vto its dilating action on pupils of the eyes, atropine it Ssed in opthalmology.

For such use one pat of atropine in 1,30,000 parts of water is suicient to cause the dilation of the pupils of the eyes of cats. When taken internally, atropine first stimulates and then depresses tincentral nervous system. solation,! "tropine is isolated from the #uice or the powdered drug. $dseywnus muticus is the preferred source for the manufacture of atropine %ecause of its high alkaloidal content, with &. stramonium ne't in order. (he powdered drug material is thoroughly moistened with m a)ueous solution of sodium car%onate and then e'tracted with ether or %en*ene. (he alkaloidal free %ases are e'tracted from the solvent with water acidified with acetic acid. (he acid solution is then shaken with solvent ether to remove coloring matter. (he alkaloids are precipitated with sodium car%onate, filtered off, washed and dried. (he dried mtSl is dissolved in solvent ether or acetone and dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulphate %efore filtration. (he filtrate after concentration and cooling yields crude crystals of hyoscyamine and atropine from the solution. (he crude crystalline mass is seperated from the solution. (he crude crystalline mass o%tained after filtration is dissolved in alcohol and sodium hydro'ide solution is added and the mi'ture allowed to stand until hyoscyamine is completely racemi*ed to atropine which is indicated %y the a%sence of optical activity. (he crude atropine is purified %y crystalli*ation from acetone, "tropine sulphate is the most important salt of atropine. t occurs in the form of colourless crystalline powder. t is solu%le in water and alcohol %ut insolu%le in ether and chloroform. pts+ 1, solution of atropine dissolved in - . acetic acid is spotted ovef/siica gel 0 plate and eluted in the solvent system of strong ammonia solution-methanol 11.2!1003. (45 plate is spread with im acidified iodoplatinate solution. "tropine gives the 6f value 7 8 9:"6;570<7S= ".& 9:i(75:>;lS(6= t also acts as a skeletal muscle rela'ant. ?uinidine is used to treat various cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular contractions, atrial and vent'ic@ular tachycardia and atrial fi%rillation. solatiorr +5inchona %ark is dried to 1--12, moisture and then ground o finepowder of a%out A0 mesh in disintegrator. t is mi'ed with slaked lime containing over A0, calcium hydro'ide and water. &uring mi'ing, lime fi'es the organic acids as calcium salt. (he mi'ture is left for -B hrs. and then charged and e'tracted with %en*ene at a temperature of 1C0Df using steam. (he hot e'tracted mineral solvent containing alkaloid is shaken up with dilute sulphuric acid to transfer the alkaloid to the acid. (he a)ueous acidic e'tract containing alkaloid is %oiled and filtered through filter press while the solvent freed from alkaloid is recycled further for e'traction. (he filtered hot clear acidic e'tract is neutrali*ed with hot sodium car%onate solution at p: A.2 and cooled. 5rude )uinine sulphate seperates on cooling. t is centrifuged and refined %y %oiling with water and activated car%on to yield pure, white )uinine sulphate. (he li)uor containing other cinchona alkaloidstill is treated withmother sodium car%onate and sodium hydro'ide it precipitates completely as the free %ases. t is then e'tracted with ether to separate )uinidine and cinchonidine. (he

a-503 to p: A.dried ether e'tract is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid. cinchonine.7: 5inchonidine . t is collected and decomposed with ammonia to yield free )uinidine alkaloid.. "pph the spots over silica gel -0 plate and elute in the given solvent system Spray the dried plate with &ragendorffs reagent. Some of (45 solveir.eutrali*ed acidic e'tract add Sod. cinchonidiiie3 Filtiate 1?uinidineltartarate3 H I 8. ?uinidine hydrogen iodide 1ppt3 ?u in dine Scheme C. 9ol tartarate >ther e'tract 1?unidine. ". (he resulting mi'ture is neutrali*ed with ammonia solution.( F 5"( 7. 7F S7.a7: F with Water i reflu' :ot %en*ene e'tract i e'tract with dilute :-S0B isulphate add . powdered and used for production of )uinidine sulphate.> 9recipitate 15inchonidine tartarate3 #add :51 "lkaloid :5 1add .! Scematic diagram for the isolation of 5inchona alkaloid (esi! &issolve pure cinchona alkaloids or the e'tract in methanol. (heEfiltrate containing solu%le )uinidine tartarate is treated with potassium iodide solution where )uinidine hydrogen iodide is precipitated. cinchonidine ")ueos e'tract 1cinchonine3 %en*ene filter / 9recipitate of )uinine ?uinine e'tract withldiiute :51 . systems and 6f values of )uinine and )uinidine are given %elow 31A S74"( 7. Schematic diagram for the isolation of ma#or cinchona alkaloids is presented in scheme 9owdered 5inchona %ark F 5a7 F .:.lt is washed with water. dried.2 "lkaloid sulphat% %oil with charcoal 5ool iltrate Filtrate sulpr.iiG ?uinidine.& 9: =(79:"6 "1" 5>I( 5" 4S &>. Sodium potassium tartarate 16ochelle salt3 is added which precipitates cinchonidine as a tartarate salt.

