!"#$%!&$'%( !"$*!

"#$ %&'()*+,(*&' &- ./)('$)0 -&) 1*0# /'2 3*424*-$
.)&5)/6 /'2 %&/0(/4 .)&5)/6 7$0(&)/(*&'
.)&8$9(0 (& :&9/4 ;<=< >9&'&6*$0

Drew Laugh|and
ulvlslon of Lconomlcs
L|nh Þhu & Ioe M||moe
8ranch of PablLaL 8esLoraLlon
u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
lebruary 2014


"/+4$ &- %&'($'(0

LxecuLlve Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 2
lnLroducLlon ................................................................................................................................................. 4
ÞarLners for llsh and Wlldllfe Þrogram ................................................................................................... 4
CoasLal Þrogram ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Scope and LlmlLaLlons of Lhls 8eporL ....................................................................................................... 6
uaLa and MeLhods ....................................................................................................................................... 7
SLaLe 8esulLs .............................................................................................................................................. 11
Sample Þro[ecLs ......................................................................................................................................... 22
ÞarLners for llsh and Wlldllfe Sample Þro[ecLs ...................................................................................... 22
CoasLal Þrogram Þro[ecLs ....................................................................................................................... 47
CbservaLlons from Lhe Sample Þro[ecLs ................................................................................................ 37
8eferences ................................................................................................................................................. 38


>?$9,(*@$ =,66/)A
1he ÞarLners for llsh and Wlldllfe (ÞlW) Þrogram and CoasLal Þrogram are Lhe u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe
Servlce's premler conservaLlon dellvery Lools for volunLary, clLlzen and communlLy-based flsh and
wlldllfe hablLaL resLoraLlon acLlvlLles across Lhe maLrlx of publlc and prlvaLely owned land. 1he programs
work dlrecLly wlLh parLners Lo lmplemenL vlLal on-Lhe-ground hablLaL resLoraLlon pro[ecLs across Lhe
naLlon and ln u.S. LerrlLorles.
1he ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms channel governmenL and prlvaLe dollars Lo local communlLles where
Lhey creaLe work Lo supporL new [obs and provlde lncome Lo local conLracLors and oLher lndusLrles.
Money spenL ln supporL of pro[ecLs clrculaLes Lhrough Lhe economy, creaLlng more [obs and generaLlng
economlc acLlvlLy. 1he lmpacLs of ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram funds are mulLlplled ln Lwo dlmenslons.
llrsL, Lhe program experLlse and fundlng ls able Lo leverage addlLlonal resources from oLher parLners
LhaL supporL pro[ecLs. Second, spendlng creaLes work, generaLes Lax revenues, and sLlmulaLes economlc
acLlvlLy as wages and purchases flow Lhrough Lhe economy. 1ogeLher Lhese lmpacLs are known as Lhe
ºmulLlpller effecL." 1hls reporL focuses on Lhe effecLs of ÞlW and CoasLal program-relaLed spendlng on
pro[ecLs compleLed ln flscal year 2011 Lo provlde an example of Lhe economlc lmpacLs of Lhe Þrograms.
1hls reporL does noL address many oLher aspecLs of Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms LhaL lmprove human
welfare, such as ecologlcal servlces, lmproved recreaLlonal opporLunlLles, land acqulslLlon, ln-klnd
conLrlbuLlons, or Lhe effecL of open space on land values.
1he sLudy used lnpuL-ouLpuL analysls Lechnlques Lo esLlmaLe Lhe mulLlpller effecL of program spendlng
as lL flows Lhrough Lhe reglonal economy. 1he flrsL parL applles LoLal spendlng on ÞlW and CoasLal
Þrogram pro[ecLs ln l?2011 Lo models of each sLaLe's economy. 1hls ylelds a snapshoL of Lhe overall
effecLs of Lhe program aL Lhe sLaLe level. 1he second parL of Lhe sLudy conslsLs of analyses of spendlng
for 13 sample pro[ecLs. Lach pro[ecL lllusLraLes dlfferenL aspecLs of Lhe program operaLlon and lLs
lmpacLs on Lhe local reglonal economy.
State kesu|ts
1he Lerm ºleverage" ls used Lo lndlcaLe Lhe effecLlveness of ÞlW or CoasLal Þrogram aL encouraglng
oLhers Lo parLlclpaLe ln resLoraLlon pro[ecLs. 1he leverage raLlo ls Lhe LoLal pro[ecL spendlng dlvlded by
ÞlW or CoasLal Þrogram spendlng. ln l?2011, for Lhe ÞlW Þrogram, Lhe average leverage raLlo,
welghLed by amounL of spendlng, was 8.6. 1he CoasLal Þrogram welghLed average leverage for l? 2011
ls sllghLly lower aL 6.3. lor every dollar spenL by Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram, $7 Lo $9 of resLoraLlon
work ls happenlng on Lhe ground.
As spendlng flows Lhrough a reglonal economy, lL generaLes addlLlonal sales and new [obs, called Lhe
mulLlpller effecL. 1he ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms pro[ecL spendlng lncreases ouLpuL by a mulLlpller of
1.9 (=ouLpuL/spendlng) for mosL sLaLes. 1haL ls, for every dollar spenL on resLoraLlon, Lhe sLaLe galns
$1.90 of economlc acLlvlLy. Callfornla, wlLh a hlghly dlverse and large lnLernal economy, generaLed a
mulLlpller of 2.1. 1hese resulLs are ln Lhe Lyplcal range for sLaLe mulLlpllers. 1he number of [obs
supporLed per mllllon dollars spenL ranges from 9.6 ln ConnecLlcuL Lo 33.7 ln SouLh Carollna. 1he [obs

mulLlpller depends on boLh Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of spendlng among economlc secLors and Lhe slze and
characLerlsLlcs of Lhe sLaLe's economy.
Samp|e Þro[ects
Lach sample pro[ecL shows Lhe dlfferenL challenges ln slze, scope, parLlclpanLs, fundlng, and locaLlon.
1he pro[ecLs lllusLraLe how Lhe economlc sLlmulus of resLoraLlon spendlng ls one elemenL of Lhe beneflLs
from Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms. 1hls reporL hlghllghLs Lhls ofLen lgnored elemenL.
Conc|us|on & kecommendat|on
1he ÞlW program conLrlbuLed $18.6 mllllon Lo local economles, leveraglng $142 mllllon wlLh parLner
conLrlbuLlons, for a comblned LoLal of $161 mllllon spenL on ÞlW program pro[ecLs. lor every $1 LhaL
Lhe ÞlW program conLrlbuLed Lo a pro[ecL, Lhe program generaLed $13.70 ln economlc reLurns. ln l?
2011 alone, Lhe LoLal economlc sLlmulus creaLed by Lhe ÞlW program amounLed Lo $292 mllllon ln
ouLpuL and 3,300 new [obs. lor Lhe CoasLal Þrogram, a LoLal of $2.8 mllllon of program funds leveraged
$16.4 mllllon for a comblned LoLal of $19.2 mllllon spenL of CoasLal Þrogram pro[ecLs. lor every $1 LhaL
Lhe CoasLal Þrogram conLrlbuLed Lo a pro[ecL, Lhe program generaLed $12.78 ln economlc reLurns. 1he
LoLal economlc sLlmulus creaLed by Lhe CoasLal Þrogram equals $33.6 mllllon ln ouLpuL and 473 [obs. lor
every dollar spenL by Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms, $7 Lo $9 of resLoraLlon work ls happenlng on Lhe
1hls reporL drew upon one of Lhe mosL exLenslve daLaseLs of hablLaL resLoraLlon work avallable ln Lhe
u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce. 1he resulLs provlde an accuraLe, buL llmlLed, analysls of Lhe economlc
lmpacLs of resLoraLlon acLlvlLles. lurLher analysls on Lhe lmpacLs eco|og|ca| serv|ces, |mproved
recreat|ona| opportun|t|es, |and acqu|s|t|on, and prox|m|ty to open space are recommended Lo
hlghllghL Lhe full economlc value of hablLaL resLoraLlon acLlvlLles.


1he u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce's (Servlce) mlsslon ls, worklng wlLh oLhers Lo conserve, proLecL and
enhance flsh, wlldllfe, and planLs and Lhelr hablLaLs for Lhe conLlnulng beneflL of Lhe Amerlcan people.
1he ÞlW Þrogram and CoasLal Þrogram are Lhe Servlce's premler conservaLlon dellvery Lools for
volunLary, clLlzen and communlLy-based flsh and wlldllfe hablLaL resLoraLlon acLlvlLles across Lhe maLrlx
of publlc and prlvaLely owned land. WlLh more Lhan 273 full Llme sLaff acLlve ln all 30 sLaLes and
LerrlLorles, Lhe programs are equlpped Lo work dlrecLly wlLh parLners Lo lmplemenL vlLal on-Lhe-ground
hablLaL resLoraLlon pro[ecLs.
./)('$)0 -&) 1*0# /'2 3*424*-$ .)&5)/6

ApproxlmaLely 72 percenL of land ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes ls prlvaLely owned. Slnce 1987, Lhe ÞlW Þrogram
has been furLherlng Lhe Servlce's mlsslon beyond Lhe LradlLlonal boundarles of Lhe naLlonal Wlldllfe
8efuge SysLem and oLher publlc lands, worklng dlrecLly wlLh prlvaLe landowners Lo resLore, proLecL, and
enhance prlorlLy flsh and wlldllfe hablLaLs on prlvaLe lands.
1he ÞlW Þrogram ls Lhe Servlce's prlmary mechanlsm Lo dellver on Lhe ground hablLaL resLoraLlon,
Lechnlcal asslsLance and flnanclal resources for prlvaLe landowners. !" $%& !"#$ !" $%&' ()*+,'$- !"# !"#
!"#$"%& has lmplemenLed Lo daLe nearly 29,000 resLoraLlon and Lechnlcal asslsLance pro[ecLs Lo resLore
over 3,167,000 acres of upland, 939,000 acres of weLland, 8,712 rlparlan mlles, and 3,403 sLrucLures on
prlvaLe lands across all 30 sLaLes and LerrlLorles. !!" $!"#$%"&' &))%)*&$"! !"#$%&'& )* +"#,"-. !"#$$
!"#!$%& !"# !"#$%& !" !"#$%&'()*"# !"!"#"!"$%! #!"#$%"&' &))%)*&$"! !"#$%&!"' )*+!,*, *--.--/.",0
!"#$#%"&'$ ")*+),#-"+./ 0-#1+&, -+*"+2 ')3 0+-4", &#40$"')&+/ %-'), 2-",")%/ ')3 -+.,#-',"#) %5"3')&+
!"# %&"'(&)'"*! !"#$%&'( * !"#$%#" !"#"$%& &( $")"*+, &*-.& ./"0%".! 1hese pro[ecLs have encouraged
landowner sLewardshlp and faclllLaLed Lhe conservaLlon of naLlve hablLaLs for long Lerm beneflL for Lhe
landowner, flsh and wlldllfe, and Lhe Amerlcan publlc.

1he success of Lhe ÞlW Þrogram lles noL only ln lLs ablllLy Lo effecLlvely lmplemenL hablLaL resLoraLlon
pro[ecLs, buL also ln lLs ablllLy Lo bulld LrusL and credlblllLy wlLh landowners and parLners. 1hls ls
achleved by provldlng accuraLe lnformaLlon and asslsLance ln a Llmely manner, leveraglng resources and

helplng lmplemenL cosL efflclenL and effecLlve pro[ecLs. Lach pro[ecL ls conducLed ln collaboraLlon wlLh a
prlvaLe landowner as Lhe prlmary cooperaLor. Worklng ln concerL wlLh over 3,000 parLner organlzaLlons
Lo daLe, Lhe ÞlW Þrogram ls able Lo leverage addlLlonal funds, resources, skllls and knowledge from
oLher organlzaLlons and lndlvlduals. 1he locally-based sLaff works Lo brlng people LogeLher Lo forge and
lmplemenL soluLlons LhaL meeL local and reglonal needs for flsh and wlldllfe sLewardshlp.
%&/0(/4 .)&5)/6

ln addlLlon Lo belng home Lo over half of Lhe u.S. populaLlon, our naLlon's coasLal areas also provlde
lmporLanL flsh and wlldllfe hablLaL, wlLh beneflLs LhaL exLend far beyond Lhelr llmlLed geographlc
boundarles. lorLy-flve percent of all federally llsLed LhreaLened and endangered specles, 83 percenL of
mlgraLory blrds and waLerfowl, and many commerclal and sporL flsh and shellflsh depend on coasLal
hablLaLs. 1hese coasLal areas are also lmporLanL Lo our naLlon's economy. 1wenLy-elghL mllllon
Amerlcans work ln Lhe flshlng, Lourlsm and recreaLlonal boaLlng lndusLrles, all of whlch depend on
healLhy coasLal hablLaLs for Lhelr producLs and cusLomers.

1he CoasLal Þrogram ls one of Lhe Servlce's mosL effecLlve Lools for volunLary, clLlzen and communlLy-
based flsh and wlldllfe hablLaL resLoraLlon and proLecLlon on publlc and prlvaLely-owned coasLal lands.
Land ownershlp ln coasLal waLersheds ls ofLen a mosalc of publlc and prlvaLe enLlLles, whlch requlres a
program LhaL has Lhe flexlblllLy Lo lmplemenL landscape conservaLlon on dlfferenL Lypes of lands. 1hls
unlque ablllLy allows Lhe Servlce Lo dellver landscape conservaLlon, and malnLaln hablLaL connecLlvlLy
and conLlnulLy.

WlLh 72 sLaff locaLed ln 24 prlorlLy areas, lncludlng Lhe ALlanLlc, Carlbbean, Culf of Mexlco, CreaL Lakes,
and Lhe Þaclflc, Lhe CoasLal Þrogram provldes valuable Lechnlcal asslsLance, and dellvers successful and
cosL-effecLlve hablLaL conservaLlon pro[ecLs and acLlvlLles LhaL beneflL federal LrusL specles. Locally-
based program sLaff acqulres ln-depLh knowledge of Lhe communlLy, lLs naLural resources,
envlronmenLal challenges, poLenLlal parLners, and pollLlcal and economlc lssues. 1hls knowledge
enables Lhe Þrogram Lo develop long-Lerm, dlverse, and effecLlve parLnershlps LhaL dellver landscape-
scale conservaLlon efflclenLly.

Slnce lLs beglnnlng, Lhe CoasLal Þrogram has parLnered wlLh more Lhan 3,000 federal, Lrlbal, sLaLe, and
local agencles, non-governmenLal organlzaLlons, corporaLlons, and prlvaLe landowners across Lhe
counLry Lo resLore 300,616 acres of weLland, 133,033 acres of upland, and 2,160 mlles of sLream hablLaL,
and Lo proLecL 2,021,378 acres of coasLal hablLaL.

