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**Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering
**

Vol. 00, No. 00, January 2008, 1–12

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Identiﬁcation of the model describing viscoplastic behaviour of

high strength metals

T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak

∗

, P. Perzyna, and R.B. P¸ echerski

5B Pawinskiego, Warsaw, 02-106, POLAND; Institute of Fundamental Technological

Research, Polish Academy of Sciences

(v3.4 released May 2008)

Ultra ﬁne grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline metals (nc-metals) are studied. Experimental

investigations of the behaviour of such materials under quasistatic as well as dynamic load-

ing conditions related with microscopic observations show that in many cases the dominant

mechanism of plastic strain is multiscale development of shear deformation modes. The com-

prehensive discussion of these phenomena in UFG and nc-metals is given in [2] where it has

been shown that the deformation mode of nanocrystalline materials changes as the grain size

decreases into the ultraﬁne region. For smaller grain sizes (d < 300 nm) shear band devel-

opment occurs immediately after the onset of plastic ﬂow. Signiﬁcant strain-rate dependence

of the ﬂow stress, particularly at high strain rates was also emphasized. Our objective is to

identify the parameters of Perzyna constitutive model, a new description of viscoplastic defor-

mation, which accounts for the observed shear banding. The viscoplasticity model proposed

earlier by Perzyna [5] was extended in order to describe the shear banding contribution in

[1]. The shear banding contribution function, which was introduced formerly by P¸ echerski

[8] and applied in continuum plasticity accounting for shear banding in [9] plays pivotal role

in the viscoplasticity model. The derived constitutive equations were identiﬁed and veriﬁed

with application of experimental data provided in paper [3], where quasistatic and dynamic

compression tests of UFG and nanocrystalline iron specimens of a wide range of mean grain

size were reported. Numerical simulation of the compression of the prismatic specimen was

made by a ABAQUS FEM program with UMAT subroutine. Comparison with experimental

results proved the validity of the identiﬁed parameters and the possibilities of the application

of the proposed description for other high strength metals.

Keywords: ultra ﬁne grained metals; nanocrystalline metals; viscoplastic deformation;

shear banding; shear banding contribution function; numerical simulation of compression

test; identiﬁcation of the model parameters

AMS Subject Classiﬁcation: 74C20; 74S05; 74P99; 74H05

1. Introduction

The subject of the study is concerned with ultra ﬁne grained (UFG) and nanocrys-

talline metals (nc-metals). Experimental investigations of the behaviour of such

materials under quasistatic as well as dynamic loading conditions related with mi-

croscopic observations presented in [2–4] show that in many cases the dominant

mechanism of plastic strain is multiscale development of shear deformation modes

- called shear banding. The comprehensive discussion of these phenomena in UFG

and nc-metals is given in [2] and [3] where it has been shown that the deformation

mode of nanocrystalline materials changes as the mean grain size decreases into the

∗

Corresponding author. Email: znowak@ippt.gov.pl

ISSN: 1741-5977 print/ISSN 1741-5985 online

c 2008 Taylor & Francis

DOI: 10.1080/1741597YYxxxxxxxx

http://www.informaworld.com

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

2 T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna and R.B. P¸ echerski

ultraﬁne region. For smaller grain sizes (d < 300 nm) shear band development oc-

curs immediately after the onset of plastic ﬂow. Signiﬁcant strain-rate dependence

of the ﬂow stress, particularly at high strain rates was also emphasized.

The aim of the paper is to propose a new description of viscoplastic deforma-

tion, which accounts for the observed shear banding. Viscoplasticity model with

an overstress function proposed earlier by Perzyna [5–7] was extended. The theo-

retical description of multiscale hierarchy of shear localization modes presented by

P¸ echerski [8], [9], [10] and the new concept of shear banding contribution function

introduced in [8], [10] and identiﬁed for polycrystalline Cu in [11], [14] were ap-

plied by that. The derived constitutive equations were identiﬁed with application

of experimental data of quasistatic and dynamic compression tests, made for the

UFG and nanocrystalline iron specimens of diﬀerent mean grain sizes described in

[3].