.orpheusM the 0reek god of dreams.S+k 5++. . %itter alkaloid.7S= ". solation of morphine was irst attempted %y &erasne in 1K03 and named it has salt of opium.orphine and its related alkaloids occurs as white crystalline powder. . (he currently accepted structure is that proposed in 1C-2 %y 0ulland and 6o%inson. 7ther important alkaloids of opium includes the%a#ll and papaverine. '! 67 76.1J 0. (he%aine 5: -5: C3 0. ether and chloroform %ut solu%le in alcohol and alkali solution. h. .-A + dentiication+ (he solution of cinchona alkaloid when treated with %romine and ammonia produces emrald green colour."570. Family 9apaveraceae. 5odeine 5: 2B-12A 0.3-1.-K 0. t is known ai (halleio)uin test.2.orphine in the prototype 9:"6. 9roperties ! .2.orphine is laevorotatory.orphine and 5odeine+ .& 9 &(70:>I S(6= 31J i 1 N N .1J 0. t ff sparingly solu%le in water. mp 1D53 9ercent . n 1C02 Seturner isolated morphine in pure form and referred to it as morphine acid meconate.J--.orphine has %een named after $.hu<%+ ?uinine ?uinidine 13 5hloroform-diethyl amine 1C!13 -3 5hloroform-acetone-diethyl amine 12!B!13 0. +.orphine -2B C-1B.orp(iirieLanarcodeine are the two most important iso)uinolinc alkaloids present in the air-dried milky e'udate o%tained %y incising the unripe capsules of 9apaver somniferum 4inne.ore than twenty structures were proposed for morphine and other related alkaloids.

f c .

(in$ filtrate is neutrali*ed with ammonia and some amount of alcohol is added to precipitate morphine.( F 5"( 7.& &>. 7F S7. 5odeine and its salts are narcotic ntlgesics and antitussive agents. the solution of ammonium codeine chloride is concentrated. .ol opiate analgesic drugs which act at several sites in the central nervous system to produce analgesia. (hey are used as sedatives Socially in allaying cough. . (he filtrate containing the hydrochlorides of the alkaloids is concentrated when hydrochloride salt of morphine and codeine deposit in the form of dou%le compound known as $0regory salt$. t is kept for BK hours and then filtered.> 9:=(79:"6. S74"( 7. For purification of codeine. sodium hydro'ide and codeine is e'tracted with chloroform.oiphinc precipitates while codeine remains in solution as ammonium 1udeiuc chloride.orphine is HO dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid to a saturated solution which on cooling crystalli*es 7ut as morphine hydrochloride. 7ne of these methods commonly used. (his salt is dissolved in warm water and neutrali*ed with dilute ammonia 1p: C3."5>I(15"4S . 5hloroform layer is e'tracted further with dilute sulphuic acid and the a)ueous layer is decolori*ed with carcoal and su%#ected to iltration. treated with 30. 5odeine phosphate i !G formed %y neutrali*ing codeine with phosphoric acid and 6#i5ipitating the salt from a)ueous solution with alcohol. ". 9owdered opium is e'tracted with warm water till e'haustion. (he a)ueous e'tract is concentrated under vacuum and treated with a solution of caicium chloride 11!13. 1iS+=H (he 6f value of morphine and codeine in different solvent systems are listed %elow. (he iltrate is rendered alkaline with sodium hydro'ide solution and e'tracted with %en*ene. Pen*ene e'tract after evaporation to dryness afford codeine. $#7tatif#F! Several methods have %een used for the isolation of morphine and codeine from opium. 9recipitated morphine is iltered through charcoal.

