Nclex Review Materials: Resource Bullet 5

When the gallstones are in the gallbladder, the condition is called cholelithiasis; when they are in the bile ducts the condition is called choledocolithiasis. Cholecystitis is often caused by cholelithiasis (the presence of choleliths, or gallstones, in the gallbladder), with choleliths most commonly blocking the cystic duct directly. This leads to inspissation of bile, bile stasis, and secondary infection by gut organisms, predominantly E coli and Bacteroides species. Cholecystitis usually presents as a pain in the right upper quadrant. This is usually a constant, severe pain. The pain may be felt to 'refer' to the right flank or right scapular region at first. Colitis (also called ulcerative colitis) is an acute or chronic inflammation of the membrane lining the colon—your large intestine or bowel. Crohn disease differs from ulcerative colitis because it causes inflammation deeper within the intestinal wall. Crohn disease usually occurs in the small intestine, but it can also occur in the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, large intestine, appendix, and anus. Ulcerative colitis affects only the colon. A Sengstaken-Blakemore tube is an oro- or nasogastric tube used occasionally in the management of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding from esophageal varices (distended veins in the esophageal wall, usually as a result of cirrhosis). see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sengstaken-Blakemore_tube Gastro Intestinal Animation Video Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. Paracentesis is a medical procedure involving needle drainage of fluid from a body cavity Achalasia, also known as esophageal achalasia, achalasia cardiae, cardiospasm, dyssynergia esophagus, and esophageal aperistalsis, is an esophageal motility disorder, a disease is which normal movement of the muscles in the esophagus is disturbed. It is characterized by difficulty swallowing, chest pain and regurgitation. Diagnosis is reached with esophageal manometry. most commonly the abdomen. Esophagojejunostomy - the surgical formation of an artificial communication between the esophagus and the jejunum.

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