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Smart Material and Structure: Shape Memory Alloy

Seminar Report

CE 397 (Seminar)

Kaushal Kumar (08004048)

Under the guidance of Prof. Mandar M. Inamdar

Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai-76

April-2014 Acknowledgement

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my guide Prof. K.M. Bajoria for his constant support and guidance throughout the course of project.

Date: 28th April 2014 Kaushal Kumar Roll No: 08004048

Approval Sheet

Department of Civil Engineering INDIAN INTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY

Certified that, this B.Tech Project 1st stage report titled: Smart Materials and Structures: Shape Memory Alloy by Yashdev Patel (08004029) is approved by me for the submission.

Dated: 14 November, 2011 Prof K M Bajoria (Supervisor)

Abstract

This report is about the shape memory alloy properties, their application in civil engineering and verification of pseudo elasticity of material via a model in Ansys13. Shape memory effect and Pseudo elasticity, two major properties of Shape Memory Alloy associated with the thermal induced or stress induced reversible hysteretic phase transformation between austenite and Martensite, are reviewed. We can use them in our structural designing as passive,

active and semi active controls in our structural designs like bridges, columns, in building as a damper

Content

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Smart systems for civil structures are described as systems that can automatically adjust structural characteristics in response to external disturbances and/or unexpected severe loading toward structural safety, extension of the structures lifetime, and serviceability. One key technology toward this goal is the development and implementation of smart materials, which can be integrated into structures and provide functions such as sensing, actuation and information processes essential to monitoring, self-adapting and healing of structures. Some examples of smart materials are piezoceramics, shape memory alloys (SMAs), magnetorheological (MR) uids, and electro - rheological (ER) uids.

For example, Smart bridges are a particularly attractive proposition. Bridges involve an enormous amount of investment in construction, maintenance, repair, upgrade and finally replacement. Possible vehicular accidents, earthquakes, and terrorism are additional problems to contend with.

Embedding optical fibers as distributed sensors at the construction stage itself is not a very costly proposition. On-line monitoring and processing of the vast amount of sensor data is again not a difficult thing to do by present-day standards. And the overall advantages in terms of lower maintenance costs, higher safety and security, and avoidance of inconvenience caused by closure for repair work can be enormous, not to mention the prevention of disasters like bridge collapses. 1.1 Smart Materials and Shape Memory Alloys

The term smart materials sometimes also called intelligent materials or active materials describe a group of material systems with unique properties. Smart structures mean a certain extraordinary ability of structures in performing their design function. Smartness of the material or structures describes their self adaptability, self sensing, and memory functionality. The attribute of smartness includes the ability to self diagnose, repair, recover, report and learn. A smart configuration would be that in which normal loads are taken care of in normal conditions, and suitable actuation systems are activated to tackle abnormal loads. If continuous monitoring can be built into the design through distributed embedded sensors, timely repairs can be taken up, thus saving costs and ensuring a higher degree of safety.

In order to design and build a civil structure today, it takes more than just meeting the needs of functionality and load carrying capacity under static loads. There is an increasing demand for slender, wide spanned structures with high adaptability to changes in use. Yet another aim is the reduction of structural mass for economic reasons. All these factors make the work of civil engineers more challenging. However, an equally important task for civil engineers is the sustainment of existing structures. Very often this is rather difficult, as insufficiencies in the original design or new loads oppose this aim. Therefore the concept of smart structures and adaptive systems is relevant globally. For that reason, civil engineers are seeking new materials and technologies and are going beyond their habitual way of thinking. One of these materials are shape memory alloys, which are often regarded to be 'smart materials.

