The History Of Protein

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Proteins were discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1838 and are among the most actively-studied molecules in biochemistry. he word !"rotein! is derived #rom a $reek word !"rotas! meaning !o# "rimary im"ortance%! because o# the #undamental role o# "roteins in sustaining li#e

1. Intro & The History Of Protein.
Protein Defined:
he word &"rotein& is de#ined as any o# a grou" o# com"le' high-molecular-weight organic com"ounds% consisting essentially o# combinations o# amino acids in "e"tide linkages% that contain carbon% hydrogen% o'ygen% nitrogen% and usually% sul#ur. Proteins are one o# the classes o# bio-macromolecules (like "olysaccharides% li"ids% and nucleic acids)% that make u" the "rimary constituents o# living things.

The History Of Protein:
Proteins were discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1838 and are among the most actively-studied molecules in biochemistry. he word !"rotein! is derived #rom a $reek word !"rotas! meaning !o# "rimary im"ortance%! because o# the #undamental role o# "roteins in sustaining li#e.

Protein Uses:
Protein has many im"ortant roles in the body* they are "art o# every cell+ muscles% connective tissue% blood-clotting #actors% enzymes% immune bodies% hormones% and bones. Protein Is Needed For: • • • • • • • • • • • ,uscle and tissue growth (es"ecially im"ortant #or children% teens% and "regnant women) ,uscle and tissue re"air -egulating the ".% or acid-base balance% in the blood Preserving lean muscle mass* es"ecially when on a low carbohydrate diet /ontrolling many o# the im"ortant "rocesses in the body related to metabolism Providing energy when carbohydrate is not available ,aking essential hormones ,aking and enzymes or subunits o# enzymes% catalyzing chemical reactions 0mmune #unction via "rotein antibodies he storage and trans"ort o# various ligands ,aintain body #luid balance through blood "roteins% "reventing a condition known as edema (buildu" o# e'cess #luid outside body cells)

ilk (whole) 1 cu" 8...: Pasta% (cooked) 7 ounces 9.alibut (baked) 6 ounces 79 >eer% loin% se"arable lean only% 1! steak (broiled) 6 ounces 91 4entils% (cooked) 1?8 cu" .% bee#% "ork% lamb and veal) .owever some o# these items can also be high in cholesterol% #at and calories% so "icking the right cuts (#or "oultry% #ish and meets) and the right dairy as well as considering how they are "re"ared to maintaining a lean "hysi5ue and to good overall health. 2ating a diet rich in these #oods is a good way to get "rotein. Bread% wheat 8 slices 9.ilk 2ggs /heese 3uts 4egumes 0t can also be #ound% although in much smaller 5uantities% in some starchy #oods and vegetables.eat (e..3 /heese% cottage% low #at% 1< milk #at 1 cu" 88 /hicken% roasted 6 ounces 73 /hicken breast% oven-roasted% #at-#ree% sliced 6 slices 81 /orn% (cooked) 1 ear 8.6 2gg 1 large 6.6 Potato% russet% (baked) 8 A-3 A! 7.7 Broccoli% (cooked) 1 cu" 7.@ -ice% white% long-grain% regular% cooked 1 cu" 7.7 .eat substitutes (soy) .3 1ish% =almon (baked) 6 ounces 77 1ish% .ilk (skim) 1 cu" 8..8 /auli#lower% (boiled) 1 cu" 8.6 Bread% white 8 slices 7.@ . Table 1 Protein !ontent Of !o""on Foods#1$ Food %"ount Protein #&ra"s$ Bee#% broiled (ground) 6 ounces 78 Bee#% loin% bottom sirloin% tri-ti" (broiled) 6 ounces 91 Beans% "into (cooked) 1 cu" 19 Beans% kidney (cooked) 1 cu" :. .ilk (=oy) 1 cu" 6.@ 4entil sou" 1?8 cu" 3.6 -ice% brown% long-grain% cooked 1 cu" 9.g.3 . . Potato% white% (baked) 8 A-3 A! 3.Protein Food Sources: Protein is #ound in common #oods such as+ • • • • • • • • • Poultry 1ish .