Þrovldlng Lechnlcal asslsLance Lo a dlverse range of conservaLlon parLners ls also an lmporLanL
conLrlbuLlon of Lhe CoasLal Þrogram. 8y supporLlng resLoraLlon planners, declslon makers, and oLher
conservaLlon pracLlLloners, Lhe CoasLal Þrogram sLaff provldes broader beneflLs Lo federal LrusL specles
by supporLlng Lhe developmenL, lmplemenLaLlon, and managemenL of hablLaL conservaLlon pollcles and
=9&C$ /'2 :*6*(/(*&'0 &- (#*0 7$C&)(
1he ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms provlde Lechnlcal experLlse and key fundlng Lo leverage addlLlonal
flnanclal resources Lo dellver conservaLlon acLlvlLles and coordlnaLe on Lhe ground hablLaL lmprovemenL
pro[ecLs wlLh parLners. ln Lhe process, governmenL and prlvaLe dollars are channeled Lo pro[ecL slLes ln
Lhe local communlLles where Lhey creaLe work supporLlng new [obs and provldlng lncome Lo local
conLracLors and oLher lndusLrles. Monles spenL ln supporL of pro[ecLs clrculaLe Lhrough Lhe economy,
creaLlng more [obs and generaLlng economlc acLlvlLy. CovernmenL fundlng ls a powerful sLlmulus Lo
local economles slnce lL represenLs new resources LhaL would noL have been presenL oLherwlse. 1he
lmpacLs of ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram funds are mulLlplled ln Lwo dlmenslons. llrsL, Þrogram funds
leverage addlLlonal non-federal funds from oLher parLners Lo supporL Lhe pro[ecL. Second, funds creaLe
work and sLlmulaLe economlc acLlvlLy as wages and purchases flow Lhrough Lhe economy. 1hls reporL
focuses on Lhe effecLs of ÞlW and CoasLal program-relaLed spendlng on resLoraLlon pro[ecLs for a
represenLaLlve flscal year (pro[ecLs compleLed ln 2011) as lL flows Lhrough Lhe reglonal economy.
1hls reporL does not address several oLher ways LhaL resLoraLlon pro[ecLs conLrlbuLe Lo human welfare:
• PealLhy flsh and wlldllfe hablLaL provldes many eco|og|ca| serv|ces LhaL people use and value.
WeLlands fllLer ouL polluLanLs and mlLlgaLe Lhe energy of floodwaLers, prevenLlng flood damage.
Crowlng vegeLaLlon sequesLers carbon and provldes shade LhaL helps Lo mlLlgaLe cllmaLe change
lmpacLs, whlle provldlng wlldllfe hablLaL. AL presenL, such valuaLlon requlres deLalled ClS
analysls and slLe speclflc daLa collecLlon. 1echnlques are belng developed LhaL wlll make
valuaLlon of ecosysLem servlces more generally appllcable. We expecL Lo revlslL Lhe programs ln
a few years and provlde a more compleLe economlc evaluaLlon.
• 8esLorlng sLreams and re-vegeLaLlng rlparlan buffers lmproves flsh hablLaL whlch leads Lo beLLer
flshlng opporLunlLles. Cleaner waLerways lmprove en[oymenL of rlver vlews and boaLlng whlch
may lead Lo more and |mproved recreat|ona| opportun|t|es and greaLer Lourlsm ln Lhe pro[ecL
area. Asslgnlng value Lo Lhese klnds of changes requlres parslng Lhe beneflLs of an experlence
lnLo lLs componenLs. 1hls ls a dlfflculL and conLenLlous area of resource economlcs. 1hls reporL
does noL aLLempL Lo quanLlfy Lhese clear beneflLs of Lhe Þrograms.
• AlLhough |n-k|nd contr|but|ons are essenLlal Lo Lhe success of Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms.
1hey do noL provlde Lhe same lncremenLal economlc sLlmulus as new cash spendlng. 1hose

provldlng labor as an ln-klnd servlce would have been dolng someLhlng else and would have
been pald wlLh or wlLhouL Lhe pro[ecL. 1herefore, ln-klnd conLrlbuLlons are noL lncluded ln Lhls
• Land acqu|s|t|on proLecLs hablLaLs from fuLure developmenL. lL ls a vlLal parL of Lhe resLoraLlon
program LhaL wlll dellver beneflLs Lo socleLy far lnLo Lhe fuLure. Powever, Lhe purchase prlce of
an acqulslLlon ls a change ln Lhe medlum for holdlng an asseL and noL an economlc sLlmulus. 1he
selllng landowner had $2 mllllon worLh of land and afLer Lhe LransacLlon has $2 mllllon ln cash.
unLll he or she spends lL, Lhe cash ls dolng noLhlng more Lo sLlmulaLe Lhe economy Lhan Lhe land
was. 1he LransacLlon cosLs of Lhe acqulslLlon process provlde some sLlmulus ln Lhe real esLaLe
and legal servlces lndusLrles buL Lhls reporL does noL address land acqulslLlon.
• SLudles have shown LhaL prox|m|ty to open space and undeveloped land lncreases Lhe value of
homes. 1he CoasLal Þrogram frequenLly provldes Lechnlcal asslsLance Lo asslsL parLners Lo
acqulre land or a conservaLlon easemenL on properLy ln order Lo proLecL or resLore lL.
Conserved land changes Lhe markeLablllLy of ad[acenL land and Lhe Lax base of nearby Lowns.
1hese changes were noL consldered ln Lhls reporL.
D/(/ /'2 E$(#&20
ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram pro[ecLs lnvolve a plannlng phase, an lmplemenLaLlon phase and a monlLorlng
phase. AlLhough Servlce sLaff parLlclpaLes ln all Lhree phases and Servlce equlpmenL can be used durlng
Lhe lmplemenLaLlon phase, ln general, Lhe Servlce and lLs parLners plan and monlLor Lhe resLoraLlon,
whlle prlvaLe conLracLors perform Lhe acLual consLrucLlon work on Lhe ground.
When a conLracLor ls pald, Lhe money doesn'L [usL slL ln Lhe bank. 1hey musL pay Lhe heavy equlpmenL
operaLor who drove Lhe bulldozer. 1he operaLor doesn'L hold onLo Lhe money elLher. Pe needs Lo pay
Lhe mechanlc who flxes hls car, pay Lhe renL, and buy grocerles. 1hus Lhe orlglnal paymenL from Lhe
program becomes lncome aL Lhree dlfferenL levels - Lhe conLracLor (dlrecL), Lhe heavy equlpmenL
operaLor (lndlrecL), and Lhe mechanlc, landlord and grocery clerk (lnduced). 1he Lhree levels can be
added LogeLher Lo yleld LoLal lncome lmpacLs of Lhe program spendlng.
Slmllarly, Lhe conLracLor musL buy producLs from oLher companles ln order Lo operaLe. When he or she
buys a llLer of oll aL a gas sLaLlon Lo lubrlcaLe Lhe bulldozer, parL of Lhe money ls paylng Lhe gas sLaLlon
owner for Lhe reLall servlces he or she provldes, such as LransporLlng and sLorlng Lhe oll, and havlng
someone Lhere Lo manage Lhe LransacLlon. MosL of Lhe prlce of oll goes Lo Lhe wholesaler and
manufacLurer who produced Lhe peLroleum, reflned lL, and packaged lL for sale. AL each sLage ln Lhe
process, an lnpuL from one flrm ls converLed Lo an ouLpuL of anoLher flrm. 1he ouLpuL of Lhe conLracLor
ls reshaped land, Lhe ouLpuL of Lhe gas sLaLlon ls reLall servlces, and Lhe ouLpuL of Lhe manufacLurer ls
packaged oll. 1he value of Lhese ouLpuLs added LogeLher ls more Lhan Lhe amounL pald Lo Lhe
1hls re-clrculaLlon of money Lhrough Lhe economy ls Lermed Lhe ºmulLlpller effecL." Lach lndusLry has a
unlque paLLern of spendlng whlch depends on lLs mlx of labor and caplLal and Lhe Lypes of raw maLerlals
lL uses. lnpuL-ouLpuL analysls keeps Lrack of Lhese spendlng paLLerns and can be used Lo work ouL Lhe

flow of money from one lndusLry Lo anoLher and esLlmaLe Lhelr mulLlpller. 1he slze of Lhe mulLlpller
depends on Lhe sLudy area consldered. lf Lhe conLracLor needs Lo leave Lhe sLudy area Lo buy oll, all of
Lhe subsequenL LransacLlons Lake place ln oLher dlsLanL economles. 1he ouLpuL of Lhe reflnery would
only be lncluded ln Lhe sLudy area mulLlpller lf Lhe area was lucky enough Lo conLaln a reflnery. 1hls
sLudy used Lhe lMÞLAn sofLware package and daLa represenLlng Lhe sLaLe of Lhe economy ln 2008 as lLs
lnpuL-ouLpuL framework.
lMÞLAn (orlglnally an acronym for ºlMpacL analysls for ÞLAnlng", now a Lrademark for Lhe lMÞLAn
sofLware and daLa) was developed by Lhe u.S. loresL Servlce Lo faclllLaLe reglonal economlc analysls of
foresL plans (lMÞLAn, 2010). lL ls Lhe mosL wldely used and flexlble lnpuL-ouLpuL analysls package
avallable wlLh Lhe mosL currenL daLa for counLy-level analysls. lMÞLAn dlvldes Lhe economy lnLo 440
dlfferenL lndusLry secLors and bullds reglonal economlc models based on counLy level daLa.
1he lnpuL Lo Lhe lnpuL-ouLpuL model ls a spendlng paLLern reflecLlng Lhe amounL a pro[ecL spenL ln each
lndusLry. 1he Servlce malnLalns a daLabase of pro[ecL lnformaLlon, called Pabl1S, whlch lncludes Lhe
conLrlbuLlons from Lhe Servlce and oLher parLners and descrlbes Lhe LreaLmenLs conducLed for each
pro[ecL. 1he llsL lncludes abouL 130 dlfferenL resLoraLlon LreaLmenLs, e.g., dlke or levee consLrucLlon,
dlLch plug removal, llvesLock crosslng consLrucLlon, fenclng, and lnvaslve planL conLrol. Lach Lype of
LreaLmenL allocaLes dlfferenL percenLages of lLs spendlng Lo dlfferenL lndusLrles. We developed spendlng
paLLerns for each resLoraLlon LreaLmenL by lndusLry from sample budgeLs of pasL pro[ecLs and experL
oplnlon. 1he spendlng paLLern serves as a ºcrosswalk" from resLoraLlon LreaLmenL Lypes Lo lMÞLAn
lndusLrles. 1able 1 shows Lyplcal spendlng paLLerns used for each class of LreaLmenL. 1he 440 dlfferenL
lndusLry caLegorles used by lMÞLAn are broadly deflned so many dlsparaLe LreaLmenL spendlng paLLerns
are lndlsLlngulshable when spendlng ls allocaLed Lo lMÞLAn lndusLry. lor example, all of Lhe earLh
movlng and consLrucLlon acLlvlLles musL be classlfled ln Lhe lMÞLAn lndusLry ºConsLrucLlon of oLher new
nonresldenLlal sLrucLures."


1ab|e 1. 1reatment types w|th IMÞLAN budget
1reatment 1ype
A||ocated Sector* IMÞLAN Industry
100 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces
13 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

83 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
llre ManagemenL
100 Ag
SupporL acLlvlLles for agrlculLure and foresLry
llsh/AquaLlc Specles Þassage 13 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

83 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
Crazlng/larm ManagemenL
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Ag
CaLLle ranchlng and farmlng
Pazard 8emoval
100 Servlces
WasLe managemenL and remedlaLlon servlces
Puman use Lxcluslon
100 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
lnfrasLrucLure 8emoval
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Servlces
WasLe managemenL and remedlaLlon servlces
lnsLream ModlflcaLlon
13 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

83 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
lnvaslve ConLrol
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Ag
SupporL acLlvlLles for agrlculLure and foresLry
Llvlng Shorellnes
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 ConsLn Sand, gravel, clay, and ceramlc and refracLory mlnerals
mlnlng and quarrylng
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Ag
SupporL acLlvlLles for agrlculLure and foresLry
8ecreaLlon and LducaLlon
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
Specles 1ranslocaLlon
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Servlces
CLher supporL servlces
vegeLaLlon ManagemenL
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 Ag
SupporL acLlvlLles for agrlculLure and foresLry
WaLer ManagemenL
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
Wlldllfe PablLaL SLrucLures
10 Servlces
LnvlronmenLal and oLher Lechnlcal consulLlng servlces

90 ConsLn
ConsLrucLlon of oLher new nonresldenLlal sLrucLures
*Ag=AgrlculLure and relaLed lndusLrles, ConsLn=ConsLrucLlon and mlnlng, Servlces=All oLher servlce lndusLrles

Lach secLor has unlque effecLs on mulLlpllers. ÞlanLlng pro[ecLs, for example, use agrlculLural secLors
LhaL Lend Lo use large numbers of relaLlvely low wage workers. Pence, Lhey creaLe more [obs per
Lhousand dollars spenL Lhan oLher pro[ecLs. WaLer managemenL pro[ecLs LhaL bulld sLrucLures generaLe
fewer buL beLLer paylng [obs. More of Lhelr spendlng ls for machlnery and supplles LhaL are produced ln
only a few reglons so Lhey Lend Lo have smaller local or reglonal mulLlpllers. 1he plannlng elemenL of a
pro[ecL uses servlce lndusLrles whose prlmary lnpuL ls skllled labor so Lhe [obs mulLlpller ls small buL Lhe
ouLpuL mulLlpller can be subsLanLlal.

1he sLrucLure of Pabl1S dlcLaLes a furLher approxlmaLlon. ln Pabl1S, a pro[ecL conslsLs of one or more
accompllshmenLs. Lach accompllshmenL conslsLs of one or more LreaLmenLs. Whlle Lhe LreaLmenLs
descrlbe Lhe work Lo be done, Lhe flnanclal lnformaLlon ls gaLhered aL Lhe accompllshmenL level. lor
each accompllshmenL, we added LogeLher Lhe percenLage spendlng paLLerns for lLs consLlLuenL
LreaLmenLs and dlvlded by Lhe number of LreaLmenLs. 1haL process gave equal welghL Lo each LreaLmenL
ln allocaLlng Lhe accompllshmenL spendlng Lo lndusLrles even Lhough one LreaLmenL may have Laken a
dlsproporLlonaLe share of Lhe achlevemenL's spendlng.
1hls sLudy has Lwo parLs. 1he flrsL parL of Lhe sLudy addresses lmpacLs by sLaLe of l?2011 spendlng.
MosL accompllshmenLs were asslgned Lo a sLaLe ln Pabl1s. lor Lhose LhaL were noL ldenLlfled Lo a sLaLe,
we used geographlc lnformaLlon sysLem (ClS) daLa LhaL showed Lhe ouLllne of Lhe pro[ecL on Lhe ground
and ldenLlfled Lhe sLaLe from Lhe geographlc locaLlon. Several pro[ecLs had nelLher ClS lnformaLlon nor
sLaLe on Lhelr Pabl1S record and were asslgned Lo an ºCLher" caLegory. All of Lhe accompllshmenLs ln
each sLaLe were glven spendlng paLLerns and spendlng was summed by lMÞLAn lndusLry Lo Lhe sLaLe
level. 1hls provlded lnpuL Lo an lMÞLAn model of each sLaLe. Spendlng lncluded boLh Lhe Servlce and
parLners' cash conLrlbuLlons. 1he resulLs should be lnLerpreLed as Lhe conLrlbuLlon of pro[ecLs LhaL
lnvolved Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms.
1he second parL of Lhe sLudy conslders eleven sample ÞlW pro[ecLs and four sample CoasLal Þrogram
pro[ecLs. 1hese pro[ecLs are represenLaLlve of several dlfferenL reglons. Lach sample pro[ecL shows
dlfferenL challenges ln slze, scope, parLlclpanLs, fundlng, and locaLlon. 1he LreaLmenL spendlng paLLerns
ouLllned above were clrculaLed Lo Lhe fleld pro[ecL managers. Lach manager reflned Lhe spendlng
paLLern as needed Lo reflecL Lhelr vlew of Lhe pro[ecL spendlng ln each lndusLry. 1he economlc reglons
for Lhe sample pro[ecLs encompassed nearby shopplng and markeLlng areas, usually Lhe counLy where
Lhe pro[ecL was locaLed and some ad[acenL counLles. All spendlng and pro[ecL lnformaLlon was from
l?2011 Lhough some pro[ecL fundlng may have come from earller granLs and allocaLlons.


=(/($ 7$0,4(0

1ables 2 and 3 show ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms spendlng, respecLlvely, across sLaLes. lor some pro[ecLs,
oLher Servlce programs, such as Lndangered Specles, also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe pro[ecL. 1hese funds are
shown ln Lhe ºCLher Servlce" column. ln mosL sLaLes, spendlng by oLher enLlLles exceeds Lhe cash
conLrlbuLlon of Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms. Leverage lndlcaLes Lhe effecLlveness of ÞlW or CoasLal
Þrogram spendlng aL encouraglng oLhers Lo parLlclpaLe flnanclally, or oLherwlse, ln resLoraLlon pro[ecLs.
1he Lable does noL lnclude pro[ecL funds LhaL were spenL on proLecLlon acLlvlLles. valulng Lhe economlc
beneflLs of easemenLs ls beyond Lhe scope of Lhls reporL. 1he leverage raLlo ls Lhe LoLal spendlng dlvlded
by ÞlW or CoasLal Þrogram spendlng shown ln Lhe far rlghL column of 1ables 2 and 3. 1here ls a wlde
range of leverage raLlos across sLaLes due Lo Lhe varleLy of fundlng sources and mechanlsms used for
each pro[ecL.
1hese Lables do noL lnclude ln-klnd servlces from Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrograms or Lhelr parLners. ln-
klnd servlces are ofLen Lhe mosL lmporLanL conLrlbuLlon of Lhe programs as Lhey organlze deslgn,
permlLLlng, and conLracLlng buL Lhey are noL equlvalenL Lo spendlng ln a reglonal economlcs conLexL.
lor Lhe l?2011 ÞlW Þrogram, Lhe average leverage raLlo, welghLed by amounL of spendlng, was 8.6.
1haL ls, for every dollar LhaL Lhe ÞlW program spenL on a pro[ecL Lhey were able Lo have parLners
conLrlbuLe $8.63. 1he ÞlW program ln ConnecLlcuL had Lhe hlghesL leveraglng raLlo. lor every dollar
LhaL Lhe ConnecLlcuL ÞlW program conLrlbuLed Lo a pro[ecL, a LoLal of $384.96 was also conLrlbuLed by
parLners. 1he ÞlW Þrograms ln SouLh Carollna, Malne, and WesL vlrglnla also commanded hlgh
leveraglng raLlos of 119.09, 118.62, and 92.67, respecLlvely. 1he CoasLal Þrogram welghLed average
leverage for l? 2011 ls sllghLly lower aL 6.28. 1hls LranslaLes Lo parLner conLrlbuLlons of $6.28 for every
$1 Lhe CoasLal Þrogram spends on pro[ecLs. 1he CoasLal Þrogram ln Alaska and 8hode lsland had Lhe
hlghesL leveraglng raLlo aL 42.96 and 22.04, respecLlvely.