The identiﬁcation procedure was made under the assumption that the Huber-

Mises yield condition obeys. This is rather big oversimpliﬁcation in the situations

when the strength diﬀerential eﬀect (strength asymmetry) is observed. Such an

eﬀect is observed particulary in the case of nanocrystalline metals, where the ratio

of yield strengths in compression versus yield strength in tension depends on grain

size and can reach 1.6 [22]. More detail and comprehensive study of the strength

asymmetry and related pressure sensitivity eﬀect on yield strength in amorphous

alloys is given in [24]. Some attempts of the application of Coulomb-Mohr and

Drucker-Prager criteria to account for the mentioned eﬀects were also discussed

by the authors in [23], [22] and [24]. Although our analysis is based on the Huber-

Mises criterion, the paper is concluded with discussion of the application of the

paraboloidal yield criterion proposed originally by W. Burzy´ nski [25] and rediscov-

ered many times by others [27].

2. Physical motivation

Experimental investigations discussed, e.g. by Meyers et al. [2] show that nanocrys-

talline materials exhibit very high yield strength. A conventional soft metal can

acquire a ten-fold increase in strength when the mean grain size approaches the

nanoscale, presumably due to the grain-boundary strengthening known as the Hall-

Petch eﬀect. For example, strengths as high as 1.0 GPa in nc-copper and 2.5 GPa

in nc-iron have been reported. Constitutive models for metallic materials must ac-

count for the eﬀects of the rate of deformation. Signiﬁcant strain-rate dependence

of the ﬂow stress has been observed in many pure metals, particularly at high

strain rates. However, very few results have been reported on the high-strain-rate

behavior of nc- or UFG materials. The work of Jia, Ramesh and Ma [3] on an

80 nm-Fe found little strain-rate dependence in the strain rate range from 1×10

−4

to 3×10

+3

s

−1

. Localized deformation has been reported for nc-metals by several

groups; typically this is associated with macroscopic perfect plasticity or even ap-

parent strain softening. Localization of plastic deformation into shear bands was

observed in nc-Fe-10%Cu [4] and nc-Fe [3]. Malow et al. [18] observed shear bands

in nc-Fe samples after micro hardness tests. The reported in [2] and in the work

of Jia et al. [3] observations indicate that there is a transition from uniform to

non-uniform deformation as the grain size decreases down to the nanoscale, ac-

companied possibly by a reduction of strain hardening.

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering 3

3. Experimental observations of deformation behaviour of nanomaterials

3.1. Quasi-static compression

In the paper of Jia, Ramesh and Ma [3] compression tests were performed to obtain

full stress-strain curves over a wide range of strain rates. The typical specimen

dimensions for the low and high strain rate tests were 2.2 × 2.2 × 3.5 mm (length)

and 1.6 × 1.6 × 1.4 mm (length), respectively. The quasi-static compression tests at

strain rates of 1 – 2 × 10

−3

s

−1

were performed using a screw-driven ATS machine.

From the tests it is apparent, that the yield strength increases with decreasing grain

size. Compared with the 20 µm-Fe, the strength of the nano-Fe (80 nm) is increased

by an order of magnitude. The strain hardening rate changes with the grain size.

In the range of grain size from 20 µm to 980 nm, there is no marked change in

the slope of the curves. However, there is a transition from strain hardening to

apparent strain softening as the grain size changes from ∼1 µm to ∼300 nm. For

grain sizes below 300 nm, apparent strain softening appears at a very low plastic

strain. Ductile behaviour is observed at relatively large grain sizes, the samples with

mean grain sizes smaller than 200 nm fail relatively early. It was demonstrated by

Meyers et al. in [2] and by Jia et al. [3] that for bcc metals we do not expect to

have a signiﬁcant eﬀect of mean grain size on the strain hardening, and so these

observations indicate that a change of deformation mechanism has occurred at the

smaller grain sizes. In the work of Jia et al. [3] the measured ﬂow stresses (at a

ﬁxed strain of 4%) and the yield strengths are observed to satisfy the well-known

Hall-Petch relationship (σ

y

= σ

0

+Kd

−1/2

).

3.2. High strain rate compression

Experimental results of Jia, Ramesh and Ma [3] also show that the little inﬂuence of

the strain rate on the strain hardening is observed, which is typical for bcc metals.