3-0. (45 is eluted n the following solvent systems and the spot is visuali*ed under IQ light or %y spraying with %romocresol green or modiied &ragendorff s reagent.2 to 2. (he e'tract is further evaporated to yield emetine." 5> I(15" 4S ( 7.( F15" 9: =(79:" 6. (he e'tract o%tained is concentrated and dissolved in water and the solution is made strongly %asic with ammonia and e'tracted with di-isopropyl ether. 3-0 S74" ( 7. (he ether e'tract is concentrated and redissolved in methanol and converted to emetine hydro%romide with a methanolic solution of hydro%romic acid. 7F S7. (egt+ >metine hydrochloride is dissolved in methanol or water and spotted on silica gel-0 plates. &i-isopropyl ether e'tract is then treated with 10-12.i-nissaesmi solation ! (he powdered ipecacuanha is e'tracted with a%out J0. (hese halide salts are converted to the hydrochloride %y neutrali*ing the regenerated ree %ase. &ilute acid e'tract is then nearly neutrali*ed and washed with ether and then made strongly alkaline and treated with ether.& &>. a)ueous potassium hydro'ide to remove cephaeline.2B 33@H+Rthy4slh+4kei?n+ethanol-ammoma12!B!l3 0. ". t is purified via dihydro%romide or dihydroiodide salt. Strychnine and %rucine are modified corynane-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloid. t contains 1. (he ether e'tracts is su%#ected to dilute sulphuric acid treatment to yield alkaloids. n the another process. ethano(or methanol. of total alkaloid. ignatii and later on 9alletier isolated it in 1K1C from nu'-vomica seeds.2 -3 Pen*ene-(oulene-ethyl acetate diethyl amine-methanol 132!32!10!-3 0. Solvent system 6f 13 5hloroform-methanol1K2!123 0.J0 strychnine and Pruc#ns Strychnine and %rucine are o%tained from the dried seeds of Strychnous nu'-vomica. >metine goes into ether while cephaeline remains in the a)eous phase. family 4oganiaceae. Strychnine was irst discovered in 1K1A in Saint gnatius %ean S.> . ipecac powder is treated with ammonia and ether.

t is very slightly solu%le in water and forms water solu%le salt in nitric and sulphuric acid. t is freely solu%le in chloroform and dissolves in alcohol. (he chloroform e'tract is concentrated to 1EA of its volume and then successively e'tracted in seperating funnel with dilule sulphuric acid.6. (otal a)ueous acidic e'tract consists of strychnine and %rucine in the form of their sulphate salts. nu'-vomica and S. Strychnine is e'tremely to'ic and functions as a central stimulant. Prucine is less to'ic than strychinine. (he dried ripe 5 seeds of nu'-vomica are treated with hot water or steam to soften and then grinded and made into a paste with slaked lime. (he com%ined acid e'tract is concentrated. Prucine isreadily distinguished from strychnine %y %eing readily o'idi*ed %y dilule nitric acid with the formation of an intense red colour. Strychnine Prucine +mp -: -: -AKD5 -756 -75:. ignatii. solation J Strychnine and %rucine occurs together in several species of Strychnous especially in S. %en*ene and pyridine. Strychnine and %rucine %oth are laevorotatory and %oth are generally used in resolution of dl acids.7S= ". t is used as an alcohol denaIirant due to its e'tremely %itter taste. Strychnine and %rucine can %e separated from this acid e'tract %y one of the following procedure. JKD5 9roperties ! Strychnine occurs as %rilliant. 9:"6"i"500. Prucine i occurs as crystalline powder solu%le in chloroform and alcohol. Poth alkaloids are very %itter in taste.& 9:=(75:>SIS-(6= L1 . (he pasty mass is r su%se)uently e'tracted with chloroform till e'haustion. colourless cu%es or crystalline powder.

(his residue of fiiiyehnine is iltered off. (he piri tpitatc is further e'tracted with -2. dried and recrystalli*ed from ethanol. si n . alcohol which dissolves nm trie and leaves strychnine as insolu%le mass. where %oth alkaloids precipitates together.1 3 5oncentrated acid e'tract is made alkaline with e'cess of ammonia solution. SM N$ c c N$ 3 R T!T!.

