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Problem F

KINETIC ENERGY IN PERFECTLY INELASTIC COLLISIONS PROBLEM

Alaskan moose can be as massive as 8.00 102 kg. Suppose two feuding moose, both of which have a mass of 8.00 102 kg, back away and then run toward each other. If one of them runs to the right with a speed of 8.0 m/s and the other runs to the left with a speed of 6.0 m/s, what amount of kinetic energy will be dissipated after their inelastic collision?

SOLUTION Given: m1 = mass of first moose = 8.00 102 kg

m2 = mass of second moose = 8.00 102 kg v1,i = initial velocity of first moose = 8.0 m/s to the right v2,i = initial velocity of second moose = 6.0 m/s to the left = 6.0 m/s to the right Unknown: KE = ? Use the equation for a perfectly inelastic collision. m1v1,i + m2v2,i = (m1 + m2)vf (8.00 102 kg)(8.0 m/s) + (8.00 102 kg)(6.0 m/s) = (2)(8.00 102 kg)vf 6.4 103 kgm/s 4.8 103 kgm/s = (16.0 102 kg)vf 1.6 103 kg m/s vf 1.0 m/s to the right 16.0 102 kg Use the equation for kinetic energy to calculate the kinetic energy of each moose before the collision and the final kinetic energy of the two moose combined. Initial kinetic energy: 1 1 2 2 KEi KE1, i KE2, i m1v1, i m2v2, i 2 2 1 1 KEi (8.00 102 kg)(8.0 m/s)2 (8.00 102 kg)( 6.0 m/s)2 2 2 4 4 KEi 2.6 10 J 1.4 10 J 4.0 104 J Final kinetic energy: 1 2 KE f KE1, f KE2, f ( m1 m2 )v f 2 2 (2)(8.00 10 kg)(1.0 m/s)2 KE f 2 2 KE f 8.0 10 J

Original content Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

Holt Physics

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Problem Workbook

Change in kinetic energy: KE = KEf KEi = 8.0 102 J 4.0 104 J = 3.9 104 J By expressing KE as a negative number, we indicate that the energy has left the system to take a form other than mechanical energy. 1. The hog-nosed bat is the smallest mammal on Earth: it is about the same size as a bumblebee and has an average mass of 2.0 g. Suppose a hog-nosed bat with this mass flies at 2.0 m/s when it detects a bug with a mass of 0.20 g flying directly toward it at 8.0 m/s. What fraction of the total kinetic energy is dissipated when it swallows the bug? 2. The heaviest wild lion ever measured had a mass of 313 kg. Suppose this lion is walking by a lake when it sees an empty boat floating at rest near the shore. The curious lion jumps into the boat with a speed of 6.00 m/s, causing the boat with the lion in it to move away from the shore with a speed of 2.50 m/s. How much kinetic energy is dissipated in this inelastic collision. 3. The cheapest car ever commercially produced was the Red Bug Backboard, which sold in 1922 in the United States for about $250. The cars mass was only 111 kg. Suppose two of these cars are used in a stunt crash for an action film. If one cars initial velocity is 9.00 m/s to the right and the other cars velocity is 5.00 m/s to the left, how much kinetic energy is dissipated in the crash? 4. In 1986, four high school students built an electric car that could reach a speed of 106.0 km/h. The mass of the car was just 60.0 kg. Imagine two of these cars used in a stunt show. One car travels east with a speed of 106.0 km/h, and the other car travels west with a speed of 75.0 km/h. If each cars driver has a mass of 50.0 kg, how much kinetic energy is dissipated in the perfectly inelastic head-on collision? 5. The Arctic Snow Train, built for the U.S. Army, has a mass of 4.00 105 kg and a top speed of 32.0 km/h. Suppose such a train moving at its top speed is hit from behind by another snow train with a mass of 1.60 105 kg and a speed of 45.0 km/h in the same direction. What is the change in kinetic energy after the trains perfect inelastic collision? 6. There was a domestic cat in Australia with a mass of 21.3 kg. Suppose this cat is sitting on a skateboard that is not moving. A 1.80 101 kg treat is thrown to the cat. When the cat catches the treat, the cat and skateboard move with a speed of 6.00 102 m/s. How much kinetic energy is dissipated in the process? Assume one-dimensional motion. 7. In 1985, a spider with a mass of 122 g was caught in Surinam, South America. (Recall that the smallest dog in the world had a smaller mass.) Suppose a spider with this mass runs at a certain unknown speed when it collides inelastically with another spider, which has a mass of 96.0 g and is at rest. Find the fraction of the kinetic energy that is dissipated in the perfect inelastic collision. Assume that the resting spider is on a low-friction surface. Do you need to know the first spiders velocity to calculate the fraction of the dissipated kinetic energy?

Original content Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

Holt Physics

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Problem Workbook

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