1ab|e 2. Þartners for I|sh and W||d||fe Þro[ects Spend|ng by State, comp|eted |n I¥2011
($ ln Lhousands, 2011)

ÞarLners 1oLal
Alabama 132 73 206 309 313 3.89
Alaska 883 - 883 3,367 4,230 4.81
Arlzona 376 - 376 1,433 1,811 4.82
Arkansas 204 - 204 113 317 1.33
Callfornla 1,969 1,981 3,930 19,907 23,837 12.12
Colorado 169 203 372 730 1,102 6.32
ConnecLlcuL 23 909 934 8,690 9,624 384.96
uelaware 60 - 60 703 763 12.73
llorlda 287 336 823 861 1,684 3.87
Ceorgla 1,474 104 1,377 337 2,114 1.43
Pawall 894 2,222 3,116 739 3,873 4.33
ldaho 414 430 844 993 1,839 4.44
llllnols 127 47 174 102 276 2.17
lndlana 203 19 222 168 390 1.92
lowa 289 91 380 177 337 1.93
kansas 137 128 283 33 320 2.04
kenLucky 93 - 93 148 243 2.36
Loulslana 194 - 194 287 481 2.48
Malne 82 4,344 4,626 3,101 9,727 118.62
Maryland 1,229 446 1,674 3,313 3,187 4.22
MassachuseLLs 76 1,030 1,106 1,283 2,391 31.46
Mlchlgan 447 110 337 490 1,047 2.34
MlnnesoLa 482 142 624 1,297 1,921 3.99
Mlsslsslppl 198 - 198 936 1,134 3.73
Mlssourl 38 87 143 232 397 6.84
MonLana 247 146 393 1,183 1,378 6.39
nebraska 243 103 330 1,184 1,334 6.26
nevada 412 20 432 284 716 1.74
new Pampshlre 9 - 9 - 9 1.00
new !ersey 31 - 31 842 893 17.31
new Mexlco 166 63 231 34 283 1.72
new ?ork 17 - 17 867 884 32.00
norLh Carollna 608 13 623 817 1,440 2.37
norLh uakoLa 136 213 371 4,192 4,363 29.23
Chlo 187 3 191 243 434 2.32
Cklahoma 408 100 308 331 839 2.11
Cregon 1,389 1,231 2,619 8,781 11,400 8.21
Þennsylvanla 62 2 64 1,936 2,020 32.38
8hode lsland - - - 1,100 1,100 -

ÞarLners 1oLal
SouLh Carollna 193 14 207 22,778 22,983 119.09
SouLh uakoLa 447 349 796 607 1,403 3.14
1ennessee 267 8 273 132 427 1.60
1exas 1,000 479 1,479 6,980 8,439 8.46
uLah 84 23 108 229 337 4.01
vermonL 33 39 92 689 781 14.74
vlrglnla 84 10 94 962 1,036 12.37
WashlngLon 1,249 7,266 8,313 11,361 19,876 13.91
WesL vlrglnla 3 - 3 273 278 92.67
Wlsconsln 629 132 761 687 1,448 2.30
Wyomlng 49 - 49 87 136 2.78
ulsLrlcL of
Columbla* - - - 20 20 -
Carlbbean* 36 - 36 91 147 2.63
1oLal 18,393 23,328 41,919 118,973 160,892 8.63
lMÞLAn models were noL avallable for Lhese LerrlLorles so conLrlbuLlon was esLlmaLed uslng Lhe
average mulLlpllers of all of Lhe oLher sLaLes.


1ab|e 3. Coasta| Þrogram Þro[ects Spend|ng by State*, comp|eted |n I¥2011
($ ln Lhousands, 2011)

Servlce Þro[ecL ÞarLners 1oLal
Alabama 84 - 84 76 160 1.90
Alaska 134 - 134 3,623 3,737 42.96
Callfornla 333 403 740 1,304 2,244 6.70
ConnecLlcuL 33 - 33 326 339 10.88
uelaware 23 - 23 33 76 3.30
llorlda 634 9 663 2197 2860 4.37
Pawall 31 - 31 101 132 2.98
lndlana 47 - 47 7 34 1.13
Loulslana 43 - 43 17 60 1.40
Malne 173 109 284 243 327 3.01
Maryland 22 9 31 31 62 2.82
MassachuseLLs 20 - 20 - 20 1.00
Mlchlgan 68 63 133 343 478 7.03
Mlsslsslppl 40 - 40 - 40 1.00
new !ersey 42 - 42 9 31 1.21
norLh Carollna 23 - 23 23 30 2.00
Cregon 33 10 43 261 304 9.21
8hode lsland 98 3 103 2,037 2,160 22.04
SouLh Carollna 132 - 132 13 143 1.10
1exas 361 39 400 972 1,372 3.80
WashlngLon 340 - 340 1,886 2,226 6.33
Carlbbean 37 - 37 46 103 1.81
1oLal 2,817 631 3,468 13,792 19,260 6.28
*1he Lable lncludes only SLaLes LhaL recelved fundlng ln l?2011. CLher SLaLes are also ellglble for CoasLal
Þrogram fundlng and may have recelved ln-klnd servlces.


1ables 4 and 3 summarlze Lhe resulLs of Lhe sLaLe lMÞLAn models for Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram,
respecLlvely. 1he flrsL column repllcaLes Lhe program speclflc conLrlbuLlons. 1he second column
dupllcaLes Lhe ºLoLal" column, represenLlng Lhe sum of boLh Lhe program speclflc conLrlbuLlons and
parLner conLrlbuLlons from 1ables 2 and 3. 1hls ls Lhe amounL of sLlmulus provlded by Lhe resLoraLlon
pro[ecLs ln Lhe sLaLe. 1he oLher four columns are Lhe resulLs of Lhe sLaLe lMÞLAn model based on Lhe
lndusLrles presenL ln Lhe sLaLe, average wages, and Lax raLes.
Lach of Lhese columns has a speclflc economlc meanlng LhaL may noL be lnLulLlvely clear. ºCuLpuL" ls Lhe
overall measure of producLlon ln Lhe sLaLe economy relaLed Lo Lhe cascadlng effecL of resLoraLlon
spendlng and lncludes Lhe sum of Lhe 3 levels of economlc effecLs derlved from lnpuL-ouLpuL analysls.
lor example, for Lhe Alabama ÞlW Þrogram Lhe ºdlrecL spendlng" ls Lhe $313,000 spenL on pro[ecLs,
whlch lncludes $132,000 ln ÞlW program spendlng and $383,000 ln maLchlng parLner funds. lL
generaLed $849,000 ln furLher rounds of spendlng by Lhe conLracLors (dlrecL effecL), Lhelr suppllers
(lndlrecL effecL), and Lhelr employees (lnduced effecLs). ºLmploymenL" refers Lo Lhe number of [obs
creaLed and/or supporLed by Lhe new ouLpuL. 1he number of [obs depends on Lhe wages and labor
condlLlons ln Lhe lndusLrles generaLlng Lhe ouLpuL. Low wage/labor lnLenslve lndusLrles wlll produce
more new [obs Lhan hlghly pald/caplLal lnLenslve ones. lMÞLAn's deflnlLlon of º!obs" lncludes parL-Llme
and llmlLed perlod [obs so Lhls number should be LhoughL of as a ºball park" esLlmaLe raLher Lhan a full-
Llme equlvalenL value. ºLabor lncome" ls Lhe lncrease ln wages pald Lo workers Lo produce Lhe
addlLlonal ouLpuL. ln Alabama, $303,000 was pald Lo 13.2 addlLlonal workers. ºlndlrecL 8uslness 1axes"
are Lhe comblnaLlon of exclse, sales, and properLy Laxes Lo buslnesses. 1hey do noL lnclude employer
conLrlbuLlons Lo soclal securlLy lnsurance or Laxes on lncome. 1hey provlde an lndlcaLor of new revenue
Lo governmenL enLlLles from Lhe resLoraLlon pro[ecLs.
naLlonally, ln l? 2011, Lhe ÞlW Þrogram conLrlbuLed $18.6 mllllon, leveraged a LoLal of $142 mllllon for
a comblned LoLal of $161 mllllon spenL on ÞlW program pro[ecLs. lor every $1 LhaL Lhe ÞlW program
conLrlbuLed Lo a pro[ecL, Lhe program generaLed $13.70 ln economlc reLurns. ln l? 2011 alone, Lhe LoLal
economlc sLlmulus creaLed by Lhe ÞlW program amounLed Lo $292 mllllon ln ouLpuL and 3,347 new
[obs. lor Lhe CoasLal Þrogram, a LoLal of $2.8 mllllon of program funds leveraged $16.4 mllllon for a
comblned LoLal of $19.2 mllllon spenL on CoasLal Þrogram pro[ecLs. lor every $1 LhaL Lhe CoasLal
Þrogram conLrlbuLed Lo a pro[ecL, Lhe program generaLed $12.78 ln economlc reLurns. 1he LoLal
economlc sLlmulus creaLed by Lhe CoasLal Þrogram equals $33.9 mllllon ln ouLpuL and 473 [obs.
1he mulLlpller effecL of resLoraLlon spendlng on ouLpuL ls abouL 1.9 (=ouLpuL/spendlng) for mosL sLaLes.
1hese resulLs are ln Lhe Lyplcal range for sLaLe mulLlpllers. 1ables 6 and 7 summarlze Lhe sLaLe
mulLlpllers and dlsLrlbuLlon of spendlng by secLor. Callfornla, wlLh a hlghly dlverse and large lnLernal
economy, generaLed a mulLlpller of 2.1 for Lhe ÞlW Þrogram. WashlngLon, MassachuseLLs, and Cregon
also reporL hlgher mulLlpllers Lhan oLher sLaLes due Lo Lhe dlverslLy of lLs economy. lor Lhe CoasLal
Þrogram, Loulslana had Lhe hlghesL mulLlpller of 4.03 wlLh Lhe sLaLe of Callfornla and WashlngLon


1ab|e 4. Contr|but|on of the Þartners Þrogram |n W||d||fe Þro[ect Spend|ng by State, comp|eted |n
($ ln Lhousands, 2011, excepL employmenL)

lncome CuLpuL
Alabama 132 313 13.2 303 849 26
Alaska 883 4,230 97.3 2,724 6,973 177
Arlzona 376 1,811 36.2 1,439 3,204 98
Arkansas 204 317 7.7 272 313 14
Callfornla 1,969 23,837 333.6 23,718 31,107 1,389
Colorado 169 1,102 17.2 740 1,739 31
ConnecLlcuL 23 9,624 92.1 6,172 13,741 414
uelaware 60 763 8.6 323 723 20
llorlda 287 1,684 31.0 1,438 2,967 98
Ceorgla 1,474 2,114 44.9 1,434 3,727 113
Pawall 894 3,873 77.0 2,183 4,332 133
ldaho 414 1,839 40.6 1,399 3,196 81
llllnols 127 276 3.8 206 311 13
lndlana 203 390 6.4 233 382 16
lowa 289 337 9.0 280 682 18
kansas 137 320 3.1 211 463 13
kenLucky 93 243 4.4 166 368 9
Loulslana 194 481 11.9 404 826 24
Malne 82 9,727 144.4 6,989 18,172 419
Maryland 1,229 3,187 168.6 4,840 8,630 272
MassachuseLLs 76 2,391 26.7 1,982 4,761 126
Mlchlgan 447 1,047 18.8 743 1,873 33
MlnnesoLa 482 1,921 29.7 1,318 3,407 94
Mlsslsslppl 198 1,134 33.7 1,013 1,843 33
Mlssourl 38 397 4.3 137 399 12
MonLana 247 1,378 27.3 1,033 2,732 69
nebraska 243 1,334 24.3 920 2,429 60
nevada 412 716 16.3 372 1,197 33
new Pampshlre 9 9 0.3 11 16 1
new !ersey 31 893 19.2 802 1,700 48
new Mexlco 166 283 7.3 209 429 12
new ?ork 17 884 10.2 638 1,670 43
norLh Carollna 608 1,440 33.0 1,186 2,343 76
norLh uakoLa 136 4,363 84.1 2,867 6,343 172
Chlo 187 434 9.3 297 733 20
Cklahoma 408 839 21.3 624 1,386 37
Cregon 1,389 11,400 233.0 9,388 22,236 611
Þennsylvanla 62 2,020 23.2 1,264 3,439 90

lncome CuLpuL
8hode lsland - 1,100 13.7 736 2,003 31
SouLh Carollna 193 22,983 820.6 24,330 39,013 1,308
SouLh uakoLa 447 1,403 18.3 821 2,246 32
1ennessee 267 427 47.6 188 701 19
1exas 1,000 8,439 221.6 7,704 13,777 310
uLah 84 337 3.4 208 368 17
vermonL 33 781 17.4 372 1,363 33
vlrglnla 84 1,036 18.8 373 1,693 49
WashlngLon 1,249 19,876 384.9 17,444 40,313 1,178
WesL vlrglnla 3 278 3.3 138 412 8
Wlsconsln 629 1,448 30.6 1,082 2,383 63
Wyomlng 49 136 1.3 39 202 3
ulsLrlcL of
Columbla* - 139 3.3 122 263 8
Carlbbean* 36 147 0.2 7 13 0
1oLal 18,393 160,872 3,347 134,762 291,636 8,321
*lMÞLAn models were noL avallable for Lhese LerrlLorles so conLrlbuLlon was esLlmaLed
uslng Lhe average mulLlpllers of all of Lhe oLher sLaLes.


1ab|e S. Contr|but|on of Coasta| Þrogram Þro[ect Spend|ng by State, comp|eted |n I¥2011
($ ln Lhousands, 2011, excepL employmenL)

Þrogram 1oLal
lncome CuLpuL
Alabama 84 160 3.3 117 242 7
Alaska 134 3,737 146.7 3,664 9,223 240
Callfornla 333 2,244 36.3 2,438 4,973 133
ConnecLlcuL 33 339 3.8 236 649 17
uelaware 23 76 1.3 33 133 3
llorlda 634 2,860 106.0 2,973 3,889 196
Pawall 31 132 3.4 128 286 8
lndlana 47 34 1.0 39 84 2
Loulslana 43 60 3.3 117 242 7
Malne 173 327 8.0 363 983 23
Maryland 22 62 1.7 36 109 3
MassachuseLLs 20 20 0.1 9 20 1
Mlchlgan 68 478 3.6 297 829 22
Mlsslsslppl 40 40 0.9 29 63 2
new !ersey 42 31 1.2 49 98 3
norLh Carollna 23 30 1.1 40 89 3
Cregon 33 304 4.6 218 600 13
8hode lsland 98 2,160 33.1 1,702 3,917 108
SouLh Carollna 132 143 3.3 117 242 7
1exas 361 1,372 29.8 1,160 2,630 83
WashlngLon 340 2,226 36.1 1,781 4,432 141
Carlbbean 37 103 2.3 84 191 6
19,260 473.3 13,691 33,947 1,030
*1he Lable lncludes only sLaLes LhaL recelved fundlng ln l?2011. CLher sLaLes are also ellglble for
CoasLal Þrogram fundlng and may have recelved ln-klnd servlces.


1he º!obs per $ mllllon" shows Lhe number of [obs creaLed per mllllon dollars of spendlng. 1he hlghesL
[obs mulLlpllers for Lhe ÞlW Þrogram were ln SouLh Carollna (33.7), new Pampshlre (33.3), and
Maryland (32.3) where mosL of Lhe resLoraLlon fundlng wenL Lo Lhe agrlculLural secLor. Slmllarly Lhe
hlghesL [ob mulLlpllers for Lhe CoasLal Þrogram were ln Loulslana (33), llorlda (37.1), and Ceorgla (33).
Whlle Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of spendlng by secLor lnfluences Lhe number of [obs creaLed, wage raLes ln Lhe
sLaLe and Lhe slze of Lhe sLaLe economy are also lmporLanL. 1he lowesL [obs mulLlpllers occur ln hlgh
wage ConnecLlcuL (9.6), new ?ork (11.3), and Þennsylvanla (11.3) for Lhe ÞlW Þrogram. lor Lhe CoasLal
Þrogram Lhe hlgh wage sLaLes also had Lhe lowesL [obs mulLlpllers and lncluded MassachuseLLs (3),
ConnecLlcuL (10.6), and Mlchlgan (11.7).

