Essential Question:  How was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in American (U.S.) History? Today’s Questions: 1. How were the working conditions different for men, women and people with disabilities? 2. What type of conditions did people have to work under in factories during the Industrial Revolution? 3. How was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in American History in both a good and bad way? Objectives: Today, in class, students will… 1. Develop empathy for factory workers during the Industrial Revolution 2. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of working conditions during the Industrial Revolution 3. Compare and contrast the working conditions for men, women, and people with disabilities (one hand, a broken hand, etc.) 4. Practice note-taking on factory conditions and the assembly line

One Minute Papers….

Review: •Industrial Revolution:

•What types of inventions? How were they a “turning point” in American Society?

• With the growth of MACHINES, comes a growth of _________________

•Factories =

•Focus: How can we make the production of goods quicker and easier?

How these factories work… Eli Whitney • 1790s  Interchangeable Parts • Not hand made individual pieces anymore • Identical pieces • Quicker • Easier • Unskilled workers • Efficient • Prices DOWN • Industry UP

Mass Production
•Rapid manufacture (production) of large numbers of identical objects
• As fast as possible • Quantities increase • Prices Down • TRADE

Assembly Line aka “Production Line”
• Quicker and Easier way to make products

• Workers, machines, and equipment are arranged so that the production of a product is made my passing CONSECUTIVELY from operation to operation.

• Break Down:
• Each person is assigned a single task of adding a piece to a product until the product is complete • As the product is passed from person to person, pieces of the product is added • The product is passed through this operation until the product is compete

Today we have laws to protect workers that did not exist during the Industrial REvolution


• I LOVE LUCY : Assembly Line

Working Conditions
• Harsh • Men and Women • Children (7 to 8 years old) • 12-14 hour work days • Little Fresh air • Poor Light • Machines = dangerous • Injuries • Can’t work? Get rid of you!

The Physical Deterioration of the Textile Workers
Conditions: Factory labour is a species of work, in some respects singularly unfitted for children. Cooped up in a heated atmosphere, debarred the necessary exercise, remaining in one position for a series of hours, one set or system of muscles alone called into activity, it cannot be wondered at--that its effects are injurious to the physical growth of a child. Where the bony system is still imperfect, the vertical position it is compelled to retain, …

[P. Gaskell, The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833, pp.161-162, 202-203.]

Treatment: The treatment of children in factories was often cruel and unusual, and the children's safety was generally neglected. The youngest children, who were not old enough to work the machines, were commonly sent to be assistants to textile workers. The people who the children served would beat them, verbally abuse them, and take no consideration for their safety. Both boys and girls who worked in factories were subject to beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. One common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighted." An overseer would tie a heavy weight to worker's neck, and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example." This could last up to an hour. Weighting could lead to serious injuries in the back and/or neck. Punishments such as this would often be dispensed under stringent rules. Boys were sometimes dragged naked from their beds and sent to the factories only holding their clothes, to be put on there. This was to make sure the boys would not be late, even by a few minutes.

• YOU are the factory workers. • With your team, you have a FINAL PRODUCT to create TOGETHER • Each person has a picture on his/her desk. This is the part of the product YOU are responsible for!
• Study your part of the product

• You will have 90 SECONDS to make as many copies of your product as possible
• WORK QUICKLY • STAY ON TASK • Make a GOOD product!

• Each team (“business” or “factory”) has a BOSS • The Boss makes sure people are working FAST and are ON TASK • The Boss will COUNT how much of the final product you have made after 90 seconds is up

Winning Business

•The business that wins  $$$$$$ •BOYS v. GIRLS


•#1 •#2 •#3 •#4

One more time…..

•How did we change the room? How did these changes affect your work? •How did the changes parallel the working conditions during the Industrial Revolution?

Discussion  compare/contrast



The reformers gradually managed to force changes to the way that workers were treated. Some of these reforms are listedbelow. Factory Act 1819 Limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 per day. Factory Act 1833 Children under 9 banned from working in the textiles industry and 10-13 year olds limited to a 48 hour week. Factory Act 1844 Maximum of 12 hours work per day for Women. Factory Act 1847 Maximum of 10 hours work per day for Women and children. Factory Act 1850 Increased hours worked by Women and children to 10 and a half hours a day, but not allowed to work before 6am or after 6pm. 1874 No worker allowed to work more than 56.5 hours per week.