'he %.9 /hicken (lean% raw) 8@.3 . Bread (white) 8.6 Potatoes (new) 1.ilk (cow&s whole) 3.8 Beans (canned% baked) 9.: -ice 8.: /orn#lakes :. 2gg (whole) 18. recommended daily allowance (%&R()) for protein shown on food labels.&.1 Bogurt ("lain) 9.1 C""les (raw% eating) @. $n the %nited &tates" the food industry had long used the PER as the standard for evaluating the protein #uality of food proteins.9 /hocolate (milk chocolate) 8. Food and (rug )dministration used the PER as the basis for the percent of the %..8 Bee# (lean% raw) 8@.6 =weet corn (canned) 8..8 Pasta 3.3 Bean s"routs (raw) 8.7 Bananas 1.&.. o#u (steamed) 8..9 0ce cream 3. PDCAAS . =oya milk 8. From ! ! until very recently" the PER had been a widely used method for evaluating the #uality of protein in food.3 Bogurt% low #at 8 ounces 18 Table ' Total Protein !ontent Of !o""on Foods #'$ Food Total (rotein #)$ Clmonds 81.o#u 1 cu" 8@ una% water "acked 6 ounces 7@ urkey breast meat 6 slices 88 Bam% (baked) 1 cu" 8.6 4entils (dried) 87.: Protein efficiency ratio (PER) is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period.7 /hocolate ("lain chocolate) 7.: /heese (/heddar) 89.7 /abbage (raw) 1.

rgani/ation1*orld 2ealth . 0evertheless" 89 can be used to assess re#uirements of protein derived from foods with known #uality differences and measure the proportion of absorbed nitrogen which is retained and presumably utili/ed for protein synthesis as an accurate indicator for protein measurement.ump to. in !!3) as 4the preferred 5best54 method to determine protein #uality. +arbons are shown in white and hydrogens are omitted for clarity. ) P(+))& is based on human amino acid re#uirements" which makes it more appropriate for humans than a method based on the amino acid needs of animals. . 'he P(+))& rating is a fairly recent evaluation method (it was adopted by the %& Food and (rug )dministration (F()) and the Food and )gricultural . 'he P(+))& allows evaluation of food protein #uality based on the needs of humans as it measures the #uality of a protein based on the amino acid re#uirements (adjusted for digestibility) of a :.?. to <. 'his score means that after digestion of the protein" it provides per unit of protein" ??@ or more of the indispensable amino acids re#uired.rgani/ation (F).6376>7 %sing the P+())& method" the protein #uality rankings are determined by comparing the amino acid profile of the specific food protein against a standard amino acid profile with the highest possible score being a .6 7 Aeterangan gambar protein &ection of a protein structure showing serine and alanine residues linked together by peptide bonds.6:7 'he PER was based upon the amino acid re#uirements of growing rats" which noticeably differ to that of humans.rgani/ation of the %nited 0ations1*orld 2ealth . :) 'he Food and )gricultural .demanding age group).From *ikipedia" the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Protein (igestibility +orrected )mino )cid &core) . 'hese organi/ations have suggested that other methods for evaluating the #uality of protein are inferior.) had previously recommended P(+))& for regulatory purposes. 'he 89 method uses nitrogen absorption as a basis.year old child (considered the most nutritionally.navigation" search Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein #uality based on the amino acid re#uirements of humans.6 7 'he P(+))& value is different in measuring the #uality of protein from the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and the biological value (89) methods. 'he F() gave two reasons for adopting the P(+))& in !!3. 2owever" it does not take into account certain factors influencing the digestion of the protein and is of limited use for application to human protein re#uirements because what is measured is ma=imal potential of #uality and not a true estimate of #uality at re#uirement level.rgani/ation (F).1*2.1*2.