0W0@WK>0C67 l>eD q6^] p[3L7 .BAeN67 fg=7 Z3;K `Aa X:P3A6 E/mH?67 n>1e?67 30o:K m[me16 B[8:0?W67 l>e7 :N[7 h?k8 Bb>u367 B6:e6 B68meP Bb31b8 X:Wk=7 B\A1jP fg7 `Aa h0?e167 G:R>eD q6t mHb p[3L78 .B\A1jP S3rb M:0s/=7 U7 :N[7 iw:1@67 G3sx78 .:s@P IH/7 B/m6 30v 97>P8 B?a:/ X:PM OP U>W1K q\a BJr@P ED U:5VW67 X:PM U7 .`AV?67 B/:g3j67 OP fg=7 F:4/= B?w|P {R>e\?67 U:5VW67 X:PM U:D B0Aa8 #$%&z(.()*'7mL h0A< Ey5C67 n>1e?67 M:0s/=7 {0/:WP} nmb7 m< l>e\?67 hP367 U7 M:0s/=7 l>eD iw:1/ G3sx7 .M3d 27 U8mb 29:H67 p@?y67 X:?H1g:b BC01/ •\j/7 m< fg=7 h?eK U7 :N[7 iw:1@67 G3sx78 B0Aa 9:sL=7 n>1yP €yT {rg>1P `67 BA0~d OP •8731K .Z83„67 f\/ peK BA0r1y?678 B[3w7m67 fg=7 h?eK OP `Aa7 cb3?67 ƒ:g=7 h?eK U78 *.) 98meb F:?6:b3?‚67 /e)=ord- bear#%& a'a #!)" shallo= *oo!#%&s" du%e sa%d" load#%& !es!

298

while the Chemical tests results are shown in Table •. The researcher concluded that’ “. The surface windblown dune sands are sensitive to saturation. The uniformity can be attributed to the sorting action of the winds The general grain si•e percentages decrease with distant from the source. •. That is due to the poor pac ing of uniformly graded materials deposits in a sub!arid environment. It is worth to remind that the real sand dunes are defined as the dunes that their soil have more than •(* of sand. According to the •nified $oil Classification $ystem. shear strength and compressibility parameters could be seen in Table “. The relative density of sand deposited on the windward side of the dunes is as high as #)(!”)' * and decrease to about #(!“)' * on the leeward. 299 &.  Al!Taie #•((•' assessed the suitability of –real— sand and –pseudo— dune sand as a construction material. Albusoda Lubna A.-r. the soil may be classified as low permeability soil #Ter•aghi and pec . $o. The results showed that the real sand dune is considered suitable for use in bac filling and emban ments construction. composition nature and spatial variability in three main soil deposits in Žuwait #surface windblown sands was one of them'. that research reflected how important is to determine the collapse potential for such soils . +hysical properties. %n the basis of permeability. Chemical tests were done in the $tate Company for ˆeological $urvey and ˜ining. small difference can be noticed between the maximum and minimum unit weights. a combination of placement densities in lower than the maximum values and placement moisture higher than the optimums are required. more precise. because the wind carries the small particles farther than the large ones. It may collapse at some location due to ground wetting. “ Affe dune sand is predominantly fine sand with non!plastic fines. it is “) m away from the town –Affe — or –…ffech— as the local people use to call it. They also have low bearing capacity and large settlement due to their low density. and ‡ational Center for Construction Laboratories and †esearch #‡CCL†'. -as #•((‘' mentioned some of typical properties of dune sands as follows’ “. the soil is classified as $+!$˜ material. ˆrain si•e distribution of the sands at any particular location is uniform. %n the other hand. “•”‘'. •. $alem "…A†I‡ˆ CA+ACIT‰ %Š $‹ALL%Œ Š%%TI‡ˆ$ †…$TI‡ˆ %‡ -•‡… $A‡- INTRODUCTION -une sands usually have a single!si•ed grading curve. . for construction purposes on pseudo dune sands.' presented a review of the geotechnical properties. The grain si•e distribution curves of the soil sample are shown in Šig. Žh. while pseudo!sand dunes have appreciable amount of clay and silt. It is located between -iwaniya and Žut governorates. Ismael #“••. this may attributed to the poorly grading of dry soil. and The collapse will be evident for compacted sand at low relative density. Also.ATERIAL PROPERTIES Du%e Sa%d Affe dune sand was chosen in this study. They occur frequently in loose state with low in situ densities. "ushra $. That is to insure low expansion and to reduce the loss of strength.