1ab|e 6. Sector Spend|ng and Mu|t|p||ers by State, for ÞIW Þro[ects comp|eted |n I¥2011.
° share of spendlng by secLor MulLlpllers
AgrlculLure ConsLrucLlon Servlces
!obs per
$ mllllon
Alabama 73 12 13 1.63 29.3
Alaska 19 66 14 1.64 22.9
Arlzona 33 34 12 1.77 20.0
Arkansas 67 23 11 1.62 24.3
Callfornla 41 39 21 2.14 22.4
Colorado 28 39 33 1.38 13.6
ConnecLlcuL - 83 13 1.64 9.6
uelaware 33 49 16 0.93 11.2
llorlda 61 29 10 1.76 30.3
Ceorgla 32 18 29 1.76 21.2
Pawall 34 34 12 1.12 19.9
ldaho 38 37 23 1.74 22.1
llllnols 33 36 11 1.83 13.8
lndlana 60 29 12 1.49 16.4
lowa 84 7 9 1.22 16.2
kansas 72 6 23 1.43 13.9
kenLucky 28 17 33 1.31 18.1
Loulslana 64 27 10 1.72 24.7
Malne 0 0 100 1.87 14.8
Maryland 79 9 12 1.67 32.3
MassachuseLLs 0 32 68 1.99 11.2
Mlchlgan 26 62 12 1.79 18.0
MlnnesoLa 29 34 16 1.77 13.3
Mlsslsslppl 78 13 10 1.63 29.7
Mlssourl 64 26 10 1.01 11.3
MonLana 19 48 33 1.73 17.4

° share of spendlng by secLor MulLlpllers
AgrlculLure ConsLrucLlon Servlces
!obs per
$ mllllon
nebraska 31 22 27 1.38 13.8
nevada 37 32 11 1.67 22.8
new Pampshlre 90 - 10 1.78 33.3
new !ersey 36 31 12 1.90 21.3
new Mexlco 31 22 27 1.31 23.6
new ?ork 3 82 14 1.89 11.3
norLh Carollna 38 26 16 1.77 24.3
norLh uakoLa 83 6 11 1.43 18.4
Chlo 48 41 11 1.69 21.4
Cklahoma 36 34 9 1.61 24.8
Cregon 27 60 13 1.93 20.4
Þennsylvanla 3 83 12 1.70 11.3
8hode lsland - 83 13 1.82 12.3
SouLh Carollna 90 0 10 1.70 33.7
SouLh uakoLa 14 33 34 1.60 13.2
1ennessee 32 37 11 1.64 17.8
1exas 63 22 12 1.87 26.2
uLah 16 48 36 1.69 16.0
vermonL 32 36 13 1.73 22.3
vlrglnla 48 37 13 1.61 17.8
WashlngLon 27 36 17 2.03 19.4
WesL vlrglnla 8 73 19 1.48 12.6
Wlsconsln 47 37 16 1.63 21.1
Wyomlng 30 28 42 1.49 11.0


1ab|e 7. Sector Spend|ng and Mu|t|p||ers by State, for Coasta| Þrogram Þro[ects comp|eted |n I¥2011

° share of spendlng by secLor MulLlpllers

AgrlculLure ConsLrucLlon Servlces
!obs per
$ mllllon
Alabama 43 43 10 1.31 20.6
Alaska 23 18 39 1.60 23.3
Callfornla 47 32 20 2.22 23.2
ConnecLlcuL 0 81 19 1.81 10.6
uelaware 20 70 10 1.78 17.1
llorlda 66 18 16 2.06 37.1
Ceorgla 90 - 10 1.74 33.0
lndlana 71 - 29 1.36 18.3
Loulslana 90 - 10 4.03 33.0
Malne 2 26 72 1.87 13.2
Maryland 34 34 12 1.67 26.2
MassachuseLLs - - 100 1.00 3.0
Mlchlgan - 83 13 1.73 11.7
Mlsslsslppl 43 43 10 1.63 22.3
new !ersey 42 24 34 1.92 23.3
norLh Carollna 43 43 10 1.78 22.0
Cregon 3 83 12 1.97 13.1
Þennsylvanla 78 - 22 1.93 30.0
8hode lsland 30 36 14 1.81 23.3
SouLh Carollna 90 - 10 1.67 22.8
1exas 44 43 11 1.93 21.7
WashlngLon 18 47 36 1.99 16.2


=/6C4$ .)&8$9(0
llgure 1 lllusLraLes where boLh Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal Þrogram pro[ecLs hlghllghLed ln Lhls sLudy were

!"#$%& () *+,-."+/0 +1 2-345& 6%+7&,.0

./)('$)0 -&) 1*0# /'2 3*424*-$ =/6C4$ .)&8$9(0
1en ÞlW pro[ecLs were chosen Lo lllusLraLe Lhe varlaLlon ln scope, slze, parLners, and organlzaLlon of
ÞlW pro[ecLs. All of Lhese pro[ecLs were compleLed ln l?2011. Spendlng reflecLs l?2011 expendlLures
whlch may have been approprlaLed or granLed ln prlor years. 1he pro[ecLs' spendlng ls lncluded ln Lhe
sLaLe analyses above buL here lL ls applled Lo a smaller nearby reglon. 1hese resulLs cannoL be added Lo
Lhe sLaLe resulLs above. 1yplcally, smaller reglons have smaller mulLlpller effecLs. Money spenL ln a small
reglon leaves very qulckly slnce Lhere are fewer lndusLrles wlLhln Lhe reglon Lo recycle lL. 1he money
conLlnues Lo flow ln Lhe wlder economy buL we see fewer of lLs effecLs when we focus ln closely.


!"#$%& 8) 9&%"-5 0&&:"/# .+ %&0.+%& 0-#&;%$0<
%-/#&5-/:0=6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& @) A%&-.&% 2-#&BA%+$0&C
6<+.+ D%&:".) 2.&E& !-"%;-"%/ = >2!?2
A|ka|| W||df|re kestorat|on, Co|orado
Sage grouse are consldered Lhe marquee specles for Lhe sagebrush rangelands. 1he dlsLrlbuLlon and
abundance of sage grouse has markedly decreased ln
recenL Llmes, and Lhe specles has been exLlrpaLed
from Arlzona, nebraska and 8rlLlsh Columbla. Sage
grouse populaLlons have decllned by one-Lhlrd over
Lhe pasL 30 Lo 40 years (8raun 1998). Sagebrush
hablLaLs are becomlng lncreaslngly degraded and
fragmenLed due Lo Lhe lmpacLs of mulLlple LhreaLs,
lncludlng dlrecL converslon, urbanlzaLlon, wlldflre and
Lhe change ln wlldflre frequency, lncurslon of lnvaslve
planLs, overgrazlng, and energy developmenL. Many
of Lhese LhreaLs are exacerbaLed by cllmaLe change.
ln Lhe fall of 2010, Lhe ºAlkall" wlldflre consumed
8,000 acres of mosLly prlvaLe lands ln norLhwesLern
Colorado. Some locaLlons LhaL burned exLremely hoL became open Lo lnvaslon by noxlous vegeLaLlon
lncludlng cheaLgrass. Areas domlnaLed by cheaLgrass:
• provlde low quallLy hablLaL for wlldllfe specles rellanL upon Lhe sage-sLeppe,
• lncrease wlldflre frequency, and
• reduce forage quallLy for all grazlng anlmals.
1hls pro[ecL planLed 1,249 burned over acres wlLh naLlve forbs, grasses, and brush Lo sLop cheaLgrass
lnvaslon and enhance hablLaL condlLlons. no domesLlc llvesLock grazlng ls permlLLed ln Lhe area for Lwo
years afLer planLlng Lo allow Lhe naLlve mlx Lo become
1he u.S. ueparLmenL of AgrlculLure naLural 8esource
ConservaLlon Servlce (n8CS), Colorado SLaLe ulvlslon
of Wlldllfe (CuCW), 8ocky MounLaln 8lrd CbservaLory
(8M8C), and Lhe Servlce worked LogeLher on Lhls
pro[ecL as parL of Lhe n8CS Sage Crouse lnlLlaLlve.
1able AW-1 shows how $12,961 from Lhe ÞlW
program leveraged $308,000 more fundlng from Lhe
n8CS, Lhe sLaLe of Colorado, and Lhe 8ocky MounLaln
8lrd CbservaLory. 1hls pro[ecL ls a greaL example of
bulldlng reslllency ln Lhe sysLem Lo adapL Lo Lhe effecLs
of cllmaLe change. 1he area wlll serve as a long-Lerm
resLoraLlon for Lhe sage grouse. LsLabllshmenL of Lhe naLlve undersLory wlll demoblllze soll, sLore
carbon, and provlde hlgh-quallLy hablLaL. As an alLernaLlve Lo a cheaLgrass monoculLure, Lhe varleLy of
specles presenL offer greaLer opporLunlLles for Lhe ecosysLem Lo adapL as Lhe cllmaLe changes causlng
wlldflres and droughLs Lo become more frequenL.

1hls work ls llkely Lo lmprove fuLure grazlng opporLunlLles buL lL also provldes an lmmedlaLe economlc
sLlmulus Lo Lhose who worked on lL as shown on 1able AW-2. 1he area around Lhe burn ls remoLe and
Lhlnly populaLed so Lhere ls relaLlvely llLLle esLabllshed buslness lnfrasLrucLure Lo keep spendlng
clrculaLlng ln Lhe area. Cf Lhe $321,600 spenL $4,700 lefL Lhe reglon lmmedlaLely so Lhe dlrecL lmpacL
was $316,900. 1he spendlng ln plannlng servlces and agrlculLure-relaLed pracLlces generaLed 4.8 [obs
dlrecLly and an addlLlonal 0.8 [obs as lL flowed Lhrough Lhe economy. As Lhe spendlng passed from
buslness Lo buslness, lL produced $421,900 ln ouLpuL. Supplles are lmporLed and personal spendlng
qulckly flows ouL of Lhe reglon so Lhe mulLlpller effecL ls qulLe small.

1ab|e AW-1. A|ka|| W||df|re kestorat|on - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
uSuA - naLural 8esource ConservaLlon Svce $ 264,847 ---
Colorado - ulvlslon of Wlldllfe 33,013 ---
8ocky MounLaln 8lrd CbservaLory 3,827

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram 12,961 40 sLaff-days
1121 CllmaLe Change 3,001 ---
1oLal $ 321,649 40 sLaff-days

1ab|e AW-2. A|ka|| W||df|re kestorat|on - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 140.6 145.2 4.0 4.1
Mlnlng --- 0.0 --- ---
ConsLrucLlon --- 0.5 --- ---
ManufacLurlng --- 0.3 --- ---
1ransporLaLlon --- 9.7 --- ---
1rade --- 22.4 --- 0.4
Servlce 176.3 241.3 0.8 1.2
CovernmenL --- 2.5 --- ---
1oLal 316.9 421.9 4.8 5.6

noLe: 8ecause of Lhe way labor daLa ls collecLed, lMÞLAn [obs flgures represenL Lhe number of poslLlons
creaLed- full-Llme, parL-Llme, seasonal, and lnLermlLLenL. lMÞLAn does noL esLlmaLe full-Llme equlvalenL


!"#$%& F) G&E&#&.-."+/ H+%I -5+/# .<& >44&% A"5- G"E&%=
6<+.+ >2!?2
Apache Grove k|par|an kestorat|on, Ar|zona
1he Clla 8lver ls one of Arlzona's ma[or
rlvers. lL orlglnaLes ln Lhe Clla naLlonal
loresL of new Mexlco, and flows wesL
Lhrough Arlzona Lo Lhe Culf of Callfornla. ln
2008, Amerlcan 8lvers llsLed Lhe Clla 8lver
as one of Lhe counLry's mosL endangered
rlvers. Amerlcan 8lvers focused on Lhe
uppermosL reaches of Lhe Clla, where Lhe
rlver sLlll flows freely and where lush
rlparlan areas are comprlsed of
coLLonwoods, wlllows, and sycamores. 1he
upper Clla sLlll harbors a mosLly lnLacL
naLlve-flsh populaLlon and ls home Lo an
array of wlldllfe, lncludlng Lhe LhreaLened
SouLhwesLern wlllow flycaLcher (ímplJooox
ttolllll extlmos). 1he Clla flood plaln ls crlLlcal hablLaL for Lhe flycaLcher. An acLlon lLem ln lLs recovery
plan ls Lo resLore Lhe physlcal and blologlcal lnLegrlLy of Lhe rlparlan zone down rlver Lo provlde more
flycaLcher hablLaL.
larmers and ranchers llvlng along or near Lhe upper Clla 8lver have soughL ways Lo enhance Lhe healLh
and vlgor of Lhelr land. 1hey have Lrled a number of alLernaLlves wlLh varylng degrees of success. ln
many cases Lhere have been unlnLended consequences, lncludlng laLeral mlgraLlon of Lhe channel,
upsLream or downsLream effecLs, and eroslon.

1he cooperaLor became lnLeresLed ln sLablllzlng hls properLy along Lhe rlver afLer he losL farmland from
Lhe laLeral mlgraLlon of Lhe rlver and eroslon durlng large sLorms. A reglonal fluvlal geomorphology
sLudy speclflcally referenced Lhe cooperaLor's properLy as an area where resLoraLlon acLlvlLles could
beneflL Lhe sLream funcLlon by allowlng for Lhe seasonal flow varlaLlons whlch preserve and susLaln
naLlve vegeLaLlon. Worklng wlLh Craham CounLy and Lhe Clla WaLershed ÞarLnershlp, Lhe cooperaLor
developed Lhls pro[ecL Lo lmplemenL recommendaLlons ln Lhe sLudy. ln 2007, Lhe group won fundlng
from Lhe Arlzona WaLer ÞroLecLlon lund Þrogram (AWÞl) - a sLaLe program whlch provldes funds Lo
resLore and enhance rlparlan areas ln Arlzona. AWÞl provlded Lhe ma[orlLy of fundlng for Lhls pro[ecL.

1he pro[ecL ls locaLed on Lhe upper Clla 8lver ln ?ork valley, a few mlles upsLream of Lhe Lown of CllfLon,
Arlzona. 1he SouLhwesLern wlllow flycaLcher ls known Lo breed above and below Lhe pro[ecL slLe on Lhe
Clla 8lver. 1he ulLlmaLe goal of Lhls pro[ecL was Lo resLore Lhe naLural dlverslLy of fluvlal processes whlch
wlll allow a dlverse assemblage of naLlve planLs Lo become esLabllshed and creaLe beLLer flycaLcher
hablLaL. 1he pro[ecL accompllshed Lhls by:
• resLorlng Lhe funcLlon of Lhe floodplaln along Lhe rlver by removlng levees,
• reduclng Lhe rlsk of laLeral eroslon and land loss Lo Lhe ad[acenL prlvaLe properLy,

!"#$%& J) 2+$.<H&0.&%/ H"55+H 15K,-.,<&%=
6<+.+) L-E& M&/I& >2!?2
• managlng Lhe lnvaslve salL cedar communlLy Lo lmprove Lhe rlparlan hablLaLs and sLream
funcLlon, and
• provldlng a successful example for oLher landowners along Lhe upper Clla 8lver.
1he speclflc on-Lhe-ground acLlvlLles Lo accompllsh Lhese goals used local heavy equlpmenL operaLors
and oLher conLracLors Lo compleLe Lhe followlng componenLs:
• 8emoval of Lhe exlsLlng earLhen levees: An esLlmaLed 3,000 feeL of exlsLlng earLhen levee were
mechanlcally excavaLed, reLurnlng Lhe ground Lo lLs naLural grade, and re-vegeLaLed wlLh naLlve
• lnsLall overbank hedgerows: A serles of vegeLaLlve
"hedgerows" were planLed ln Lhe agrlculLural flelds
perpendlcular Lo Lhe sLream flow. 1he hedgerows
conslsL of relaLlvely sLlff buL supple woody
vegeLaLlon LhaL fllLers and slows overbank flood
flows and prevenLs eroslon. 1he rows are lald ouL so
crops grown Lhere can sLlll be harvesLed efflclenLly.
• SLablllze sLream banks: ApproxlmaLely 2,000 feeL of
sLream bank was acLlvely erodlng or aL rlsk. verLlcal
or sLeep banks ln Lhese areas were re-sloped Lo a
lesser angle and LreaLed wlLh sLrucLural and
bloenglneerlng pracLlces. naLlve rlparlan vegeLaLlon
was used Lo sLablllze Lhe upper porLlons of Lhe
sLream banks provldlng wlldllfe hablLaLs.
• lnvaslve Specles ManagemenL: 1he exlsLlng rlparlan vegeLaLlon along Lhe Clla 8lver wlLhln Lhe
pro[ecL area ls a mlx of naLlve specles and Lhe lnvaslve, non-naLlve salL cedar (1omotlx ssp). 1o
mlnlmlze lmpacLs Lo Lhe exlsLlng naLlve specles, Lhe salL cedar was removed by hand crews uslng
chaln saws and LreaLed wlLh an herblclde applled Lo freshly cuL sLumps.
• 8e-vegeLaLlon: 8e-vegeLaLlon wlLh naLlve rlparlan planL specles ls an lmporLanL componenL of
all pro[ecL acLlvlLles. A varleLy of bloenglneerlng pracLlces were used Lo sLablllze sLream banks
and enhance wlldllfe hablLaLs. 8loenglneerlng pracLlces are generally lnsLalled manually. Local
wlllow and oLher specles are harvesLed and used Lo sLablllze banks. All dlsLurbed areas wlLhln
Lhe pro[ecL were reseeded uslng naLlve grasses.
• ConsLrucLlon: Peavy equlpmenL was used for sloplng banks, removlng levees, and oLher earLh-
worklng Lasks durlng consLrucLlon. Lvery efforL was made Lo mlnlmlze Lhe lmpacLs of
consLrucLlon equlpmenL on Lhe slLe.
1he pro[ecL was funded by $796,700 from prlvaLe lndlvlduals and supporLed by slx days of ln-klnd work
from Lhe ÞlW program. All of Lhese acLlvlLles employ local workers wlLh a varleLy of skllls. 1helr lncome
flows Lhrough Lhe local economy provldlng addlLlonal lncome and creaLlng more [obs.