(he active alkaloid is iVu-G.& &>. S74"( 7.> O. (hese tlklloids are composed %y an indole and dihydroindole unit. 1pst##%issolvc strychnine and %rucine alkaloids in methanol and spot 7Qff silica gel 0 plates.iilitoii. "%out 200 kg of1 $ roseus leaves gives a%out 1 g of vincristine." 5> I( 5" 4S M2W 9: =(79:" .U Pun-:ie %isulphate is less solu%le in concentrated acid e'tract and therefoe it comes out from the solution which is removed %y filtration. Peer and 5utts reported tin. .i-iii in a relatively small amount in the crude drug. t is then converted to its free %ase %y precipitation with ammonia solution.indole $.l.vely. 7F S7. >lute the plates with %en*ene-chloroformdirtliyl#uuinc 1C!B!13 solvent system and spray the dried plate with dwgendorffs reagent. Qili%liistine and Qincristine Qin%lastine and vincristine are the two important indol iilkiiloids o%tained from the plant 5hatharanthus roseus family "pt icyanaocac which is %etter known as .$$ 6.$iihei I)nor is neutrali*ed to yield crystalli*ed material of strychnine Titilplutle.isolation of these alkaloids and Svo%oda and coworkers at >li 4ily . 5anadian group of researchers .+ +tlvirt#tit!nl on#H2trychnine when treated with potassium dicromate rnd ulpliiiuc.iilhiii. ". (he former is a i%ogane type while the later %elongs to aspidospermane type monoterpenoid . Strychnine and %rucine corresponds to 6f ogpeci#. respectively.adagaskar periwinkle.v S $nnipany esta%lished its anticancer activity.( F 5"( 7.iiitliine and vindoline.o%el.ucid #Giyes violet colour which turns to red and finally yellow. i.

")ueous e'tract is concentrated and the residue further e'tracted with -. ts sulphate salt is freely solu%le in water %ut slightly solu%le ethanol.57 5:-7: Qin%lastine Qincristine c:-ai3 <. Qincristine sulphate is recommended for the treatment of acute haemocytic leukemia and in other types of sarcomas. -KB--K2D5 5:7 -J3--K1D5 9roperties ! Qin%lastine and vincristine %oth are solu%le in alcohol and %en*ene. 7 7 6 mp 5:. dried and dissolved in %cn*ene-methyiene chloride 1A2!323 and further su%#ected to chromatographic fractionation on neutral alumina column with %cn*ene-methylene chloride as an eluent using gradient elution techni)ue.7S=".5M 4 5705: :. "gain the p: of a)ueous solution is raised to J and again e'tracted with %en*ene to separate alkaloids. (he p: J %eiv*ene e'tracts were mi'ed together. S 63 303 S c i c . Qin%lastine sulphate is used for the treatment of wide variety of neoplasms and in :odkin$s disease. ocX5:3 :7 575:.& 9:=(751E>. odourless powder. concentrated. (hese alkaloids in their pure form are unsta%le. solation-+! Qinca leaves and her% irst minced and e'tracted with a)ueous-alcoholic acetic acid solution. $ll 6. very hydroscopic and highly to'ic compounds. hydrochloric acid. Qin%lastine rich fractions are evaporated to dryness to yield vin%lastine sulphate which is su%se)uently crystalli*ed from alcohol. (his acid e'tract is ad#usted to p: B with sodium hydro'ide solution and then e'tracted with %en*ene."570. Poth the alkaloids are white to slightly yellow crystalline or amorphous.

rN M-Ni s .