after one day of soa ing. A$T˜š-)))&!(( were used to determine the magnitude of one!dimensional collapse that occurs when the soil inundated with fluid #water'. This "ehavior may be attributed to two reasons’ *#rs!. and to show the effect of compaction on such soils. was followed to estimate the amplitude of possible collapse as below’ LOADING TESTS =collapse potential (%) = initial void ratio = change in void ratio due to soaking. . This collapse behavior could be attributed to the dry. The results of double %edometer tests are shown in Šig. which are typical features of dune sand. in “•”&. natural state of the dune sand. while the collapse potential of dense state was about •*. which indicate that the level of stress plays a ma•or role compared to that of compaction. The loose state specimens exhibited higher collapse potential than the dense state.Number 3 Volume 18 march 2012 Journal of Engineering Also. . The relation of collapse potential to the severity of foundation problems according to A$T˜!-)&&&. which decrease the void ratio of soil and ma e it more dense and se o%d. the effect of compaction. loose and low plasticity soils. The results of single collapse tests 300 A shallow footing model tests were carried out in a test box having dimensions of #&”( ž &”(' mm in plane and •)( mm in depth. the collapse potential did not show the same trend.on the dune sand tested. The collapse potential was about ”*. circular #C' ”( mm in diameter. the -ouble %edometer ˜ethod. which reduces the corrosion potential. small difference can be noticed between the maximum and minimum unit weights. Then. the effect of initial water content of compacted specimens. ™anning and Žnight discussed the problem in “•)‘. ). The effect of compaction is an accepted reason for that behavior. #-epending on "ossineq›s approachŸ three footing models were used to fulfill the ob•ectives of this wor ’ square#$' ”( ”( mm. cohesionless. In order to determine the collapse potential of the dune sand in loose and dense states. The results showed that the silica is the main component in the dune sand. %rdinary +ortland cement can be used in construction of foundations in. ”. single collapse tests were carried out. It is clearly shown that an increase in collapse potential #Cp' with the decrease of initial water content. the soil may be classified as low permeability soil #Ter•aghi and pec . Šig. The results of these tests are shown in Šig. is shown in Table & The results showed œslightly collapsibleœ trends of behavior as shown in Table & and Šig. they proposed a test method by which they determined the collapse potential for one specimen under an applied vertical stress of •(( +a. "ecause the low content of sulphate #as $%&' and the al alinity of dune sand. Colla'se Tes!s Collapse is a typical feature of unsaturated. and rectangular#†' &( ”(mm'. this may attributed to the poorly grading of dry soil. The expended Žnight›s criterion. Œhile on the optimum. In accordance with the ™anning and Žnight #“•‘)' procedure the results show that œ˜oderate collapsingœ behavior. %n the basis of permeability. The si•e of the box was decided suitable for the si•e of footing and the range of load influence. uncompacted.. on compacted soil following ™anning and Žnight #“•‘)' procedure are shown in Šigure &. •. Collapse is defined as the significant volume reduction observed when wetting an unsaturated sample under load. “•”‘'. The Šigure also shows that the collapse potential increase with increase of level of stress for both dry and wet side conditions.