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are metallic materials with great potential to enhance civil engineering structures. They are often referred to as smart materials. They are highly non- linear material behaviour in terms of shape memory effect, super elasticity, Martensite damping and variable stiffness. New ideas like Pre-existing and new applications in the fields of damping, active vibration control and prestressing or post tensioning of structures with fibers and tendons for using SMAs in civil engineering structures are proposed now a day for better functionality and high performance of the structure 1.2 Aim of Report

Principal Objective of this report: To understand smart structure and performance of smart material system To Understand the use of Shape Memory Alloy in civil structure To understand the functioning of SMAs. To analyze shape memory alloy based system and to understand its modeling in ANSYS

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 3 Theory 2.1 Introduction Smart" materials respond to environmental stimuli with particular changes in some variables. For that reason they are often also called responsive materials. Depending on changes in some external conditions, "smart" materials change their properties (mechanical, electrical, appearance), their structure or composition, or their functions. For Smart material there has not been a consensus over unique definition of smart structure. While some definitions use biological concepts that a structure having ability to learn from experience, others are based on more technical aspects such as highly integrated system of sensor, actuators and control. 2.2 Type of Smart Structure

Smart materials sense changes in the environment around them and respond in a predictable manner. Some types of smart materials include: Piezoelectric - Applying a mechanical stress to these materials generates an electric current. Piezoelectric microphones transform changes in pressure caused by sound waves into an electrical signal. Shape memory - After deformation these materials can remember their original shape and return to it when heated. Applications include shape memory stents - tubes threaded into arteries that expand on heating to body temperature to allow increased blood flow. Thermochromic - These materials change colour in response to changes in temperature. They have been used in bath plugs that change colour when the water is too hot. Photochromic - These materials change colour in response to changes in light conditions. Uses include security inks and dolls that tan in the sun. Magnetorheological - These fluids become solid when placed in a magnetic field. They can be used to construct dampers that suppress vibrations. These can be fitted to buildings and bridges to suppress the damaging effects of, for example, high winds or earthquakes.

2.3

Various Features of Smart Structures

Smart material shows various features which are essential for understanding of smart structure. Also it necessary to understand classification of smart strucuture Actuator Sensors Control Capability HIGH DEGREE OF INTERGRATION

Sensor

Structure

Actuator

Control System Figure: Smart Structure Concept 2.3.1 Actuators Actuators are materials which are embedded into the structural material or else bonded on the material surface. It is something that converts energy from one form to another or, it also can be used to apply a force. An actuator typically is a mechanical device that takes energy which is created by external stimulus in order to change their geometric form or some time stiffness, energy dissipation properties etc 2.3.2 Sensor Sensors are essential part of smart structure, it is very much analogues with human nerves system. Sensors function is typically employed to detect and monitor information characterizing the external environmental stimuli imposed on the upon material or else to measure the changes within the material

2.3.3 Control Capabilities These capabilities typically involve one or more microprocessor and data transmission links which are based upon the utilization of an automatic control theory

Figure: Diagram showing relationship of smart structures and intelligent structures

2.3

Why Smart Structure?

Smart structures are needed because we want our structure to be adaptive, responsive efficient. Following benefits and returns of smart structure will briefly explain the requirement of smart structure in civil engineering: 1) Performance: Increased performance is the most important reason why the smart structures are used. The change in the system according to the changes in the changes in the external environment are nothing but optimization of a structure for increased efficiency and economy 2) Reduced costs: Continuous health monitoring and maintenance helps in minimizing the maintenance costs as compared to the repairing a conventional structure that has reached its distressed condition 3) Safety: With continuous maintenance and health monitoring what comes out ultimately is better and increased safety of the structure.

Chapter 4

Shape Memory Alloy


4.1 Introduction

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields. The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. 4.2 Crystal

Many metals have several different crystal structures at the same composition, but most metals do not show this shape-memory effect. The special property that allows shapememory alloys to revert to their original shape after heating is that their crystal transformation is fully reversible. In most crystal transformations, the atoms in the structure will travel through the metal by diffusion, changing the composition locally, even though the metal as a whole is made of the same atoms. A reversible transformation does not involve this diffusion of atoms, instead the entire atoms shift at the same time to form a new structure, much in the way a parallelogram can be made out of a square by pushing on two opposing sides. At different temperatures, different structures are preferred and when the structure is cooled through the transition temperature, the Martensitic structure forms from the austenitic phase.