serpentina.3C with the a%ove spraying agent. 6. water in methanol and spotted on the silica get 0 plate and eluted with the solvent system acetonitril-%en*ene 13&!J03. t is practically insolu%le in water and solvent ether %ut solu%le in alcohol.( Fi5" ( 7. (he material o%tained from natural sources may contain closely related alkaloids. Qincristine is converted to its sulphate salt %y addition of a)ueous or ethanolic sulphuric acid to alcoholic solution. tetraphylla. t is freely solu%le in acetic acid. rescinnamine. >luted plates are dried and sprayed with 1.C affords the fractions containing vincristine which are com%ined dried and crystalli*ed from methanol. Qincristine free %ase gives the 6r value 0. 6eserpine must %e protected !rom light during manufacture and storage. Further evaporation of solution and crystalli*ation from ethanol yield vincastine sulphate. 9roperties ! 6eserpine occurs as a white or pale %uff to slightly yellow.C to 2. S74"( 7. a#malicine. family "pocyanaeae and also from other different species of 6auwolfia such as 6. 6eserpine is an antihypertensive and antipsychotic agent. crystalline powder. (he sample alkaloid is dissolved 1 mg in 0. t darkens slowly on e'posure to light %ut more rapidly when in solution. reserpinine. odourless. a#malinine. serpentine and yohim%ine. ". phosphoric acid. 5#ggtQ(hin layer chromatography is an efficient means in identifying and monitoring the separation of vinca alkaloids.& F&>. acetone and chloroform. n 6.Further elution of the column at p: levels B. reserpine and rescinnamine %oth respond to the e'traction procedures and e'tracted as a mi'ture of %oth while in 6. vomitoria and 6. which includes a#maline." .1 ml of -2.> 3-B 5>4( 5" 4S 9: =(79:" 6. tetraphylla. solution of eerie ammonium sulphate in K2. reserpine and deserpidine are e'tracted together. 6eserpine 6eserpine is an indole alkaloid o%tained from the roots of 6auwolia serpentina. 7F S7. micrantha.

"dd water and allow the drug to settle after lew vigorous shakings. (he alcoholic e'tract is concentrated and dried under reduced pressure %elow A0D5 to yield 6auwolia dry e'tract containing a%out B.l ilter paper in the immo%ile solvent formamids 9:"6.23. Fitter off the solution and e'tract the residue with B volumes of 0.-. 6auwolfia dry e'tract is e'tracted further with proportions of ether-chloroform-C0. 5om%ine the. c c c c. made alkaline with dilute ammonia to li%erate alkaloid.& 9:=(75:>.-J0D53 solution ! 6auwolfta root powder is e'haustively e'tracted with C0.o. t is su%#ected to column chromatographic fractionation for the seperation of rese#+pine.: S0B in seperating funnel. 0Y5 och/ och3 75:3 75: 6eserpine 1mp .. 1 V -.57 75:. [t i tW . mmerse a -0 ' -0 sheet of whatman . chloroform is removed %y distillation and the total alkaloidal e'tract is dried under vacuum to yield total rauwolfia alkaloids. r tNA iNN .total acid e'tract which contains the alkaloidal salt.@@@@i+. S(6= NN.7S= ". 1-0!K!-. :. "lkaloid is converted to water insolu%le %ase. (he total chloroform e'tract is iltered. Finally it is e'tracted with chloroform.(otal rauwolfia alkaloid consists of the mi'ture of over 30 different components . Z. (o the e'tract o%tained add little dilute ammonia with intermittent shaking. alcohol."570.G-! a(cli:ol %y suita%le method of e'traction such as percolation. (he e'tract is filtered. (ested3 9aper chromatography ! &issolve a%out 1 mg of the sample of rauwolfia e'tractEstandard reserpine in methanol.2 . of total alkaloids.

alkaloids of ergot. solation !Hn the la%oratory scale isolation techni)ue ergot powder is completely defatted with petroleum ether 1A0-K0D3 in so'hlet e'tractor.X5: :5-577: :5-577: \. crystalline powder.& 9:7(75:>. (he residual marc dried %elow B0D5 is$transferred to a ether and dish. t is slightly hygroscopic in nature.7: . odourless. :owever it shows a much less vasoconstrictor action. (he total acidic e'tract is com%ined and died under reduced pressure to yield total ergot alkaloid. (he is stirred to dryporcelain to semisolid mass %y mateial adding sufficient solvent ncss and then packed in a so'hlet and e'tracted with solvent ether for a%out 2 hrs. (he petroleum ether e'tract removes a%out 30."570. (he ether e'tract filtered and to it little acetone added and shaken in seperating funnel with three volumes of 1. of tartaric acid. solution in water has a p: of 3 >rgometrine %ase is more than the other principal to 2. t darkens with age and on e'posure to light.7S= ". >rgometerine maleate is an o'ytocic and produces much faster stimulation of the uterine muscles than do other alkaloids . (he total alkaloid is further dissolved in dilute ammonia and e' li Gh ted with four volumes of ether. dilutemade ammonia with stirring. >rgometrine maleate is readily solu%le in water and alcohol %ut insolu%le in chloroform and ether.cX5 i3 5:. >rgometrine 1mp 1K2-1C0D53 1A-D53 >rgometrine maleate 9roperties ! >rgometrine maleate is a white to greyish white or faintly yellow. S(6= 3-J . ts solu%le in water 1. fat and colouring matter. (he com%ined total ether e'tract 9:"6.

