Engineer and Society – Unit I

Session 01 Technology and its connectedness to society and environment
This session discusses some problems related to technology society and environment. It shows you the basic connectedness of technology to man and his environment, and some of the important questions it raises. You will in this course elaborate this picture and address these questions.

Session 02 Technology, Development and the ‘Paradigm of Icarus’
This session discusses the modern paradigm of development, i.e. that of unbounded material growth. We have termed this the 'paradigm of Icarus'. The earth's resources in terms of materials, energy, environment and human activity assimilated and as such inherently contradict this paradigm. Even if it was possible, there is doubt if the necessary human effort should be directed towards such a one-dimensional goal.

Session 3 Progress of Technological R & D: pre and post independence scenario
With the recent development in services and industrial sectors, identifying Sri Lanka as an agricultural country is debatable. Sri Lanka, however, was an agricultural country and the progress of R & D in the past is hence dominated unavoidably by R & D in the agricultural sector. So in this session we take agriculture as the case study to discuss R & D during the colonial period and the era after independence while introducing you very briefly the evolution of technological R & D in general.

Session 4 Status of science & Technology sector in Sri Lanka
Science and technology policies led R & D dynamism has been witnessed in some coretechnology sectors in some countries in the Asian region, along with efforts in building S & T institutions and rapid promotion of the human resource base. This session attempts to explore some of the key features of the Sri Lankan S & T system from the perspectives of the technological R & D.

Session 5 Resources for production
The production in one sector is dependant on that of others, and this mutual interdependence has been illustrated by example. Historically, we could say that

environment. These resources are heavily interdependent on each other and man has to transform these resources either permanently for his use. In approaching the gender and technology from any of these perspectives. The different 'ideal' roles are qualitatively outlined as labor.domestic production came first followed by agriculture and then industry. . This requires a further expenditure of resources. Session 9 What is gender? . Each resource plays a different role in the production process.II In this session what is gender. capital. Only the significant branches of the tree-like path need to be traced.I This session introduces you to the differences between the concepts of sex and gender and gender related concepts. All resources need to be transformed and adapted to the particular process before use. Session 7 Sustainable development The idea of sustainable development grew from numerous environmental movements in earlier decades. In a world of limited resources and large scale production. To what extent and how we do it is much dependent on why we are accounting. All three sectors of production need resources and we have identified five fundamental resources. A simple and clear definition of the concept is: “Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”. . which would provide you the background for the discussion on gender and technology. Within capital is contained an earlier expenditure of resources and this must also be accounted for. Session 8 What is gender? . and had opportunity to apply gender analysis to a technology-related situation. The aim is in this session to look at gender and technology from three perspectives. a science of resource accounting is very necessary. Material and energy. Session 6 Resource usage and their interdependency The problem of accounting for resource expenditure is not merely that of accounting for the immediate production process. it might be useful also to consider women and men as users and producers of technology. This section is focused on living in harmony with the environment and proposes to join up economic goals and social goals of development with environmental goals to arrive at sustainable development. A total expenditure can be worked out by tracing all these different expenditures. you were introduced to gender concepts.

Mobile Telephones and Base stations The use of mobile could be hazardous to the user. and more methodological investigations need to be done. the evidence is at present conjectural. . AS a precautionary measure it is important that a phone should not be placed near human brain while transmitting (eg: against the ear). may also pose a health hazard to people living nearby. Base stations which collect amplify and retransmit signals from mobile phones. However these have been a proliferation of such base stations with mobile phone usage. These effects on health due to this exposure are yet unknown Session 11 Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health II . but not more than a radio broadcasting station of equal power capacity. the amount of EM radiation that humans are exposed to have increased. The use of mobile phones has increased the personal exposure links of mobile phone users. The brain that operates on a low-level of electrical activity may be subject to disruption. However.Session 10 Electromagnetic fields and Public Health I Ever since the discovery of radio-transmission.