then #•' Layer with “.!¢'. Through the preparation of soil and loading test performance. Žh. The large differences between theoretical and experimental finding. ˜odel tests were carried out with optimum initial water content and different shapes of footing. the following points were considered’ “. To evaluate the bearing capacity in this wor . $ince "z ”( mm for circular and square footings. The results showed that the reduction in bearing capacity ratio of the dry side and optimum states were about . the effects of the following factors were ta en in consideration’ 1. the ultimate bearing capacity from the loading tests are shown in Table . dry unit weight as in #A$T˜ -•(. ?.The bearing capacity of square footing is greater than that of circular footing in the present wor by about “•*!•‘*. the box was left to soa for •.odel Load#%& Tes! a%d I!s @alues Fro( Well+>%o=% Theor#es In comparison with the well nown theories of ultimate bearing capacity determinations. ‘'.•C¡' and the soil lumps were crashed by rubber hammer. Co('ar#so% be!=ee% !he Ul!#(a!e Bear#%& Ca'a #!) *ro( !he . "y re!examining Table #. Œhen soa ing conditions were conducted. the rectangular footing showed a smaller bearing capacity than both of the circular and square footings. “(.!•. The inside of the box was lined by plastic sheets to lessen the friction between the soil and the box sides. The preparation of the soil was done in two stages’ #“' $oil was compacted in dense. static compaction method was used by compression machine of #“(.T'.  •. the failure point considered at settlement equal to “(* of the width of footing #"' as A$T˜ #-““•. Albusoda Lubna A. This behavior may be attributed to the scale effect that depends directly on " #width of footing'. same trend can be seen between the different shapes and different initial water content. which may be attributed to’ “. E**e ! o* Sha'e o* Fou%da!#o% Šrom the Ter•aghi equations. hours to ensure that all the soil was completely soa ed. Šig. the sand was spread for air drying over night #It loo ed enough in hot $ummer days where the temperature was more than .)" thic ness at three unit weights and the corresponding water contents. After the test completed. It is further recommend that for non!cohesive soils. Accordingly.((( g'. $amples were tested and compacted as quic ly as possible. it›s clear that for granular soil. Šig. The results showed a lac of agreement between theoretical and experimental findings. In addition. while "z &( mm for rectangular footing. "ushra $. the bearing capacity for rectangular footing was smaller. E**e ! o* Soa>#%& It is important to carry out a model test in soa ing condition to trace any susceptible collapse potential in soil. $alem "…A†I‡ˆ CA+ACIT‰ %Š $‹ALL%Œ Š%%TI‡ˆ$ †…$TI‡ˆ %‡ -•‡… $A‡- It is nown that the method of sample preparation can have a ma•or influence on the measured response of soil. to avoid losing the water.' recommended. These results coincide with the results of this research wor #Šig •' . the values shall be reduced by )(* if the water table expected to be above or near the base of footing. Also. ¢ 301 .•!”. #Šig. It was found that theoretical solution based on plane strain angle of internal friction which is ˜odel loading tests were carried out on dune sand as given in the test program.)*. To place the soil in the box reliable as much as possible. the bearing capacity of square footing is greater than that of circular footing by &&*.-r.

.!”. &. the bearing capacity will be increased. A variation in friction angle of only •° may result in a variation in the value of ‡ £ )(* #Œhite. A$T˜ -““•. The reduction in bearing capacity ratio due to soa ing of the dry side . Civil …ngineering -epartment.&. A$T˜ -•. and optimum states were about . Consequently. $. 302 CONCLUSIONS “. #“••)'’ œCentrifugal ¥erification of "earing Capacity and $hape Šactors of $hallow Šoundations on $andsœ. The fourth Saudi Engineering Conference. ‘.’ œ$tandard Test ˜ethod for "earing Capacity of $oil for $tatic Load and $pread Šootingsœ. •(()'. •niversity of "aghdad. as these theories are more conservatives. ¥olume •. thesis. •.aB#(u( I%deB De%s#!) a%d U%#! We#&h! o* So#ls Us#%& a @#bra!or) TableA. The results showed a lac of agreement with theoretical and experimental findings. A$T˜ -&(¢(!”. #¥ariable ‹ead'. The results showed that silica is the main component in Affe dune sand. ™. ). #•((•'’ œ+roperties and "ehavior of -une $ands as a Construction ˜aterialœ. while it showed moderate collapse potential under high stress level .Number 3 Volume 18 march 2012 Journal of Engineering higher than that based on direct shear. pp &”“!&”‘.T’ œ$tandard Test ˜ethod for +ermeability of ˆranular $oils. Compacted dune sand showed a slight collapse potential when tested by single collapse test.T’ AS!a%dard Tes! .•!”•’ œTest ˜ethod for †elative -ensity of Cohesionless $oilsœ. Affe dune sand is predominantly fine sand with non!plastic fines. ˜. A$T˜ -•(. ). Al!Taie. •((¢'.e!hod *or .$c.. REFREANCES “. %rdinary +ortland cement can be used in construction of foundations in.)*. ˜eyerhof #“•”&' and -e "eer #“•‘(' propose a conservative estimate for shape factor acceptable for design only for low internal friction angle and a small aspect ratios #¤hu and ˜ichalows i. The above mentioned theories are more conservatives. ‡ovember.!•. & moisture movements cannot model with time. ”. &. •. The physical model for shallow footing have many short comings included’ “ the self weight variations between actual self weights of the model elements. Aiban. &. •.•)&!((’ AS!a%dard Tes! . A. . #Œithdrawn •((&'. which reduces the corrosion potential. Iraq. #Œithdrawn “••&'. "ecause the low content of sulphate #as $%&' and the al alinity of dune sand. • temperature also different to assess in different levels in the models. A$T˜ -. .e!hod *or D#re ! Shear Tes! o* So#ls U% o%sol#da!ed U%dra#%ed Co%d#!#o%sœ. A.on dune sand. Œater effectively influenced the cementation agents between the particles.