(est ! &issolve a%out 1 mgEml of alkaloid in methanol and apply on silica gel-0 plates. asthma and tu%erculosis."5>I(15"4S 7F S7. t is further puriied %y the column chromatographic ractionation.. Water insolu%le ergotamine and ergoto'ine alkaloids stay with ether while the water solu%le ergometrine tartarte remains with a)ueous e'tract. shows the 6 value 0. family "canthaceae. t is again washed with water to remove impurities of other alkaloids.& &>.3. Qasicine is present in vasaka upto a%out 1. Easicine+ Qasicine is a pyrrola*o)uina*oline alkaloid o%tained rom the leaves of "dhatoda vasica.-3. (he com%ined acid e'tract is concentrated under reduced pressure to yield water solu%le alkaloid. vasicinolone.( F 5"( 7. ". 9:=(79:"6.cis washed thoroughly with 2 successive )uantities. vasicinol. particularly for the treatment of cough. (he ether e'tract is again treated with three volumes of 1 .of water.> . (he a)ueous e'tract is made faintly alkaline with dilute ammonia and further saturated with ether. %ronchitis.30. vasicol and adhatonine. >rgometrine maleate shows the 6f 0.vasica known as vasaka is a highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal plant used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. wEw tartaric acid in water. ". 7: Qasicine 1mp -10D53 3-K S74"( 7. (he other alkaloids present includes vasicinone.:B51 1saturated3 1A!B3 and spray the dried (45 plates with &ragendorfFs reagent. >rgometrine ree %ase is shifted to ethereal solution. >lute the plates in solvent system toluene-%utanol . (he elution of the silica gel-0 (45 plate in other solvent system chloroform-ethanol-acetone 1A!B!B3.

u"^i+ SouV .Ri]a.

t is further e'tracted with chloroform..icotine is a colourless or pale yellow. petroleum ether and i'ed oils.S-. S(6= WWW.icotine is a pyridine alkaloid o%tained from the dried leave! of to%acco plant .7S= ". (o%acco leaveG contains . 9:"6."570.2!0. Qasicine gives orlhge cr#loufed@spot. kerosene. coarsely powdered and %asiied to p: C with ammonia solution. Qasieif# can %e further purified from the dry e'tract %y crystalli*ation.to K.1+$ 3JC . Spray the dried (45 plate with &ragendorff$s reagent. crystallin$L powder with %etter tastl.& 9:7(75:>.icotine is solu%le in watei.icotiana ta%acum. very hygroscopic oily li)uid with an unpleasent pungent odour and a sharp %urning persistant taste. t su%limates in high vaccum.-`. chloroform. (he solvent evapored to get the total alkaloid e'tract containing vasicine as a ma#or alkaloid. acetone and chloroform %ut slightly solu%le in water. solation ! Qasaka leaves are dried. of nicotine com%ined as maleate or citrate. . family Solanaceae.k)t#ne@+ .lie m . (he total chloroform e'tract is com%ined and washed with water and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. 3_ <S 9roperties ! Qasicine is a white. . BN t ^ tt t a . 5:. t is responsi%le for the %ronchodilatory and e'pectorant properties. : i t . "pply the spots of test solution on the silica gel-0 plate and elute with toluene-methanol-dio'ane-ammonia 11!1!-.icotine 1%p -BJD53 9roperties ! . alcohol. Weight per ml.$yvy& --/0 5 +/k#ltV QiF --.23. t also shows a%ortifacient and antimicro%ial activity against gingival inflammation and pyrrhoea. t gradually %ecomes %rownish on e'posure to air or light. Qasicine is solu%le in alcohol. ether. 1-3.lll i e t. $es#VG &issolve 1 mg of vasicine in 1 ml of methanol with little warming. is a%out 1 01 g.

1NNM .