Figure: Macroscopic View of Shape Memory Alloy

Figure: Microscopic View of Shape Memory Alloy 4.3 Phase Transformation

The effects of thermal cycling and mechanical operations exhibit the phase transformation in shape memory alloy. SMAs have two phases, each with a dierent crystal structure and therefore dierent proper-ties. One is the high temperature phase called austenite and the other is the low temperature phase called Martensite. Austenite (generally cubic) has a dierent crystal structure from Martensite (tetragonal, orthorhombic or monoclinic). The transformation from one structure to the other does not occur by diusion of atoms, but rather by shear lattice distortion. Such a transformation is known as martensitic transformation. Each Martensitic crystal formed can have a dierent orientation direction, called a variant. The assembly of martensitic variants can exist in two forms: twinned Martensite, which is formed by a combination of self-accommodated martensitic variants, and detwinned or reoriented Martensite in which a specic variant is dominant . The reversible phase transformation from austenite (parent phase) to Martensite (product phase) and vice versa forms the basis for the unique behavior of SMAs

Figure: SME of an SMA showing the detwinning of the material with an applied stress.

Upon cooling in the absence of an applied load, the crystal structure changes from austenite to Martensite. The phase transition from austenite to Martensite is termed the forward transformation. The transformation results in the formation of several martensitic variants, up to 24 for NiTi. The arrangement of variants occurs such that the average macroscopic shape change is negligible, resulting in twinned Martensite. When the material is heated from the martensitic phase, the crystal structure transforms back to austenite, and this transition is called reverse transformation, during which there is no associated shape change. There are four characteristic temperature associated with the transformation; martensitic start temperature (Ms), martensitic nish temperature (Mf), austenitic start temperature (As) and austenitic nish temperature (Af ).

Figure: Phase transformation of an SMA due unloading and then subsequent heating to austenite

4.4

Shape Memory Effect

There are four characteristic temperatures defining a thermoelastic martensitic transformation; the Martensite start temperature, Ms , at which Martensite first appears in the austenite. The transformation proceeds with further cooling and is complete at the Martensite finish temperature, Mf . Below Mf , the entire body is in the Martensite phase, and a specimen typically consists of many regions each containing a different variant of Martensite. The boundaries between the variants are mobile under small applied loads. With heating, the austenite start temperature, As , is the temperature at which austenite first appears in the Martensite. With further heating, more and more of the body transforms back into austenite, and this reverse transformation is complete at the austenite finish temperature, Af . Above Af , the specimen is in the original undistorted

state. The evolution of the volume fraction of the Martensite with temperature is shown schematically below in Figure

Figure: Stress-strain-temperature data exhibiting the shape memory eect for a typical NiTi SMA. The cycle is; at a temperature above Ms , the specimen is entirely in the austenite phase. Cooling to below Mf transformation the specimen entirely to the Martensite phase, but the macroscopic volume of the specimen has not changed - a condition known as selfaccommodation. With small loads the specimen can be easily deformed, and the deformed shape remains after removing the loads. Heating to above Af causes the reverse transformation to occur and the specimen returns to its original undistorted state.

4.5 PSEUDOELASTICITY The pseudo elastic behaviour of SMAs is associated with stress induced transformation, which exhibits a very large strain upon loading that is fully recovered when the material is unloaded at temperatures above Af . Unlike shape memory effect, pseudo elasticity occurs without a change in temperature. A pseudo-elastic thermo mechanical loading path generally starts at a suciently high temperature where stable austenite exists, then develops under an applied load to a state at which detwinned Martensite is stable, and nally returns to the austenitic phase when returned to zero stress state.

Figure: Phase diagram for pseudo elastic loading path

Figure: Schematic of a pseudoelastic stress-strain diagram.