The termination of the high-rate stress-strain curves for 80 nm and 138 nm grain

sizes represent specimen failure rather than unloading, see Fig. 3. The inﬂuence of

the rate of deformation on the ﬂow stress is also investigated by Jia, Ramesh and

Ma [3] for the entire range of grain sizes and strain rates, with the ﬂow stresses

plotted corresponding to a ﬁxed strain of 4%. In [3] the authors observed that the

smaller grain size materials are much stronger at low rates, but show less relative

strengthening at high strain rates. An approach to understanding mean grain size

eﬀects on the viscoplastic deformations and on the ﬂow stress for bcc Fe is presented

in the following subsections.

3.3. Phenomenology of shear bands

The deformation mode of nc- and UFG materials changes dramatically as the grain

size is decreased into the ultra-ﬁne-grain range. In the 20µm-Fe and 980nm-Fe, the

compressive deformations were uniform at all strain rates and no shear bands

were evident under either the optical microscope or SEM. However, for all smaller

grain sizes (d < 300 nm) shear band development was observed in [3] to occur

immediately after the onset of plastic deformation, correlating to the observed

change in apparent strain hardening at those grain sizes. Shear bands were observed

during both quasistatic and high-rate deformations for these grain sizes.

It was demonstrated by Meyers et al. in [2] that additional shear bands appear

with increasing strain and that the newly generated shear bands have similar orien-

tations (in the four possible shearing planes for these cuboidal specimens). Large

numbers of shear bands are observed, rather than a single dominant band that

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

4 T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna and R.B. P¸ echerski

lead to failure. Shear bands have been observed by Wei et al. [4] and [20] in both

low and high strain-rate tests. In [3] it was observed that under dynamic loading,

conventional polycrystalline iron did not exhibit localized deformation. Shear band

populations were observed in all specimens with grain sizes d < 300 nm. It can be

concluded that the shear bands play an important role in plastic deformation of

ultraﬁne grained Fe.

4. Constitutive modelling

4.1. Viscoplasticity model of Perzyna

If the dependence on strain rate comes into play, the associated viscoplasticity ﬂow

law can be applied, cf. Perzyna [5, 6]:

D

vp

= ˙ γ

vp

µ, µ =

1

√

2k

τ

, (1)

where D

vp

is the rate of viscoplastic deformation, τ

**denotes deviatoric Kirchhoﬀ
**

stress and ˙ γ

vp

is the viscoplastic shear strain rate, while k is the corresponding

quasistatic yield shear strength.

For Huber-Mises yield condition: J

2

−k = 0, J

2

=

1

2

σ

: σ

,

˙ γ

vp

= ˙ γ

vp

0

¸

J

2

k

−1

1

D

for J

2

−k > 0 (2)

and

˙ γ

vp

= 0 for J

2

−k ≤ 0 (3)

where σ

**is the deviatoric Cauchy stress and k is the shear yield strength while
**

˙ γ

vp

0

and D denote material constants. The shear strain rate (2) is controlled by

an overstress function to be speciﬁed for a particular material. In our case the

power-like overstress function is assumed.

4.2. Multiscale system of shear bands contribution in plastic ﬂow

The description of a multiscale system of shear bands contribution in plastic ﬂow

was given in papers by P¸ echerski [8] and [9]). The rate of inelastic deformation was

assumed in the form

D

vp

= D

vp

s

+D

vp

SB

. (4)

The scalar shear banding contribution function was deﬁned:

f

SB

=

D

vp

SB

D

vp

, A =

√

A· A =

A

ij

A

ij

(5)

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering 5

where A is a symmetric second order tensor, while D

vp

s

is the rate of viscoplastic

deformation produced by dislocation mediated crystallographic slips and D

vp

SB

de-

notes the rate of viscoplastic deformation produced by shear banding.

As discussed in [10], among many possible realizations of shear banding, one can

single out the group of processes characterizing with the same contribution of two

symmetric shear banding systems f

(1)

SB

= f

(2)

SB

. In the case of proportional loading

paths the total viscoplastic shear strain rate can be expressed as follows:

˙ γ

vp

= ˙ γ

vp

s

+ ˙ γ

vp

SB

(6)

and due to f

SB

= ˙ γ

vp

SB

/˙ γ

vp

we have

˙ γ

vp

(1 −f

SB

) = ˙ γ

vp

s

, f

SB

∈ [0, 1) , (7)

what leads according to (2) to the following constitutive relation for the viscoplastic

shear strain rate controlled by the discussed mechanisms of crystallographic slip

and shear banding:

˙ γ

vp

=

˙ γ

vp

0

(1 −f

SB

)

¸

J

2

k

s

−1

1

D

for J

2

−k

s

> 0 . (8)

Inverting (8) gives the relation for the dynamic yield condition

J

2

= k

d

s

= k

s

1 +

¸

˙ γ

vp

(1 −f

SB

)

˙ γ

vp

0

D

¸¸

. (9)

For the compression test considered in [3] the following speciﬁcation of quasi-

static yield strength can be proposed

σ

Y s

= A(d) + B(d)(ε

vp

)

n

(10)

where σ

Y s

=

√

3k

s

and ε

vp

is the equivalent plastic strain ε

vp

=

√

3

3

γ

vp

. The sym-

bols A(d) and B(d) denote the values which are dependent on mean grain diameter

d, e.g. according to Hall-Petch relation. A is the quasi-static initial yield strength,

B(d)(ε

vp

)

n

corresponds to a plastic hardening function and n corresponds to plastic

hardening parameter. Furthermore, the viscosity parameter ˙ γ

vp

0

and the contribu-

tion function f

SB

are assumed to be dependent on the mean grain diameter d.

The shape of the contribution function f

SB

is proposed, accounting to the studies

in [10] and [11] supported by the numerical identiﬁcation in [14]

1

, in the form of

logistic function:

1

The proposed speciﬁcation of the contribution function f

SB

is suitable for the description of proportional

loading processes. More general formula, applicable for arbitrary states of deformation and loading paths,

was proposed in [12].

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

6 T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna and R.B. P¸ echerski

f

SB

=

f

SB

0

1 + exp(a −b(d)ε

vp

)

, (11)

where f

SB

0

, a, b(d) are material parameters to be speciﬁed.

The dynamic yield condition J

2

= k

d

is obtained by inverting Eq. (9) and the

ﬁnal dynamic yield strength in uniaxial compression σ

Y d

reads:

σ

Y d

= (1 −f

SB

(d))

2

[A(d) + B(ε

vp

)

n

]

¸

1 +

(1 −f

SB

(d)) ˙ ε

vp

˙ ε

0

(d)

D

¸

. (12)

5. Identiﬁcation of the model

The identiﬁcation of the constitutive models parameters is obtained by an inverse

method. A parametric identiﬁcation program is developed, based on a conjugate

gradients algorithm (cf. Nowak and Stachurski, [15, 16]). Our objective is to iden-

tify the parameters of the Perzyna viscoplastic constitutive model parameters:

β = (A, B, n, a, b, f

SB

0

, ˙ ε

vp

0

, D). The identiﬁcation of these constants is car-

ried out by means of compression true stress-strain diagrams. These curves stem

from the iron experimental tests performed at various strain rates ˙ ε

vp

and various

average grain sizes d (cf. Jia et al. [3]).

5.1. Criterion of minimization

The criterion or cost function is the part of the program where the parameter vec-

tor β appears. The criterion chosen is the quadratic sum of errors. The method of

least squares requires the residual sum in stress between the experimental observa-

tions and model results to be minimised. This sum is made with every experimental

point. This implies that the proposed model of the grain size dependent viscoplas-

ticity can be completely calibrated by minimising the residual:

F(x) = min

Nα

¸

α=1

¸

σ

exp

eq

(ε

vp

α

, ˙ ε

vp

, d) − σ

cal

eq

(ε

vp

α

, ˙ ε

vp

, d, β)

¸

2

σ

exp

eq

(ε

vp

α

, ˙ ε

vp

, d)

2

(13)

where F(x) refers to the residual of the constitutive model and the

experimental data with the number of experimental points α and

β = (A, B, n, a, b, f

SB

0

, ˙ ε

vp

0

, D) denotes a vector of unknown material

parameters to be determined.