“.-r. Ž. †. ™annings. $outh Affrica. “•. $ixth …dition. #“•. ‡ew ‰or . ˜. pp.e!hod *or . ™.e!hod *or S'e #*# Gra$#!) o* So#l Sol#ds b) P) %o(e!erA.•“. Adapted International $tudent …dition. “&. -. #•((‘'’ œPrinciple of Foundation Engineeringœ. A$T˜ -”•¢!((a’ AS!a%dard Tes! .a!er#als EBh#b#!#%& Add#!#o%al Se!!le(e%! Due !o HColla'seH o* Gra#% S!ru !ureœ. ".BOLS DEFINITION " c C Cc Cp Cr  Œidth of Šooting Cohesion Circular Šooting Compression Index Collapse +otential †ebound Index Initial ¥oid †atio of $oil $pecific ˆravity Coefficient of +ermeability e ˆs L. ). 303 “”. and Žnight.'’ œPro'er!#es a%d Beha$#or o* Ar#d Cl#(a!e So#l De'os#!s #% /u=a#!A" Civil …ngineering -epartment. #“••. Albusoda Lubna A. “). . #“•”‘'’ "Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice". ™. Sixth egional Conference for !frica on Soil "echanics and foundation Engineering #ohannes$urg. “(. •niversity of Žuwait.!((’ AS!a%dard Tes! . Ismael.e!hod *or . $econd …dition..e!hods *or Labora!or) Co('a !#o% Chara !er#s!# s o* Us#%& S!a%dard E**or! C4DD >N+ (E(FGœ.odel#%&A. Ter•aghi. ‡‰. A$T˜ -)&&&!((’ AS!a%dard Tes! .&'’ œTheoretical Soil Mechanic œ. …. Š.!((’ AS!a%dard Tes! . Proceedings. -as.easure(e%! o* Colla'se Po!e%!#al o* So#lsœ.#%#(u( I%deB De%s#!) a%d U%#! We#&h! o* So#ls a%d Cal ula!#o% o* Rela!#$e De%s#!)A. ““. %&eotechni'ue )¢.•). ™ohn Œiley and $on. ™ohn Œiley and $ons. ‡o. Ter•aghi.“&! . A$T˜ -. $alem "…A†I‡ˆ CA+ACIT‰ %Š $‹ALL%Œ Š%%TI‡ˆ$ †…$TI‡ˆ %‡ -•‡… $A‡- ¢. •. "ushra $. Ž. #“•‘)' ’ œA Gu#de !o Co%s!ru !#o% o% or =#!h . ‡. #•((¢'’ ACo%!r#bu!#o%s !o GHeo!e h%#Iue 12J3+?DD3Ph)s# al . A$T˜ -¢). Ž. ‡elson a -ivision of Thomson Canada Limited. pp ••!“(). Œhite. Žh.L ‡£ ‡+ † $ ¦ £ Liquid Limit "earing Capacity Šactors ‡ot +lastic †ectangular Šooting $quare Šooting Angle of Internal Šriction •nite Œeight of the $oil . SY. “‘. and +ec .