4.6

One Way and Two way Shape Memory Effect

When a shape-memory alloy is in its cold state (below As), the metal can be bent or stretched and will hold those shapes until heated above the transition temperature. Upon heating, the shape changes to its original. When the metal cools again it will remain in the hot shape, until deformed again. This is known as One Way Shape Memory effect

Figure: One way shape memory effect

The two-way shape-memory effect is the effect that the material remembers two different shapes: one at low temperatures, and one at the high-temperature shape. Under normal circumstances, a shape-memory alloy "remembers" its high-temperature shape, but upon heating to recover the high-temperature shape, immediately "forgets" the lowtemperature shape. However, it can be "trained" to "remember" to leave some reminders of the deformed low-temperature condition in the high-temperature phases

Figure: Two way shape memory effect 4.7 Cyclic Behaviour of Shape Memory Alloy This behavior is termed twoway shape memory eect (TWSME). The TWSME can be observed in a SMA material which has undergone repeated thermomechanical cycling along a specic loading path (training). Repetition along a loading path for a large number of cycles can induce

Figure: Thermal cyclic loading (50 cycles) of a NiTi shape memory alloy wire under constant load of 150MPa. changes in the microstructure, which causes macroscopically observable permanent changes in the material behavior Repetition along a loading path for a large number of cycles can induce changes in the microstructure, which causes macroscopically observable permanent changes in the material behavior. A small, permanent strain remains after each thermal cycle is completed. The additional permanent strain associated with each consecutive cycle begins to gradually decrease until it practically ceases to further accumulate.

Figure: Pseudo-elastic response of an as-received NiTi wire with Af =65 C, tested at a temperature of 70 C. Also shown is the stabilized pseudo-elastic hysteresis loop after 20 cycles. A similar behaviour can be noticed in the case of mechanically cycling an SMA repeatedly in its pseudo-elastic regime, until saturation takes place.

Chapter 5

Case Study
5.1 Modelling of Super Elastic behaviour of Shape Memory Alloy

In this model the super elastic property: the phenomenon that is SMA can undergo a large amount inelastic deformation upon loading then it can regain its original shape on unloading at a constant temperature, was studied and modelled on ANSYS13. The model is a square block of length, height and width L is constrained in the X-direction on the left face, constraint in the Y-direction rear on the bottom face and constrained in the Z- direction on the rear face (3-D case only). It is uniaxially loaded with tensile stress and unloaded on the top face. The uniformly load is continuously increased in 100 substeps then unloaded to zero stress in 100 substeps. The plot of stress vs strain is then drawn and the superelastic effect is noticed.

Figure: Shape Memory Alloy Phases

5.2

Modelling in ANSYS

Geometry of Model: the square plate is drawn with dimension of 10mX10m

Figure: Square Plate

Element Type - Ansys has a inbuilt option to define for shape memory alloy element as: 2D 4-Node Structural Solid Elements (PLANE182), 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid Elements (PLANE183), 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid Elements (SOLID185), In this example for element type we used as PLANE 183.

Material Properties Material properties has defined in following figure

Figure: Defining the material properties of Shape Memory Alloy in Ansys

Constant Meaning: SIG-SAS: Starting stress value for the forward phase transformation SIG-FAS: Final stress value for the forward phase transformation SIGSSA: Starting stress value for the reverse phase transformation SIG_FSA: Final stress value for the reverse phase transformation EPSILON: Maximum residual strain ALPHA: Parameter measuring the difference between material response in tension and compression Boundary Condition: Apply constrained on the edge of square plate Loading: Uniformly distributed tension load is applied Deformed Shape: Contour map for nodal solution of x axis deformation at node 102

Figure: Contour Plot of deform shape of SMA

5.2

Result and Discussion

Super elasticity is the phenomenon by which SMAs can go under large inelastic deformation and then it can regain its previous unloaded shape after unloading. Here also from the obtained graph we can see that square block had gone in large deformation in loadingunloading cycle without permanent deformation. So from obtained graph between stress and strain we can see that ANSYS can successfully model the SMA property of super elasticity.