1ab|e AG-1. Apache Grove - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
Arlzona WaLer ÞroLecLlon lund Þrogram $ 796,700 ---

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram --- 6 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 796,700 6 sLaff-days

1hls pro[ecL requlred conslderable earLh movlng whlch ls classlfled under Lhe consLrucLlon secLor ln
1able AC-2. Peavy equlpmenL uses a greaL deal of fuel. Slnce no oll ls produced ln Lhe reglon all of lL ls
lmporLed. 1hls creaLes a large draln on Lhe amounL of money LhaL reclrculaLes locally, reduclng Lhe
dlrecL spendlng from $796,700 Lo $698,800. ln addlLlon, consLrucLlon uses more equlpmenL and hlgher
pald workers Lhan agrlculLure, for example, so Lhe number of [obs produced ls less per $100,000 of
spendlng. lf consLrucLlon produced [obs aL Lhe same raLe as agrlculLure, Lhe pro[ecL would have
produced 14.7 dlrecL consLrucLlon [obs lnsLead of 4.2. 1he addlLlonal [obs added as ouLpuL grows Lo
$874,100 are added ln lndusLrles ouLslde of consLrucLlon and agrlculLure slnce Lhey prlmarlly serve Lhe
needs of Lhe added famllles and noL consLrucLlon or agrlculLure.

1ab|e AG-2. Apache Grove - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 83.6 85.5 2 2
Mlnlng --- 0 --- 0
ConsLrucLlon 615.3 617.2 4.2 4.2
ManufacLurlng --- 1.6 --- 0
1ransporLaLlon --- 9.5 --- 0.1
1rade --- 35.4 --- 0.4
Servlce --- 119.2 --- 1.1
CovernmenL --- 5.7 --- 0
1oLal 698.8 874.1




!"#$%& N) ?&.5-/: %&0.+%-."+/ H+%I -. 2$:;$%K
?&.5-/:= 6<+.+) >2!?2
8ert k. Sudbury Wet|and, Vermont
CLLer Creek ls vermonL's longesL rlver and lLs dralnage lncludes lmporLanL hablLaL for a varleLy of
specles. 1he weLlands assoclaLed wlLh CLLer Creek provlde breedlng or mlgraLory hablLaL for black ducks,
blue-wlnged Leal, wood ducks, sollLary sandplpers, Amerlcan woodcock, golden-wlnged warblers and
black-crowned nlghL herons. Many of Lhe weLlands ln Lhe area have been cleared, dlLched and dralned.
Cver Lhe lasL flve years, Lhe Servlce has worked closely wlLh n8CS, uucks unllmlLed and Lhe SLaLe of
vermonL Lo preserve and resLore weLlands along CLLer Creek. 1hese pro[ecLs represenL a sLraLeglc efforL
Lo lmprove wlldllfe hablLaL ln vermonL Lhrough
parLnershlps and a hollsLlc approach Lo conservaLlon.
1he floodplaln slLe was dlLched and dralned for
agrlculLure many years ago. 1he pro[ecL resLored Lhe
mlcroLopography of Lhe slLe by creaLlng a depresslon,
fllllng ln Lhe dlLches and plugglng an ouLleL. 8y
resLorlng Lhe hydrology of Lhe weLland and
dlsconLlnulng Lhe agrlculLural use of Lhe slLe, Lhe
hlsLorlc weLland vegeLaLlon and funcLlonlng of Lhe
slLe can be resLored. MlgraLory blrds, lncludlng
waLerfowl, shoreblrds, wadlng blrds and passerlnes,
amphlblan hablLaL and overall waLer quallLy
beneflLed from Lhls resLoraLlon.
1he Servlce worked closely wlLh Lhe uSuA n8CS
Lhrough Lhe WeLland 8eserve Þrogram (W8Þ) Lo
recover Lhe slLe. 1he W8Þ compensaLes farmers who
converL marglnal farmland back Lo weLlands. 1he Servlce provlded Lechnlcal asslsLance for Lhe pro[ecL
LhaL lncluded an lnlLlal slLe vlslL and assessmenL, elevaLlonal survey, weLland deLermlnaLlon, revlew of
hlsLorlc maps and flles, pro[ecL deslgn, sLaLe and federal permlLLlng, pro[ecL layouL, consLrucLlon
overslghL, consulLaLlon wlLh n8CS englneers and an lnlLlal planLlng plan.

1ab|e 8kS-1. 8ert k. Sudbury Wet|and - kesources.
Monetary In-k|nd
uSuA/naLural 8esource
ConservaLlon Servlce
$27,000 ---

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram --- 7 sLaff-days
1oLal $27,000 7 sLaff-days

AlLhough small ln area, Lhe 8erL 8. Sudbury weLland pro[ecL was key Lo lmprovlng Lhe hablLaL ln Lhe
reglon. lL also provlded a small boosL for agrlculLural workers ln Lhe area. 1he orlglnal $27,000 ln
spendlng reclrculaLed Lhrough Lhe economy Lo generaLe nearly $44,000 ln ouLpuL and 0.9 [obs.


1ab|e 8kS-2. 8ert k. Sudbury Wet|and - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 15.2 15.5 0.6 0.6
Mlnlng --- 0.1 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon 9.0 9.2 0.1 0.1
ManufacLurlng --- 1.4 --- 0.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 1.5 --- 0.0
1rade --- 2.5 --- 0.0
Servlce 2.7 13.1 0.0 0.1
CovernmenL --- 0.5 --- 0.0
1oLal 26.9 43.8




!"#$%& O) P$E&/"5& D+<+ 2-53+/= 6<+.+) G+#&% Q-;+%R >2!?2
8|ttner nouse on Campbe|| Creek, A|aska

Campbell Creek supporLs a popular recreaLlonal flshery for coho salmon ln Lhe hearL of Anchorage,
Alaska. lL supporLs a greenbelL of parks and provldes hablLaL for flve specles of Þaclflc salmon. llshlng
Lralls along Lhe banks had compacLed solls and desLroyed bankslde vegeLaLlon and [uvenlle salmon
rearlng hablLaL. 1he creek eroded Lhe banks unLll an ouLslde bend came wlLhln 30 feeL of Lhe hlsLorlc
8lLLner Pouse and nearby recreaLlon faclllLles owned by Lhe MunlclpallLy of Anchorage, ueparLmenL of
Þarks and 8ecreaLlon. A common soluLlon Lo Lhls Lype of eroslon ls Lo rlp-rap Lhe sLream bank, l.e. llne
Lhe bank wlLh flsL slze sLones, whlch prevenLs furLher eroslon buL also desLroys any remalnlng flsh
hablLaL. SomeLhlng needed Lo be
done Lo proLecL boLh Lhe flshery and
Lhe clLy's faclllLles.
1he MunlclpallLy could fund Lhe
pro[ecL buL needed advlce on
meeLlng lLs mulLlple goals of
provldlng [uvenlle salmon hablLaL,
naLural sLreambank resLoraLlon wlLh
flshlng access, and proLecLlng a
hlsLorlc slLe and lnfrasLrucLure. 1hey
Lurned Lo Lhe ÞlW Þrogram for
flnanclal and Lechnlcal asslsLance.
1he Servlce conLracLed wlLh a local
englneerlng flrm Lo survey, deslgn,
and obLaln permlLs for a bank
resLoraLlon pro[ecL. 1he goal was Lo
consLrucL woody f|sh hab|tat and stab|||ze the streambank near Lhe park lnfrasLrucLure. 1he deslgn
conslsLed of 100 feeL of rooLwads (rooLballs from fallen Lrees), a brush layer and oLher bloenglneerlng
LreaLmenLs LhaL boLh enhanced near bank hablLaL and provlded eroslon proLecLlon. 1he MunlclpallLy of
Anchorage managed Lhe consLrucLlon of Lhe pro[ecL.
CompleLlon of Lhe pro[ecL provlded enhanced [uvenlle salmon rearlng hablLaL as well as proLecLlon for
Lhe Þarks and 8ecreaLlon bulldlng ln close proxlmlLy Lo Lhe creek. ln Lhls example, Lhe ÞlW Þrogram
played a key role ln enhanclng salmon hablLaL ln an urban area by provldlng Lechnlcal experLlse and
access Lo Lhe mosL up-Lo-daLe bank sLablllzaLlon Lechnlques. A relaLlvely small lnvesLmenL by Lhe Servlce
leveraged a large lmpacL on Lhe resource.


1ab|e 8n-1. 8|ttner nouse - Campbe|| Creek - kesources.
Monetary In-k|nd
MunlclpallLy of Anchorage, Ak
Alaska ueparLmenL of llsh and

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram 13,000 2 sLaff-days
1oLal $63,000 2 sLaff-days

1he 8lLLner Pouse porLlon of Lhe Campbell Creek pro[ecL was compleLed ln 2011. Servlce spendlng for
Lhls pro[ecL focused on Lhe consulLanLs developlng Lhe deslgn and navlgaLlng Lhe permlLLlng process. ln
addlLlon Lo conLracLlng, Lhe Servlce was also Lhe lead for pro[ecL deslgn, as well as ouLreach Lo Lhe clLy's
Salmon ln Lhe ClLy lnlLlaLlve. 1he MunlclpallLy of Anchorage hlred conLracLors Lo do Lhe earLh movlng,
place Lhe rooLwads, and replanL Lhe area. 1hls spendlng creaLed work ln Lhe communlLy. AlLhough
pro[ecLs of Lhls small slze do noL generaLe long careers, Lhey keep consulLanLs and conLracLors
employed. As shown ln 1able 8P-2, dlrecL spendlng generaLed Lhree LenLhs of a [ob ln Lhe consLrucLlon
lndusLry and abouL slx LenLhs of a [ob ln all lndusLrles as Lhe spendlng clrculaLed ln Lhe Anchorage
economy. ulrecL spendlng was focused ln Lhe consLrucLlon and servlces secLors. 1hese lndusLrles also
galned Lhe mosL as spendlng flowed Lhrough Lhe economy. 1rade and manufacLurlng also galned from
clrculaLlon of Lhe added lncome. Lnsurlng good flsh hablLaL susLalns flsh producLlon, resulLlng ln galns ln
Lhe flshlng lndusLry servlce economy, an exLremely lmporLanL secLor of Alaska's economy.

1ab|e 8n-2. 8|ttner nouse - Campbe|| Creek - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure --- 0.1 --- ---
Mlnlng --- 1.2 --- ---
ConsLrucLlon 38.3 38.7 0.3 0.3
ManufacLurlng --- 3.8 --- ---
1ransporLaLlon --- 3.1 --- ---
1rade --- 4.7 --- ---
Servlce 6.3 28.3 --- 0.2
CovernmenL --- 0.8 --- ---
1oLal 63.0 100.7 0.4 0.6


!"#$%& S) *+/#5&-1 4"/& <-;".-.= 6<+.+) 2C M"55&%R >2!?2
!"#$%& T) A+4<&% Q+%.+"0&= 6<+.+) G-/:K U%+H/"/#R >2!?2
8oy Scouts, M|ss|ss|pp|
Much of Lhe Culf coasLal plaln was
orlglnally longleaf plne foresL. Clearlng
for agrlculLure and Llmber producLlon
greaLly reduced Lhls key hablLaL. 1lmber
producLlon ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL land
use ln souLhern Mlsslsslppl. lollowlng
Lhe lnlLlal harvesL of naLlve longleaf plne,
much of Lhe area was reforesLed Lo fasL
growlng shorL roLaLlon plne lncludlng
lmproved varleLles of loblolly and slash
plne. WlLhouL Lhe open grown, flre-
dependenL sLands of longleaf plne,
several wlldllfe specles lncludlng gopher
LorLolse, black plne snakes, gopher frogs,
and red-cockaded woodpeckers have
losL Lhelr crlLlcal hablLaL.

1he SouLheasL Loulslana Councll of Lhe 8oy ScouLs of Amerlca owns Lhe 1,600 acre Salmen ScouL
8eservaLlon/Camp v-8ar near Sellers, Mlsslsslppl. 1he 8eservaLlon ls largely second growLh foresL afLer
logglng. 1he Councll had lnauguraLed a pro[ecL Lo resLore Lhe area Lo longleaf plne for Lhe beneflL of
LrusL specles. 1he Servlce provlded Lechnlcal experLlse and fundlng, whlle Lhe ScouLs provlded Lhe bulk
of Lhe fundlng and labor Lo planL Lhe replacemenL Lrees.
ln 2011, Lhe pro[ecL addressed
resLoraLlon of longleaf on 46 acres of
Llmber land. 1he slLe requlred an
herblclde LreaLmenL and a burn prlor Lo
planLlng. 8urnlng or planLlng cannoL be
conducLed wlLhln 60 days of herblclde
appllcaLlon. ConLalnerlzed longleaf
seedllngs were Lhen hand planLed wlLh
an 8 fooL by 10 fooL spaclng.


1ab|e 8S-1. 8oy Scouts - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
8oy ScouLs of Amerlca $ 17,980 ---
Mlsslsslppl llsh and Wlldllfe
2,137 ---

llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 CllmaLe Change 4,378 3 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 24,313 3 sLaff-days

AlmosL all of Lhe spendlng for Lhls pro[ecL occurred ouLslde of Lhe local reglon so dlrecL lmpacLs are
$9,000 less Lhan spendlng and Lhe mulLlpller ls less Lhan 1. Slmllarly, Lhe [obs resulLs lndlcaLe no
mulLlpller effecL. Whlle Lhe economlc beneflLs of Lhls pro[ecL are smaller ln comparlson Lo oLher
pro[ecLs, Lhe Lrue value of Lhls pro[ecL was Lhe lnvolvemenL of 8oy ScouL ?ouLhs, Lhe local communlLy
and Lhe hablLaL beneflL Lo Lhe local wlldllfe.

1ab|e 8S-2. 8oy Scouts - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 13.5 13.7 0.4 0.4
Mlnlng --- 0.0 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon --- 0.1 --- 0.0
ManufacLurlng --- 0.2 --- 0.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 0.6 --- 0.0
1rade --- 1.3 --- 0.0
Servlce 1.6 6.4 0.0 0.1
CovernmenL --- 0.2 --- 0.0
1oLal 15.1 22.4




!"#$%& (V) W-0. 95-I-" !+%&0.= 6<+.+) >2!?2
Last A|aka| Þrotect|ve Ience, nawa||

1he Pawallan lslands are more Lhan 2,000 mlles from Lhe nearesL land mass. 8efore human dlscovery,
Lhey were among Lhe mosL lsolaLed ecosysLems ln Lhe world. 1he lsland hablLaLs range from Lroplcal raln
foresL Lo hlgh alLlLude volcanoes. lsolaLlon comblned wlLh a wlde varleLy of hablLaLs led Lo a unlquely
adapLed fauna and flora wlLh an lncredlble number of specles found only ln Pawall. Slnce Luropean
seLLlemenL, a wlde varleLy of planLs and anlmals have
been lnLroduced Lo Lhe lslands compeLlng wlLh naLlve
specles and changlng Lhe ecosysLem. kaual has more
slngle lsland endemlc planL specles (223) Lhan any
oLher lsland ln Lhe Pawallan archlpelago and ls also a
hoLspoL for avlan dlverslLy wlLh elghL endemlc foresL
specles. ln 2010 Lhe Servlce deLermlned endangered
sLaLus for 48 specles and deslgnaLed 26,382 acres of
crlLlcal hablLaL on Lhe lsland of kaual uslng an
ecosysLem-based approach. leral ungulaLes and
lnvaslve planLs are Lhe prlmary LhreaLs Lo rare and
endangered specles and overall ecosysLem healLh.
lorLunaLely, researchers have found LhaL endemlc
ecosysLems recover qulckly once Lhese LhreaLs are

1he purpose of Lhls pro[ecL was Lo proLecL and resLore
2,000 acres (1,403 acres prlvaLe land and 393 acres
SLaLe land) of foresLed waLershed ln Lhe Alakal reglon
of Lhe lsland of kaual. known as woo okoo or ºrealm
of Lhe gods," Lhe Alakal plaLeau has always been a
sacred and lmporLanL place for Lhe people of kaual,
and ls Lhe prlmary source of Lhe lsland's freshwaLer.
1hese foresLed weLlands and bogs are cruclal for Lhe
survlval of kaual's remalnlng foresL blrds.

1he resLoraLlon pro[ecL enLalled Lhe lnsLallaLlon of 26,400 feeL of fence Lo resLrlcL feral plgs from
accesslng Lhe foresL and allow naLural regeneraLlon of naLlve planLs. ÞlW fundlng pald for 10,000 feeL of
fence Lraverslng prlvaLe lands ln Lhe Alakal Wllderness Þreserve. Lndangered Specles 8ecovery fundlng,
also from Lhe u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce, pald for fenclng on ad[acenL SLaLe lands, llsLed ln 1able LA-1.
An adapLlve managemenL sLraLegy Lo remove feral plgs and goaLs wlll be lmplemenLed ln Lhe pro[ecL
area. lnvaslve planLs wlll be conLrolled Lo Lhe greaLesL exLenL posslble uslng Lhe laLesL Lechnologles ln
weed mapplng, hand and aerlal LreaLmenL.

1hls pro[ecL lmplemenLs a porLlon of Lhe kaual WaLershed ManagemenL Þlan, a larger pro[ecL Lo address
LhreaLs on over 8,000 acres of naLlve hablLaL. 1he kaual WaLershed Alllance ls a publlc-prlvaLe
parLnershlp of landowners whose mlsslon ls Lo proLecL Lhe upper waLershed of Lhe lsland of kaual. A
LoLal of 29 LhreaLened and endangered specles beneflLed from Lhe pro[ecL, lncludlng several rare planLs
wlLh only a few lndlvlduals lefL ln Lhe wlld.