I p‹ Per e%!a&e CKG .“•( ( ¦ .‘( (.•)& A$T˜ -.)(¢ (.”‘ “).•) “”.“.() (.L +I ˆs £max £ min £ dmax •&* ‡+ •.•.( ‡.•( (. A$T˜ ”•¢!‘( A$T˜ -•.m& “&.&.•“ “).• ‡. ¢.T A$T˜ -•.““ &(.%.Number 3 Volume 18 march 2012 Journal of Engineering Table 1 +hysical properties.‘ 304 . Atterberg limits $pecific ˆravity of $olids ˜aximum •nit Œeights ˜inimum •nit Œeights $tandard Compaction Coefficient of +ermeability %ne!dimension Compression -irect $hear Tests "$ “&‘‘’“•‘) test ‡o. A$T˜ -.” ž “( cm.! ”.$.&• ”.&) eo Cc c (.‘¡ A$T˜ -&(¢(!‘• Table ? †esults of Chemical Tests Che(# al Co('os#!#o% $i%• Ca% ˜g% $%& Cl!“ CaC%& ˆypsum Content %rganic ˜aterial T.•).(• (.• A$T˜ -!¢).m& “¢.m& “. shear strength and compressibility parameters Pro'er!) @alue T)'e o* !es! S!a%dard L.s !.) ‡.&.”( (.$ L.

( ”. Albusoda Lubna A. ”. 1 ˆrain $i•e -istribution Curves 305 . “). $alem "…A†I‡ˆ CA+ACIT‰ %Š $‹ALL%Œ Š%%TI‡ˆ$ †…$TI‡ˆ %‡ -•‡… $A‡- Table F †elation of Collapse +otential to the $everity of Šoundation +roblems De&ree o* Colla'se ‡one $light ˜oderate ˜oderately severe $evere Colla'se Po!e%!#al K ( (.-r.“ to •.e)erho* “).odel Load#%& Tes!s . "ushra $.( •.( §“( Table J •ltimate "earing Capacity # +a' from the ˜odel Loading Test and Œell!Žnown Theories The Sha'e $quare Circular †ectangular TerLa&h# “(‘ ¢( ! . Žh.(( &)( &&)  F#&.“ to “(. .“ to ”.

Number 3 Volume 18 march 2012 Journal of Engineering F#& ? †esults of $ingle Collapse Tests’ ¥ariation of Collapse +otential with Initial water contents  F#&. -ense. J $ingle Collapse Test †esults of -une $and #a. b. F †esults of $ingle Collapse Tests at -ifferent Initial Œater Contents F#&. Loose' 306 .

Albusoda Lubna A. M †esults of -ouble %edometer Test at -ifferent Initial Œater Contents  F#&ure 4 †esults of -ouble %edometer Tests’ ¥ariation of Collapse +o tential with …ffective $tress Level at -ifferent Initial Œater Content 1.5 B Compacted Soil Soil in Dense State F#&. $alem "…A†I‡ˆ CA+ACIT‰ %Š $‹ALL%Œ Š%%TI‡ˆ$ †…$TI‡ˆ %‡ -•‡… $A‡- F#&.-r. N "ox +reparation 307 . "ushra $. Žh.

1D Influence of Šooting $i•e on "earing Capacity Šactors ‡£ #Šrom Cerato and Lutenegge. 3 The results of the ˜odel Test on $oa ed $oil in †elative with •nsoa ed $oil #%ptimum $tate' « F#&. •((‘' 308 .Number 3 Volume 18 march 2012 Journal of Engineering F#&. 2 "earing +ressure!$ettlement Curves for -ifferent $hapes of Šooting on $oil with -ifferent Initial Œater Contents F#&.