Figure: Stress vs Strain graph (Showing Superelastic property of SMA)

Chapter 6 Application of Shape Memory Alloy in Civil Engineering Structure


There is a wide feasibility of SMA usage in structural engineering. The various properties of the SMAs are as applicable in many fields of engineering. The usage can be classified into Passive Control, Semi Active Control and Active Control. In Passive Control, the Damping property of the SMAs is employed. As we have seen earlier, large amounts of energy dissipation is involved in the loading and unloading cycle. This property has seen application in Design of Ground Isolators for structures. In a more direct approach SMA elements are embedded in the structure, which during oscillation act as effective dampers. The function is effectively the same, but the design and arrangement is considerably different.

Figure: (1) SMA damper for Cable Bridge; (2) SMA restrainer for simply supported bridge In Active Control, an external power source is used to control and produce corrective forces in a structure. The applications are seen in design of composite beams, structural rehabilitation. Semi Active Control is applicable in the Active Structural Frequency Tuning in which the resonant frequencies are actively tuned to achieve vibration control. The stiffness of the structural elements are tunable, making the natural frequency a controllable characteristic. In different modes of control the actuation is different and hence the energy required for structural adjustment is different.

6.1

Application in Civil Structure

6.1.1 SMA energy dissipation devices The SMA energy dissipation devices have been seen in the forms of braces for framed structures dampers for cable-stayed bridges or simply supported bridges connection elements for columns and retrotting devices for historic buildings. Experiments or simulations or both have been carried out to explore the potentials of the SMA-based energy dissipation devices in passive structure control. That research focused on three aspects: modeling for dynamic response of the structures with SMA devices, experimentally verifying the feasibility of the SMA devices and optimizing the SMA devices design in terms of vibration suppression using experimental and numerical methods.

6.1.2 Shape restoration using super-elastic SMAs This application uses the shape restoration property of superelastic SMA wires. The experimental results revealed that the mortar beam with SMA wires recovers almost completely after incurring an extremely large crack.

6.1.3 SMAs for structural self-rehabilitation By utilizing the actuation property of SMA wires, proposed the concept of Intelligent Reinforced Concrete (IRC). The IRC uses stranded Martensite SMA wires for post- tensioning. By monitoring the electric resistance change of the shape memory alloy wires, the strain distribution inside the concrete can be obtained. In the presence of cracks due to explosions or earthquakes, by electrically heating the SMA wires, the wire strands contracts and reduce the cracks. This self-rehabilitation can handle macro-sized cracks. The concrete structure is intelligent as it has the ability to sense and to self- rehabilitate.

Figure: Upon Heating SMA wire strands contract and reduces the crack

6.1.4 SMA connectors Connectors or connections in various structures are prone to damage during an earthquake event. SMA connectors have been designed to provide damping and tolerate relatively large deformations. An exposed- type column base with SMA anchorage for seismic resistance. The SMA anchorages are made of the Nitinol SMA rods in 2030 mm diameter and steel bars. SMA wires were very effective in dissipating energy and reducing the buildings vibration under severe seismic ground motion. The SMA anchorages can recover their original shape after cyclic loading and therefore their resisting performance remains the same to prevent plastic deformation and damage in the structural columns.

Figure: (1) SMA Connector in column and (2) Steel structure

Chapter 7

Conclusion
In this report, properties and behaviour of SMA was discussed. An indepth analysis was conducted on one of the Smart material, Shape Memory Alloy, where all unique properties of SMA like Shape Memory effect, pesudoelasticity, One way and Two way memory effect were discussed. One example of was modeled using ANSYS to explain the behavior of pseudo elastic property. Finally diverse applications of ANSYS in passive, active and semi-active state were discussed. It has been quite clear from the above discussion that SMA plays an important role in fields such as automotive, aerospace, defense, civil engineering, medical etc But there are still some difficulties with SMA that must be overcome before they can live up to their full potential. These alloys are still relatively expensive to manufacture and machine compared to other materials such as steel and aluminum. But these materials really show a new era for civil engineering structures

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