1hls pro[ecL was conducLed from 2009 Lhrough 2011. 1he naLure Conservancy maLched Servlce ÞlW
fundlng, as shown ln 1able LA-1. lundlng was also drawn from Lhe Servlce Lndangered Specles program.
AbouL $492,000 of Lhe spendlng occurred ln 2009. 8y 2011, Lhe hablLaL was already lmprovlng. lor

!"#$%& (() W-0. 95-I-" 0$33". X 1&/,"/#=
6<+.+) >2!?2
slmpllclLy, we conslder all of Lhe spendlng and
lmpacLs over Lhe Lhree-years of Lhe pro[ecL.
lenclng ls classlfled as a consLrucLlon acLlvlLy
whlle lnvaslve specles conLrol ls prlmarlly
agrlculLural, so Lhose Lwo caLegorles recelve
Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe spendlng ln 1able LA-2. As
Lhe spendlng flows Lhrough Lhe economy,
Lrade, LransporLaLlon, and oLher servlces also
galn. !obs are measured ln Lerms of poslLlons
creaLed over Lhe Lhree year perlod. MosL [obs
are ln Lhe relaLlvely low paylng agrlculLural
secLor. kaual has 1,100 agrlculLural workers
and 7° unemploymenL (u.S. Census 8ureau,
2011). Lven a few more [obs are useful Lo Lhe
economy. 1he $964,164 spenL on Lhls pro[ecL
generaLed $1,334,100 ln ouLpuL lnLo Lhe

1ab|e LA-1. Last A|aka| Ience - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
1he naLure Conservancy $ 336,082 ---

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram 336,082 30 sLaff-days
1113 Lndangered Specles 8ecovery 292,000 ---
1oLal $ 964,164 30 sLaff-days

1ab|e LA-2. Last A|aka| Ience - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 374.1 392.2 21.0 21.2
Mlnlng --- 2.6 --- ---
ConsLrucLlon 273.9 281.3 1.7 1.7
ManufacLurlng --- 23.7 --- 0.1
1ransporLaLlon --- 48.8 --- 0.3
1rade --- 86.3 --- 1.0
Servlce 110.7 301.9 0.9 4.4
CovernmenL --- 17.0 --- 0.1
1oLal 938.7 1,334.1 23.6 28.8

nancock Spr|ngs, Wash|ngton

!"#$%& (@) Y-/,+,I 24%"/#0R -1.&% %&0.+%-."+/ H+%I
6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& (8) 2.&&5<&-: Z[/,+%<K/,<$0 3KI"00\
6<+.+) >2!?2
Pancock Sprlngs ls a mlle long sprlng creek ln Lhe upper MeLhow 8lver 8asln of cenLral WashlngLon.
Pancock Sprlngs was a hlghly producLlve salmonld sLream before lL was degraded due Lo unresLrlcLed
llvesLock grazlng. no anadromous flsh were found ln Lhe sLream ln 2003 when ?akama naLlon llsherles
sLaff flrsL surveyed Lhe properLy. ln 2006, a pro[ecL of Lhe ?akama naLlon, ÞlW, and Lhe prlvaLe
landowner produced lmmedlaLe resulLs. lL conslsLed of fenclng Lhe sLream from llvesLock and deer,
placlng logs Lo lncrease rlffle veloclLy, and planLlng naLlve shrubs ln Lhe rlparlan zone. Soon Pancock
Sprlngs was produclng Lhe hlghesL denslLy of sLeelhead spawnlng nesLs ln Lhe enLlre MeLhow 8asln. ln
2010, Lhe MeLhow Conservancy brokered a rlparlan and agrlculLural easemenL whlch lncluded a
resLoraLlon agreemenL wlLh Lhe landowner.
1he ob[ecLlves of Lhe pro[ecL were Lo
compleLely resLore Lhe hlsLorlcal form and
funcLlon of Lhe channel and ad[acenL
weLlands Lo provlde hablLaL for sLeelhead,
sprlng chlnook, and rlparlan wlldllfe
specles. 1yplcal of mosL sprlng-fed
sLreams, Pancock Sprlng has a relaLlvely
consLanL dlscharge raLe of 3 - 10 cublc feeL
per second and lLs annual LemperaLure
proflle ls very sLable ln Lhe mld-40ºl's. ln
addlLlon, Lhe sLream has a low-gradlenL,
wlLh an average slope of approxlmaLely
0.1° and has almosL no sedlmenL supply.
1he lack of sedlmenL deposlLlon from
upsLream severely llmlLs Lhe sprlngs'
naLural ablllLy Lo rebulld sLreambanks once
Lhey have eroded. Compared Lo Lhe
ad[acenL malnsLem MeLhow 8lver,
Pancock Sprlngs conLalns cool summer
LemperaLures, warm wlnLer LemperaLures, sLeady sprlng flows, and accesslble rearlng and spawnlng
envlronmenLs LhaL make lL superlor salmonld hablLaL. AlmosL no oLher opporLunlLy llke Lhls exlsLs ln Lhe
MeLhow 8asln.
Servlce sLaff were lnvolved ln every aspecL of
pro[ecL developmenL and compleLed
consLrucLlon of Lhe pro[ecL ln early-SepLember
2011. Servlce asslsLance lncluded all Lopographlc
survey and compleLe englneerlng deslgn work,
naLlve seed collecLlon, compleLlon of all permlLs
and envlronmenLal compllance documenLs,
conLracL developmenL, conLracLor selecLlon, and
hundreds of hours of manual labor and
supervlslon durlng consLrucLlon. When Lhe
Lemporary flsh excluslon barrler was removed
on SepLember 1, 2011, four Lndangered upper
Columbla sprlng Chlnook Salmon lmmedlaLely
swam upsLream lnLo Lhe resLored reach.

!uvenlle and adulL usage by salmon and sLeelhead has been measured aL record hlgh denslLles slnce Lhe
reconsLrucLlon work was compleLed. ln addlLlon, LhreaLened bull LrouL have now been observed
uLlllzlng Lhe sLream ln conslderable numbers for Lhe flrsL Llme ever.
8lologlcal, hydrologlc and physlcal monlLorlng wlll conLlnue as Lhe newly resLored weLland and channel
provlde long-Lerm beneflLs Lo flsh and wlldllfe. 8ulldlng on success, Servlce and ?akama naLlon sLaffs
hope Lo pursue addlLlonal fundlng Lo conLlnue Lhls work lnLo downsLream degraded reaches ln Lhe
comlng years.
1able PS-1 shows resources for boLh Lhe 2006 and 2011 resLoraLlon pro[ecLs.
1ab|e nS-1. nancock Spr|ngs - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
MeLhow Conservancy $ 690,000 ---
8onnevllle Þower AdmlnlsLraLlon 412,676 ---
WA Salmon 8ecovery lundlng 8oard 128,331 ---
?akama naLlon 138,666 $ 10,000

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 - ÞarLners Þrogram 33,708 $81,114
100 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 1,443,401 $ 91,114

100 sLaff-days
noLe: lncludes ?akama naLlon 2006 pro[ecL and 2011 reconsLrucLlon work.
Larly fundlng from Lhe ÞlW program leveraged fundlng from four oLher conLrlbuLors. 1oLal spendlng for
Lhe pro[ecL, lncludlng ln-klnd conLrlbuLlons, was $1,336,300. LarLh movlng falls under Lhe consLrucLlon
lndusLrlal caLegory so mosL of Lhe dlrecL spendlng ls ln LhaL caLegory. lenclng and planLlng are
agrlculLural acLlvlLles. As spendlng by consLrucLlon and agrlculLural workers flows Lhrough Lhe economy,
Lhey demand reLall Lrade and oLher servlces. Pence, Lhe Lrade and servlces secLors have large lndlrecL
lmpacLs. Cverall, Lhe pro[ecL generaLed $2,048,300 ln ouLpuL and 28.4 [obs. ln Lhe fuLure, lmproved
hablLaL condlLlons wlll boosL recreaLlonal flshlng ln Lhe area. 1he added acLlvlLy wlll lead Lo more flshlng
Lrlps and added sales of balL, Lackle, and oLher equlpmenL.
1ab|e nS-2. nancock Spr|ngs - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 326.8 332.7 12.6 12.8
Mlnlng 12.6 13.3 0.1 0.1
ConsLrucLlon 779.4 784.8 5.7 5.7
ManufacLurlng 11.5 23.3 0.0 0.1
1ransporLaLlon --- 31.0 --- 0.1
1rade --- 108.6 --- 1.5
Servlce 317.7 719.7 4.3 7.9
CovernmenL --- 35.2 --- 0.1

!"#$%& (F) *$E&%/& L-3 4%"+% .+ %&3+E-5
6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& (J) L-3 G&3+E-5
6<+.+) >2!?2
1oLal 1,448.0 2,048.5 22.7 28.4
Luverne Dam kemova|, M|nnesota
Low head dams are common sLrucLures ln
Lhe rlvers of souLhern MlnnesoLa. 1he slx
fooL ralsed concreLe sLrucLure creaLes a
smooLh pond and lnvlLlng swlmmlng hole
whlle degradlng flsh hablLaL and lmpedlng
Lhelr movemenL up and downsLream. 1he
dams also remove beneflclal rlffle areas LhaL
help puL oxygen lnLo Lhe waLer and creaLe
mlcrohablLaLs for flsh. 1he shape of Lhe dam
creaLes a LurbulenL, sucLlon zone on Lhe
downsLream slde. Swlmmers can be pulled
underwaLer, become dlsorlenLed, and
drown. ueaLhs are so common Lhe dams
have been called ºdrownlng machlnes."
1he 8ock 8lver dam aL Luverne ln Lhe
souLhwesL corner of MlnnesoLa had Laken Lwo
llves when Lhe clLy and counLy declded Lo
remove lL. 8emovlng Lhe dam and lnsLalllng
rock rlffles LhaL dlrecL Lhe sLream's eroslve energy away from Lhe banks solved boLh Lhe safeLy and
hablLaL lssues. 8emoval of Lhe dam opened approxlmaLely 62 mlles of Lhe maln sLem 8ock 8lver channel
Lo flsh movemenL. 1he 8ock 8lver ls parL of Lhe former range of Lhe 1opeka Shlner (Nottopls topeko), an
endangered mlnnow. 1he rock rlffles provlde poollng hablLaL for flsh spawnlng and rearlng. 1he poollng
also helps ground waLer recharge Lhe clLy's well sysLem whlch lles close Lo Lhe rlver.
ÞarLner fundlng for Lhe pro[ecL came from MlnnesoLa ueparLmenL of naLural 8esources and Lhe ClLy of
Luverne. 8ock CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon ulsLrlcL conLrlbuLed ln klnd. 1he Servlce flnanclal
conLrlbuLlon came from Lhe flsh hablLaL resLoraLlon program. 1he ÞlW program role was Lo faclllLaLe
envlronmenLal and llcenslng revlews necessary for Lhe pro[ecL Lo go forward.
WlLh Lhe hazard removed
and hablLaL lmproved, Lhe
ClLy of Luverne and 8ock
CounLy plan Lo promoLe
more kayaklng and flshlng
on Lhe rlver. 1hls
cooperaLlve pro[ecL of
lederal, SLaLe, and local
enLlLles helped resolve
Lwo slgnlflcanL lssues ln
Lhe communlLy.



1ab|e LD-1. Luverne Dam kemova| - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
MlnnesoLa ueparLmenL of naLural
$ 260,000 $ 7,000
8ock CounLy Soll & WaLer ConservaLlon
--- 23,000
ClLy of Luverne, MlnnesoLa 24,000 20,000

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 - ÞarLners --- 6,000
10 sLaff-days
1334 - PablLaL 8esLoraLlon 80,000 ---
1oLal $ 364,000 $ 38,000
10 sLaff-days
noLe: SLaff-days are moneLlzed ln Lhls example.
uam removal and reshaplng Lhe rlver bed ls a complex process LhaL requlres a greaL deal of heavy
consLrucLlon machlnery. As we have seen ln oLher pro[ecLs, heavy consLrucLlon has a lower mulLlpller
effecL and produces fewer [obs per $100,000 spenL Lhan oLher secLors. 1he Luverne uam pro[ecL funded
Lhree [obs dlrecLly and one more wlLh Lhe mulLlpller effecL. 1he ouLpuL mulLlpller ls also small, Lhe
pro[ecL generaLed $329,200 ln new ouLpuL.

1ab|e LD-2. Luverne Dam kemova| - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure --- 0.4 --- 0.0
Mlnlng --- 0.0 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon 368.9 369.7 2.8 2.9
ManufacLurlng --- 2.6 --- 0.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 10.4 --- 0.1
1rade --- 27.0 --- 0.3
Servlce 52.0 115.8 0.3 0.9
CovernmenL --- 3.2 --- 0.0
1oLal 420.9 529.2 3.1 4.2


!"#$%& (J) ]$.%"-=6<+.+) >2!?2
Mary|and Nutr|a Þro[ect
nuLrla (Myocostot coypos) are lnvaslve, seml-aquaLlc, SouLh Amerlcan rodenLs flrsL released lnLo
uorchesLer CounLy, Maryland, ln 1943, Lo encourage Lrade ln lLs furs. nuLrla dld noL evolve ln Lhe
Chesapeake 8ay ecosysLem, so Lhere are no naLural conLrols on lLs populaLlon. Slnce Lhelr release, nuLrla
numbers have lncreased dramaLlcally, lnvadlng aL leasL elghL Maryland counLles and unknown porLlons
of uelaware and vlrglnla. ÞopulaLlons on 10,000 acres of Lhe 8lackwaLer naLlonal Wlldllfe 8efuge grew
from less Lhan 130 anlmals ln 1968 Lo as many as 30,000 ln 1998. nuLrla feed on planL rooLs ln
marshlands. 1helr feedlng desLroys Lhe rooL maLs LhaL hold weLland grasses ln place. Cnce Lhe grasses
are gone Lhe marshland ls evenLually converLed Lo open waLer and resulLs ln Lhe loss of vlLal hablLaLs for
many aquaLlc specles, lncludlng Lhe [uvenlle hablLaLs of many commerclal specles llke sLrlped bass
(Morone saxatilis ) and blue crabs (CalllnecLes sapldus). 8lackwaLer alone has losL half lLs weLlands slnce
Lhe lnLroducLlon of nuLrla.
1he nuLrla LradlcaLlon and
ConLrol AcL of 2003 ls Lhe
culmlnaLlon of many years of
research lnLo nuLrla's effecLs on
Lhe envlronmenL and meLhods
Lo conLrol Lhem. lL auLhorlzes
Lhe expendlLure of $4 mllllon per
year for flve years Lo eradlcaLe
nuLrla from Lhe Chesapeake and
uelaware 8ays.
1he Maryland nuLrla Þro[ecL ls
admlnlsLered by Lhe u.S. llsh
and Wlldllfe Servlce, Chesapeake
8ay lleld Cfflce (C8lC). 1hls
pro[ecL ls a worklng parLnershlp beLween 27 federal, sLaLe, and prlvaLe parLners wlLh a managemenL
Leam comprlsed of Servlce, Maryland ueparLmenL of naLural 8esources, u.S. ueparLmenL of AgrlculLure
Anlmal ÞlanL PealLh lnspecLlon Servlce Wlldllfe Servlces (AÞPlS/WS), u.S. Ceologlcal Survey, and
unlverslLy of Maryland LasLern Shore. 1he relaLed mlsslons of Lhese agencles provlde opporLunlLles Lo
muLually supporL and enhance Lhe effecLlveness of federal wlldllfe relaLed servlces. 1he pro[ecL's goal ls
Lo eradlcaLe or suppress nuLrla populaLlons Lo a polnL where local populaLlons are no longer self-
susLalnlng and coasLal weLland degradaLlon ls so vasLly reduced as Lo allow coasLal marshes Lo be

AÞPlS/WS Wlldllfe SpeclallsLs apply varlous nuLrla conLrol Lechnlques under many dlfferenL condlLlons
Lo eradlcaLe nuLrla from Lhe Chesapeake 8ay reglon. 1hls pro[ecL funds a porLlon of salarles, equlpmenL
and supplles requlred for 19 Wlldllfe SpeclallsLs, a parL-Llme admlnlsLraLlve asslsLanL, a pro[ecL
supervlsor, and addlLlonal Lechnlclans. Slnce 2000, nuLrla have been eradlcaLed from over 130,000 acres
of prlvaLe and publlc land ln uorchesLer CounLy, Maryland - a good sLarL.

!"#$%& (N) >2!?2 -/: 4-%./&%0 H+%I H".< 4%"E-.&
5-/:+H/&%0 +/ /$.%"- &%-:",-."+/ 4%+7&,.0
6<+.+) >2!?2
1rapplng and oLher wlldllfe managemenL
acLlvlLles are lncluded ln Lhe agrlculLural
lndusLry caLegory. 1hese are hlghly labor
lnLenslve Lasks so spendlng generaLes a
subsLanLlal number of [obs. ln addlLlon,
spendlng by workers and Lhelr famllles are
recycled ln Lhe local economy. lamllles
spend more of Lhelr money on servlces and
reLall goods Lhan buslnesses do whlch resulLs
ln large galns ln lndlrecL spendlng for
servlces, Lrade, and manufacLurlng and
generaLes a subsLanLlal mulLlpller effecL. 1he
pro[ecL conLrlbuLed $2,360,000 ln new
ouLpuL Lo Lhe LasLern Shore and generaLed
33.1 much needed [obs.

1ab|e MN-1. Mary|and Nutr|a Þro[ect - kesources.
Monetary In-k|nd
Maryland ueparLmenL of naLural
--- $ 12,000

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram $1,183,720 ---
1124 CoasLal Þrogram --- 20 sLaff-days
1261 8efuge CperaLlons 232,731 10 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 1,436,471 $ 12,000
30 sLaff-days

1ab|e MN-2. Mary|and Nutr|a Þro[ect - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 1,309.4 1,323.9 43.3 43.8
Mlnlng --- 1.3 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon --- 10.4 --- 0.1
ManufacLurlng --- 110.3 --- 0.1
1ransporLaLlon --- 84.8 --- 0.3
1rade --- 178.7 --- 2.1
Servlce 146.9 823.8 0.9 6.3
CovernmenL --- 23.1 --- 0.1
1oLal 1,436.3 2,360.3 46.4 33.1

!"#$%& (O) G&:B,+,I-:&:
?++:4&,I&%=6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& (S) Q<& ]-.$%& D+/0&%E-/,K Q";H"/ ^^
Q%-,. -1.&% 4%&0,%";&: 1"%& =6<+.+) Q]D
1|bw|n II, South Caro||na
Much of SouLh Carollna's uplands were hlsLorlcally domlnaLed by a
longleaf plne ecosysLem. Clearlng for agrlculLure, developmenL, and
suppresslon of Lhe naLural flre cycle has lefL scaLLered LracLs of
longleaf foresL LhroughouL lLs former range. Longleaf plne planL
communlLles and assoclaLed lsolaLed weLlands provlde lmporLanL
hablLaL for many SouLh Carollna prlorlLy specles. lor Lhe Servlce, a
prlmary goal ls resLoraLlon of Lhe federally endangered 8ed-cockaded
Woodpecker (llcolJes boteolls).
ln 2007, 1he naLure Conservancy acqulred Lhe 1lbwln ll LracL from
lnLernaLlonal Þaper whlch had managed lL as a loblolly plne
planLaLlon. 1he 1lbwln ll LracL ls 907-acres of upland plne and foresLed
weLlands ln rldge-and-swale seLLlngs. 1he LracL abuLs u.S. loresL
Servlce lands LhaL are managed for longleaf plne. 1here are Lwo acLlve
clusLers of 8ed-cockaded Woodpeckers wlLhln 0.3 mlles of Lhe LracL.
1he naLure Conservancy ls resLorlng Lhe naLlve longleaf plne
ecosysLem LhaL prevlously domlnaLed Lhe upland coasLal plaln. 1hls
resLoraLlon pro[ecL Lakes advanLage of maLure loblolly plne already on Lhe properLy Lo lnLegraLe Lhe
LracL lnLo Lhe larger expanse of longleaf plne foresL malnLalned by Lhe loresL Servlce. 1he ma[or sLeps

• 1hln 364 acres of maLure loblolly plne
• 1hln 230 acres of younger loblolly sLands
• Apply herblclde Lo reduce hardwood
compeLlLlon, and apply prescrlbed flre.
• under planL ln longleaf plne.
• LllmlnaLe sapllng loblolly plne and
hardwoods from 183 acres and replanL ln
longleaf plne.
• 1reaL hardwoods lnvadlng Lhe lsolaLed
weLlands wlLh herblcldes.
• use prescrlbed flre on a 1 Lo 3 year cycle Lo
malnLaln longleaf planLlngs.


1ab|e 1-1. 1|bw|n II - kesources.
MoneLary ln-klnd
1he naLure Conservancy $39,242

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1121 Þrogram 23,000 10 sLaff-days
1oLal $64,242 10 sLaff-days

loresLry acLlvlLles are classlfled under agrlculLure ln lndusLrlal classlflcaLlon schemes, so mosL of Lhe
spendlng for 1lbwln ll falls ln Lhe agrlculLure caLegory. AgrlculLure ls relaLlvely labor lnLenslve so Lhls
spendlng flows dlrecLly Lo famllles. As wlLh oLher labor lnLenslve lndusLrles, spendlng by workers and
Lhelr famllles are spenL and recycled Lhrough Lhe local economy. lamllles spend more of Lhelr money
on servlces and reLall goods Lhan buslnesses do whlch resulLs ln large galns ln lndlrecL spendlng for
servlces, Lrade, and manufacLurlng and generaLes a subsLanLlal mulLlpller effecL. Cverall Lhe mulLlpller
effecL almosL doubles Lhe conLrlbuLlon of pro[ecL spendlng Lo Lhe ouLpuL of local flrms Lo $113,900 and
added 3.3 new [obs.

1ab|e 1-2.1|bw|n II - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 34.9 33.2 2.9 2.9
Mlnlng --- 0.2 --- ---
ConsLrucLlon --- 0.3 --- ---
ManufacLurlng --- 10.1 --- ---
1ransporLaLlon --- 4.4 --- ---
1rade --- 7.8 --- 0.1
Servlce 3.2 34.6 --- 0.3
CovernmenL --- 1.0 --- ---
1oLal 38.1 113.9 2.9 3.3


!"#$%& @F) W/:-/#&%&: 2-/.-
D-.-5"/- ^05-/: !+_= 6<+.+)
D-.-5"/- ^05-/: D+/0&%E-/,K
Santa Cata||na Is|and, Ca||forn|a
SanLa CaLallna lsland (CaLallna lsland) ls a seml-arld,
MedlLerranean-Lype lsland 22 mlles souLhwesL of Los Angeles,
Callfornla. 1he lsland ls approxlmaLely 48,000 acres ln slze. 1he
lsland ls rugged and domlnaLed by coasLal sage scrub and lsland
chaparral planL communlLles. lLs lsolaLlon has preserved much of
lLs naLlve flora and fauna. 1he lsland has elghL endemlc planL Laxa
found nowhere else and flve specles of endemlc land mammals,
lncludlng Lhe endangered SanLa CaLallna lsland lox (utocyoo
llttotolls cotollooe). 1he CaLallna lsland Conservancy (ClC) owns and
manages 90 percenL of Lhe lsland. lLs purpose ls Lo proLecL and
preserve CaLallna lsland's wlld characLer. ln cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe
Servlce, oLher agencles, and prlvaLe landowners, ClC resLores and
lmproves flsh and wlldllfe hablLaL on Lhe lsland. lnvaslve non-naLlve
planL specles lnLroduced many years ago are spread around Lhe
lsland by seeds dlspersed by cars, Lrucks, and blcycles along Lhe dlrL
roadways on Lhe lsland. 1he ClC resLrlcLs Lravel ln Lhe unseLLled
parLs of Lhe lsland buL lnvaslve planLs conLlnue Lo Lravel along Lhe
road neLwork as a dlsperslon corrldor Lhrough road malnLenance
and occaslonal vehlcle Lrafflc.
1he ClC lnlLlaLed lLs lnvaslve planL program Lo conducL manual and chemlcal conLrol of lnvaslve planL
specles along CaLallna lsland's 223 mlles of roads and Lralls. 1o lmplemenL Lhls pro[ecL, Lhe ClC employed
Lwo conLracLed lnvaslve ÞlanL 8lologlcal 1echnlclans, each wlLh a Lhree or four person crew, whlch
supporLed exlsLlng ClC sLaff and volunLeers from Amerlcan ConservaLlon Lxperlence. 1hls pro[ecL was
funded by CoasLal Þrogram funds and lmplemenLed by sLaff of Lhe ÞlW Þrogram. 1he ÞlW sLaff
provlded Lechnlcal supporL Lo Lhe ClC on Lhe besL resLoraLlon pracLlces Lo employ and asslsLs wlLh
regards Lo wlldllfe LhaL beneflL from Lhe pro[ecL.
1he ClC, along wlLh Lhe Amerlcan ConservaLlon Lxperlence, LreaLed a 200-fooL buffer along all roads and
LransporLaLlon corrldors wlLh herblcldes and manual conLrol meLhods Lo remove lnvaslve planL specles.
1he pro[ecL creaLed a weed-free buffer zone beLween Lhe LransporLaLlon corrldors and Lhe naLlve
hablLaL on Lhe lsland. 1he pro[ecL encompasses approxlmaLely 10,000 acres along Lhe 223 mlles of roads
and Lralls on Lhe lsland. 1he enLlre lsland beneflLs from Lhls pro[ecL vla prevenLlon, eradlcaLlon, and
conLrol of lnvaslve planL specles. 1he LoLal pro[ecL cosL ls $629,730. ClC was awarded $211,000 of
Amerlcan 8elnvesLmenL and 8ecovery AcL (A88A) funds from Lhe Servlce. A88A accounLlng esLlmaLed
LhaL Lhls pro[ecL wlll creaLe [obs for 14 people.


1ab|e CI-1. Santa Cata||na Is|and - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
CaLallna lsland Conservancy $ 83,480
uSuA naLural 8esource ConservaLlon Servlce $ 101,000
Amerlcan ConservaLlon Lxperlence 234,230

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
4133 CoasLal Þrogram - A88A fundlng 211,000 8 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 312,000 $317,730
8 sLaff-days

1hls pro[ecL lllusLraLes Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe remoLe, lsolaLed economles near many pro[ecLs and a
dlverse, lnLegraLed economy. Whlle CaLallna lsland ls lsolaLed, lL ls offshore from Lhe Los Angeles-Crange
CounLy meLropollLan area. MosL of Lhe spendlng relaLed Lo Lhls pro[ecL would occur ln Lhls malnland
area. 1he mulLlpller effecL ls much greaLer Lhan ln more rural slLes slnce servlces and reLall Lrade largely
sLay wlLhln Lhe meLropollLan area. Llke Lhe A88A esLlmaLe, lMÞLAn esLlmaLes LhaL abouL 14 [obs were
creaLed by pro[ecL spendlng. ln addlLlon, Lhe mulLlpller ls greaLer Lhan Lwo so Lhe pro[ecL also generaLes
$1,073,000 ln new ouLpuL.

1ab|e CI-2. Santa Cata||na Is|and - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 420.2 421.4 10.7 10.7
Mlnlng --- 2.8 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon --- 3.9 --- 0.0
ManufacLurlng --- 77.8 --- 0.1
1ransporLaLlon --- 56.4 --- 0.2
1rade --- 79.7 --- 0.7
Servlce 62.9 423.1 0.4 2.9
CovernmenL --- 9.8 --- 0.0
1oLal 483.1 1,075.1 11.1 14.7


%&/0(/4 .)&5)/6 =/6C4$ .)&8$9(0
llve CoasLal Þrogram pro[ecLs were chosen Lo lllusLraLe varlous aspecLs of Lhe program and Lhe lnpuL-
ouLpuL meLhod. 1he pro[ecLs represenL a dlverslLy of resLoraLlon Lechnlques, slze and scope, and
parLnershlps. All of Lhese pro[ecLs were compleLed ln l?2011. Spendlng reflecLs l?2011 expendlLures
unless oLherwlse noLed. 1he pro[ecLs' spendlng ls lncluded ln Lhe SLaLe analyses above buL here lL ls
applled Lo a smaller nearby reglon. 1hese resulLs cannoL be added Lo Lhe SLaLe resulLs above.


!"#$%& (T) ?-E& ;%&-I "/0.-55-."+/ -. U"%: ^05-/: =6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& @V) ?++: 0.+%I0 =6<+.+) >2!?2
!"#$%& @() 24-%."/- 45-/."/# +/ U"%:
^05-/: =6<+.+) >2!?2
8|rd Is|and, I|or|da
1he MC-2 lsland ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL
colonlal waLer blrd rookery lsland ln
MarLln CounLy ln souLheasL llorlda. lL
provldes hablLaL Lo hundreds of
nesLlng and roosLlng blrds, lncludlng
llLLle blue herons, snowy egreLs, Lrl-
colored herons, whlLe lbls, black-
crowned nlghL herons and brown
pellcans. ln 2012, over 8,400 records
of 46 specles of blrds were observed
on or ln Lhe vlclnlLy of Lhe lsland wlLh
13 specles successfully nesLlng. Cf Lhe
240 palrs of blrds nesLlng successfully,
100 were wood sLorks, a federally
llsLed endangered specles.
1he easLern shorellne of Lhe lsland ls
only 300 feeL away from Lhe
lnLracoasLal WaLerway so eroslon from boaL
wakes ls consLanL. uurlng Lhe 2004 and 2003
hurrlcane seasons, many of Lhe maLure
mangroves were uprooLed and dld noL survlve
Lhe sLorms. 8lologlsLs esLlmaLe LhaL more Lhan
30 percenL of Lhe canopy cover of Lhe lsland
has been losL.

Þrlor aLLempLs Lo sLablllze Lhe easLern
shorellne have focused on removlng lnvaslve
vegeLaLlon and planLlng naLlve specles. 1hls
pro[ecL provlded a permanenL wave break
sLrucLure Lo sLablllze approxlmaLely 800 feeL
of shorellne. lL also resLored naLlve mangrove
vegeLaLlon LhroughouL 1.3 acres of Lhe Lwo
acre lsland. ln a few years, Lhe mangroves wlll grow
Lo Lhe helghL LhaL ls preferred by wood sLorks and
oLher colonlal waLer blrds. lnLerpreLlve slgnage has
also been placed Lo educaLe boaLers of Lhe
lmporLance of Lhe lsland and dellneaLe lL as a
"Closed" area. 8oseaLe spoonbllls and greaL whlLe
herons nesLed successfully on 8lrd lsland ln 2012 -
Lhe flrsL recorded nesLlng of elLher specles ln MarLln
CounLy, llorlda.


1ab|e 8I-1. 8|rd Is|and - kesources.
SouLh llorlda WaLer ManagemenL ulsLrlcL $ 100,000
llorlda lnland navlgaLlon ulsLrlcL 130,000
MarLln CounLy, lL - Þarks 76,000
lndlan 8lver Lagoon naLlonal LsLuary Þrogram 88,000
u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1124 CoasLal Þrogram 76,000
1oLal $ 490,000

1able 8l-1 shows Lhe conLrlbuLlons of each parLner Lo Lhe pro[ecL. (none llsLed ln-klnd conLrlbuLlons.) ln
addlLlon Lo Lhe sLlmulus provlded by $490,000 ln spendlng, Lhe resLoraLlon of 8lrd lsland wlll enhance
Lhe experlence of blrdwaLchers Lourlng Lhe area. 1our boaL operaLors LhaL rely on Lhls lsland wlll be able
Lo offer an lmproved producL wlLh more dlverse specles. lf Lhe number of vlslLs lncreases, economlc
beneflLs wlll be reallzed by Lourlsm supporL buslnesses, such as hoLels and resLauranLs LhaL sLlmulus was
noL consldered ln Lhls analysls
1he 8lrd lsland pro[ecL Lapped a more dlverse seL of lndusLrles Lhan mosL oLhers. lnLenslve plannlng
conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe servlce secLor whlle movlng sand and soll for Lhe wave break sLrucLure added Lo
mlnlng. ConsLrucLlon workers lmproved Lhe eroslon proLecLlon of Lhe lsland and agrlculLural workers
removed lnvaslve specles. Cverall, Lhe pro[ecL added $742,600 ln ouLpuL Lo Lhe local economy and 8.8
new [obs.

1ab|e 8I-2. 8|rd Is|and - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 109.7 111.2 4.6 4.6
Mlnlng 36.8 39.0 0.1 0.1
ConsLrucLlon 163.5 165.2 1.1 1.1
ManufacLurlng 16.3 33.9 0.0 0.1
1ransporLaLlon 1.9 29.3 0.0 0.1
1rade --- 33.2 --- 0.3
Servlce 153.1 328.3 1.0 2.3
CovernmenL --- 2.6 --- 0.0
1oLal 481.3 742.6




!"#$%& @() ^/E-0"E& 24&,"&0 G&3+E-5 +/ *-I&
M",<"#-/ ,+-0.-5 :$/&0 =6<+.+) >2!?2

Ind|ana Dunes, Ind|ana
lndlana's Lake Mlchlgan coasLal ecosysLems supporL excepLlonal planL and anlmal dlverslLy, lncludlng
dunes and ad[acenL oak savannas LhaL are home Lo Lhe LhreaLened ÞlLcher's LhlsLle and endangered
karner blue buLLerfly. ApproxlmaLely 30 oLher SLaLe-llsLed specles also occur ln Lhese lmporLanL coasLal
hablLaLs wlLhln lndlana uunes naLlonal Lakeshore.

1hese rare planL and anlmal communlLles
are aL greaL rlsk. lnvaslve planLs have
become well esLabllshed LhroughouL
much of lndlana uunes and recenL
surveys conflrm lnvaslve specles are
qulckly overLaklng Lhe hablLaL. lnvaslve
planLs force ouL naLlve flora and fauna
Lhrough compeLlLlon, resulLlng ln
degradaLlon and evenLual loss of rare
communlLles such as oak savanna,
weLland, pralrle, and foredune.

1hls pro[ecL used CoasLal Þrogram
fundlng Lo remove lnvaslve planLs and
lmprove hablLaL for Lhe karner blue
buLLerfly and ÞlLcher's LhlsLle. lleld sLaff
searched for lnvaslve planLs ln ÞlLcher's
LhlsLle and karner blue buLLerfly hablLaL.
When found, lnvaslve planLs were hand pulled or cuL and herblclde was applled. Wlld luplne ls Lhe sole
food source for larval karner blue buLLerflles. 1he pro[ecL lmproved buLLerfly hablLaL by cuLLlng Lrees
and shrubs Lo Lhln Lhe canopy and lncrease llghL levels needed by wlld luplne. 1he pro[ecL sLaff searched
and LreaLed approxlmaLely 68 acres for non-naLlve planLs. lour acres of karner blue buLLerfly hablLaL
were lmproved Lhrough selecLlve Lhlnnlng of Lrees and shrubs.

1ab|e ID-1. Ind|ana Coasta| Dunes - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
naLlonal Þark Servlce --- $ 8,000

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1124 - CoasLal Þrogram $ 13,000 3 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 13,000 $8,000
3 sLaff-days


!"#$%& @() `-%/&% U5$&
U$..&%15K =6<+.+) 6<"5 L&54<KR >2!?2
unllke Lhe ÞlW Þrogram, Lhe CoasLal Þrogram can fund pro[ecLs on
federal lands. 1hls naLlonal Lakeshore pro[ecL ls an example where
all of Lhe parLlclpanLs are lederal agencles. 1hls small pro[ecL
lnvolved llLLle cash and so shows a small economlc conLrlbuLlon uslng
Lhe lnpuL-ouLpuL meLhod. 1he removal of lnvaslve planLs, however, ls
cruclal Lo Lhe survlval of Lhe karner blue buLLerfly. ln addlLlon,
resLoraLlon efforLs LhaL keep Lhe park healLhy and vlable for wlldllfe
may also sLlmulaLe addlLlonal vlslLors Lo Lhe park whlch would boosL
Lhe local servlce economy.

1ab|e ID-2. Ind|ana Dunes - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 9.7 10.0 0.1 0.1
Mlnlng --- 0.0 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon --- 0.1 --- 0.0
ManufacLurlng --- 0.1 --- 0.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 0.5 --- 0.0
1rade --- 1.0 --- 0.0
Servlce 9.1 15.0 0.1 0.1
CovernmenL --- 0.1 --- 0.0
1oLal 18.8 26.7 0.2 0.2


!"#$%& @@) G&3+E"/# :&%&5",. 1"0<"/# /&.
6<+.+) >2!?2
Þuget Sound Dere||ct I|sh|ng Gear kemova|, Wash|ngton
uerellcL flshlng gear conslsLs of Lhe neLs, llnes, poLs, and
oLher equlpmenL LhaL has been losL or abandoned ln
Lhe marlne envlronmenL. Modern synLheLlc maLerlals
Lake decades Lo degrade ln Lhe waLer and have posed a
real LhreaL Lo noL only wlldllfe buL Lo humans.
Abandoned neLs conLlnue Lo caLch flsh, mammals, and
blrds woundlng or kllllng Lhem. ulvers have become
enLangled and drowned. Þropellers and rudders can be
snagged. Slnce 2002, Lhe norLhwesL SLralLs loundaLlon
(loundaLlon) has lmplemenLed a comprehenslve
program Lo remove derellcL flshlng gear from ÞugeL
Sound and oLher WashlngLon sLaLe waLers.
A flrsL sLep was Lo Lraln a cadre of navy dlvers Lo safely
and efflclenLly remove derellcL flshlng neLs. 1he Lralnlng
was conducLed aL Lhe naLlonal Cceanlc and
ALmospherlc AdmlnlsLraLlon's (nCAA) ulvlng CenLer and
on acLual slLes of deLecLed neLs ln area waLers. 1he
dlvers were from Lxploslve Crdnance ulsposal Moblle
unlL 11 sLaLloned aL Whldbey lsland's Seaplane 8ase.
1hey pracLlced on neLs ln Lake WashlngLon, and
compleLed Lhe Lralnlng by removlng Lwo neLs from Lhe SLralL of Ceorgla.
1he loundaLlon conducLs derellcL flshlng gear removal ln all areas of ÞugeL Sound, Lhe ma[orlLy belng ln
Lhe San !uan lslands. ln one year, Lhe loundaLlon removed 84 glllneLs, flve purse selnes, one huge
aquaculLure neL, and four crab poLs. 8emoval of Lhe neLs and poLs resLored 43.6 acres of marlne hablLaL.
lound ln Lhe gear: seven mammals (all dead), 33 blrds (all dead), 148 flsh (mosLly dead), 12,466
lnverLebraLes (many dead). Surveys each year deLermlne hlgh prlorlLy areas Lo focus on ln fuLure efforLs.
1he loundaLlon follows sLaLe-approved guldellnes for Lhe safe and envlronmenLally-senslLlve removal of
derellcL flshlng gear. 8ecycllng companles and publlc and prlvaLe dlsposal companles are used Lo dlspose
of Lhe neL maLerlals on shore.

1ab|e ÞS-1. Þuget Sound Dere||ct I|sh|ng Gear kemova| - kesources.
Monetary In-k|nd
nCAA Marlne uebrls Þrogram $ 20,000
u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1124 CoasLal Þrogram 20,000 2 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 40,000 2 sLaff-days

!"#$%& @8) G&3+E"/# :&%&5",. ,%-; 4+. "/
6$#&. 0+$/:= 6<+.+) >2!?2
ulvlng and wasLe dlsposal have llLLle ln common buL boLh fall
under Lhe servlces lndusLrlal caLegory. MosL of Lhe mulLlpller
effecL also fell ln Lhe servlces caLegory. Cverall Lhe pro[ecL
generaLed $31,000 ln local economlc ouLpuL and 0.3 new

1ab|e ÞS-2. Þuget Sound Dere||ct I|sh|ng Gear kemova| - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure --- 0.1 --- 0.0
Mlnlng --- 0.0 --- 0.0
ConsLrucLlon --- 0.1 --- 0.0
ManufacLurlng --- 1.7 --- 0.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 1.1 --- 0.0
1rade --- 1.3 --- 0.0
Servlce 36.4 45.9 0.2 0.2
CovernmenL --- 0.8 --- 0.0
1oLal 36.4 51.0 0.2 0.3


!"#$%& @J) 2-/ L"&#+ U-K *&E&& ;%&-,< .+ %&,+//&,.
H-.&%H-K = 6<+.+) >2!?2
South San D|ego 8ay, Ca||forn|a
Cver Lhe pasL 130 years, dredglng and fllllng operaLlons Lo accommodaLe marlLlme and urban
developmenLs have resulLed ln Lhe loss of 42 percenL of San ulego 8ay's hlsLorlc shallow subLldal
hablLaL, 84 percenL of Lhe lnLerLldal mudflaL hablLaL, and 70 percenL of Lhe salL marsh hablLaL. MosL of
Lhe naLlve upland and weLland/upland LranslLlon hablLaL also has been losL Lo developmenL. 1he
purpose of Lhe SouLh San ulego 8ay pro[ecL was Lo reverse Lhls Lrend of hablLaL loss by resLorlng and
enhanclng 300 acres of esLuarlne hablLaLs aL Lhree dlfferenL locaLlons ln SouLh San ulego 8ay.
1he pro[ecL resLored Lldal ecosysLems, expanded and lmproved avlan nesLlng hablLaL, creaLed and
enhanced roosLlng and foraglng hablLaL for seablrds, lmproved waLer quallLy, and creaLed communlLy
sLewardshlp evenLs. 1he largesL pro[ecL underLaklng occurred aL Lhe San ulego 8ay naLlonal Wlldllfe
8efuge managed WesLern SalL Þonds.
Þonds prevlously used for maklng salL
were Laken ouL of salL producLlon,
dredged Lo creaLe elevaLlons sulLable
Lo supporL 223 acres of subLldal,
lnLerLldal, and weLland-upland
LranslLlonal hablLaLs, breached Lo
resLore Lldal exchange, and Lhen
planLed wlLh naLlve planLs. AL Lhe
ÞorL of San ulego (ÞorL) managed
Chula vlsLa Wlldllfe 8eserve, 11 acres
of salL marsh hablLaL was creaLed and
30 acres of lnLerLldal hablLaL was
enhanced by excavaLlng degraded
uplands Lo esLabllsh Lldal channels
and salL marsh elevaLlons, and Lhen
planLed wlLh salL marsh planLs. AL
Lhe ÞorL managed Lmory Cove, non-naLlve vegeLaLlon and debrls were removed from 28 acres of
weLland/upland LranslLlonal hablLaL and Lhen planLed wlLh naLlve vegeLaLlon.
SouLh San ulego 8ay has been deslgnaLed a WesLern Pemlsphere Shoreblrd 8eserve neLwork SlLe and a
Clobally lmporLanL 8lrd Area by Lhe Amerlcan 8lrd Conservancy, because lL supporLs an abundanL and
dlverse array of mlgraLory and resldenL blrds. More Lhan 90 specles of mlgraLory and coasLal dependenL
blrds are currenLly beneflLLlng from Lhls pro[ecL. 1he pro[ecL has expanded nesLlng, foraglng, and
roosLlng areas for shoreblrds, seablrds, waLerfowl, oLher mlgraLory specles, and resldenL weLland blrds.
lederally and/or sLaLe llsLed specles such as Callfornla leasL Lern, llghL-fooLed clapper rall, wesLern
snowy plover, and 8eldlng's savannah sparrow are also beneflLLlng from Lhe recenLly creaLed shallow
subLldal and lnLerLldal hablLaLs. 1he expanded flsh hablLaL has creaLed new spawnlng and feedlng
grounds, Lhereby lmprovlng Lhe foraglng opporLunlLles for flsh-eaLlng blrds. WlLhln days of consLrucLlon
belng compleLe, Lens of Lhousands of shoreblrds (avoceLs, black-necked sLllLs, seml-palmaLed plovers,
pellcans, red-necked heron, eLc.) lmmedlaLely sLarLed uLlllzlng Lhe newly exposed lnLerLldal hablLaL for

!"#$%& @N) 9&%"-5 a"&H +1 ,+345&.&: &_,-E-."+/ .+
,%&-.& H&.5-/:0
roosLlng and foraglng, Lhereby demonsLraLlng how slgnlflcanL Lhls hablLaL resLoraLlon pro[ecL was for
San ulego 8ay and Lhe reglon.
1he pro[ecL was compleLed as a resulL of a
collaboraLlon from 11 dlfferenL federal, sLaLe
and local agencles, and nonproflL
organlzaLlons provldlng elLher fundlng, ln-
klnd servlces, and/or Lechnlcal experLlse. ln
summary, pro[ecL lmplemenLaLlon was
funded by $7,702,000 ln granL or maLchlng
funds. 1he Servlce's CoasLal Þrogram played
an lmporLanL role ln pro[ecL plannlng and
lmplemenLaLlon. 1he CoasLal Þrogram
worked wlLh Lhe pro[ecL parLners ln
successfully applylng for granLs Lo flnance Lhe
pro[ecL, drafLed porLlons of Lhe LnvlronmenLal
AssessmenL Lo fulflll nLÞA requlremenLs,
provlded CoasLal Þrogram funds Lo lmplemenL Lhe pro[ecL prlor Lo granL funds belng avallable, and
parLlclpaLed as a member of Lhe Þro[ecL 1eam for resLoraLlon aL Lhe WesLern SalL Þonds Lo flnallze
pro[ecL deslgn and gulde pro[ecL lmplemenLaLlon.
1ab|e SSD-1. South San D|ego 8ay - kesources.
(2011 $)
Monetary In-k|nd
Callfornla CoasLal Conservancy $ 1,200,000 ---
naLlonal CoasLal WeLlands ConservaLlon CranL 1,000,000 ---
San ulego naLlonal Wlldllfe 8efuge 30,000 ---
naLlonal Cceanlc and ALmospherlc AdmlnlsLraLlon 2,973,000 ---
uS LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency 1,000,000 ---
ÞorL of San ulego
San ulego Audubon SocleLy
San ulego Cceans loundaLlon
Ccean ulscovery lnsLlLuLe
Coronado Cays Pomeowners AssoclaLlon
1,300,000 23,000

u.S. llsh and Wlldllfe Servlce
1124 - CoasLal Þrogram 90,000 91 sLaff-days
1oLal $ 7,613,000 91 sLaff-days

1he modlflcaLlons Lo SouLh San ulego 8ay requlred plannlng, earLh movlng, and planLlng LreaLmenLs
whlch fall lnLo Lhe servlces, consLrucLlon, and agrlculLure lndusLry caLegorles, respecLlvely. San ulego

CounLy has a dlverse lnLegraLed economy so Lhe mulLlpller effecL ls slgnlflcanL, parLlcularly ln Lhe servlce
secLor. 1he $7.7 mllllon pro[ecL generaLed $13.4 mllllon ln addlLlonal ouLpuL and added 130 [obs.

1ab|e SSD-2. South San D|ego 8ay - Impacts.

(2011 $ Lhousands)

D|rect 1ota| D|rect 1ota|
AgrlculLure 2,396.7 2,438.2 60.8 61.4
Mlnlng --- 11.4 --- 0.1
ConsLrucLlon 4,121.2 4,167.5 23.7 24.1
ManufacLurlng --- 401.2 --- 1.0
1ransporLaLlon --- 521.4 --- 1.4
1rade --- 924.6 --- 8.7
Servlce 809.6 4,887.3 4.4 32.9
CovernmenL --- 102.2 --- 0.6
1oLal 7,327.4 13,453.9 89.0 130.0


F+0$)@/(*&'0 -)&6 (#$ =/6C4$ .)&8$9(0
1he sample pro[ecLs lllusLraLe how Lhe economlc sLlmulus of resLoraLlon spendlng ls one elemenL of Lhe
beneflLs from Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal programs. 1hls reporL hlghllghLs Lhls ofLen lgnored elemenL. Þro[ecLs
llke Lhe LasL Alakal lence and Maryland nuLrla LradlcaLlon ln[ecL work lnLo depressed areas. uslng Lhe
skllls of unemployed agrlculLural workers ln kaual and waLermen on Lhe LasLern Shore of Maryland
provldes a clear sLlmulus for Lhe reglon's fuLure.
Whlle spendlng provldes a qulck sLlmulus, pro[ecLs may also creaLe or lmprove local buslnesses. 1he
lmproved 8lrd lsland ls becomlng a desLlnaLlon for eco-Lours ln Lhe area. 1he lmproved flshery provlded
by Lhe Apache Crove and Pancock Sprlng pro[ecLs wlll add Lo anglers' en[oymenL ln Lhelr reglons. 1he
Luverne uam removal opened up Lhe rlver Lo beLLer, and safer, waLer-based recreaLlon.
ÞarLnershlps are Lruly key Lo ÞlW and Lhe CoasLal Þrogram's success. 1he 8erL 8. Sudbury weLland
pro[ecL was made posslble by Lhe uSuA WeLland 8eserve Þrogram. lnvaslve planL removal on SanLa
CaLallna lsland was parLlally funded by Lhe Amerlcan 8ecovery and 8elnvesLmenL AcL (A88A) program
and used volunLeer conservaLlon workers. 1he Campbell Creek resLoraLlon was moLlvaLed by Anchorage
clLy governmenL's need Lo address an lmmlnenL LhreaL Lo lLs bulldlngs.
1he lmmedlaLe economlc beneflL of small pro[ecLs wlLh small economlc mulLlpllers may noL be obvlous,
buL pro[ecLs llke clearlng lnvaslve planLs aL lndlana uunes naLlonal Lakeshore and enhanclng plne foresLs
aL 1lbwln malnLaln fuLure opporLunlLles for Lhe reglon and hablLaL. CLher pro[ecLs llke Lhe 8oys ScouLs
Þro[ecL ln Mlsslsslppl engage and educaLe local youLh on Lhe envlronmenL, and Lhe beneflLs of Lhls go
beyond creaLlng envlronmenLal sLewards and are hard Lo enumeraLe. ln addlLlon, Lhe ÞlW and CoasLal
Þrogram provlde lnLanglble beneflLs such as [ob Lralnlng and placemenL opporLunlLles for communlLy
youLh, elderly, dlsabled and ex-offenders, ulLlmaLely sLlmulaLlng local economles Lhrough career
An overarchlng goal of Lhe ÞlW program ls Lo resLore reslllency Lo ecosysLems made more vulnerable by
human lnLerference. Slmllarly, an economy works beLLer wlLh a dlverse lnLerconnecLed web of lndusLrles
and sources of lncome. ÞlW and Lhe CoasLal Þrogram conLrlbuLe Lo socleLy ln many ways.


8raun, C.L. 1998. Sage grouse decllnes ln wesLern norLh Amerlca: whaL are Lhe problems? ltoceeJloqs
of tbe westeto Assoclotloo of 5tote llsb ooJ wllJllfe Aqeocles, 78:139-136.
lMÞLAn. 2010. vetsloo J.0 uset´s ColJe. Mlnneapolls, MlnnesoLa lMÞLAn Croup.
u.S. Census 8ureau, 2011 Amerlcan CommunlLy Survey, kaual CounLy, kepott ul0J - 5electeJ ícooomlc
cbotoctetlstlcs, reLrleved from Amerlcan lacLflnder,
hLLp://facLflnder2.census.gov/faces/nav/[sf/pages/lndex.xhLml, 1 CcLober 2012

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