Furthermore, ε

vp

α

are discrete values of the strains ε

vp

. The symbols σ

exp

eq

and

σ

cal

eq

denote the experimental and calculated stresses for the same strain level ε

vp

α

,

Nα

is the number of stress-strain data for the test with given strain rate and grain

size. For our constitutive equation Eq. (12) we have

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering 7

σ

cal

eq

= σ

Y d

=

1 −

f

SB

0

1+exp(a−b(d)ε

vp

α )

2

(A(d) + B(ε

vp

α

)

n

)

¸

¸

1 +

¸

1−

f

SB

0

1+exp(a−b(d)ε

vp

α )

˙ ε

vp

α

˙ ε

vp

0

(d)

¸

D

¸

(14)

5.2. Gradient vector of the cost function

The gradient vector computation is performed with the central derivative formu-

lation. The expression of the numerical gradient vector is:

g =

∇F(β

j

)

N

j=1

=

¸

F(β

j

+ dβ

j

) −F(β

j

−dβ

j

)

2dβ

j

N

j=1

(15)

The application of the standard derivative analytical formulation of a multi-

variable function gives the theoretical gradient vector. In the case of the Perzyna

model, the theoretical gradient vector is given as follows

g =

¸

∂F(β)

∂β

j

(a, b, f

SB

0

, A, B, n, ˙ ε

vp

0

, D)

(16)

=

¸

∂F(β)

∂a

,

∂F(β)

∂b

,

∂F(β)

∂f

SB

0

,

∂F(β)

∂A

,

∂F(β)

∂B

,

∂F(β)

∂n

,

∂F(β)

∂ ˙ ε

vp

0

,

∂F(β)

∂D

.

It implies that for one material point for N

p

measurements of (ε

vp

)

i

and (σ

exp

)

i

with known ( ˙ ε

vp

, d) the gradient vector g is given.

5.3. Termination test

As for the criterion, there are numerous formulations to stop the conjugate gradient

algorithm. The termination test employed for the identiﬁcation program consists

in computing the following relation for each experimental point:

χ(i) =

(σ

exp

eq

)

i

−(σ

cal

eq

)

i

(σ

exp

eq

)

i

(17)

and for each parameter:

η

i

=

β

j

i

−β

j−1

i

β

j−1

i

(18)

with β

i

, the parameter under consideration, and j, the iteration number.

The termination test is satisﬁed when every point veriﬁes:

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

8 T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna and R.B. P¸ echerski

χ(i) ≤ χ

ref

(19)

and when every parameter veriﬁes:

η

i

≤ η

ref

(20)

with χ

ref

, the point accuracy, η

ref

, the parameters accuracy. The identiﬁcation

error limits are given by the equations (17) and (19). The second set of equations

(18) and (20), gives parameter stability relation.

5.4. Identiﬁcation of quasi-static and dynamic compression tests

To evaluate the quality of the identiﬁed parameters, a simulation of compression

test is performed for the prismatic sample and compared with the corresponding

test. The ABAQUS FEM code was employed to realize this simulation. Simulation

leads to plastic strain and strain rates in the same range than experimentation. An

example of the application of the proposed constitutive description for modelling

of the behaviour of polycrystalline iron under quasistatic and dynamic compression

tests for experimental data of Jia, Ramesh and Ma (2003) is depicted in Fig. 2 and

Fig. 3 (cf. [3]), where the compressive yield strength σ

Y d

=

√

3k

d

.

In case of the quasistatic and dynamic compression we use the following forms

of equation (14):

when d > 300 nm, f

SB

= 0, β = (A, B, n, ˙ ε

vp

0

, D)

σ

cal

eq

= [A(d) + B(ε

vp

)

n

]

¸

1 +

˙ ε

vp

˙ ε

0

(d)

D

¸

(21)

and when d < 300 nm, f

SB

> 0, B = 0, f

SB

0

=0.95, a = 5, D = 0.08 and n = 0

(no hardening) and β = (A, b, ˙ ε

vp

0

, D)

σ

cal

eq

= (1 −f

SB

)

2

[A(d)]

1 +

¸

1 −

f

SB

0

1+exp(a−b(d)ε

vp

α )

˙ ε

vp

˙ ε

0

(d)

¸

D

¸

¸

¸

(22)

Perzyna model parameters are determined for each kind of specimen with diﬀer-

ent average grain size. In each case we have started our computations assuming at

the beginning a broad range of feasible parameters. For instance the initial param-

eters values in cases for diﬀerent average grain size: d=20µm, d=980nm, d=268nm,

d=138nm and d=80nm for dynamic tests we have taken are presented in Table 1.

At least, the identiﬁcation leads to one set of model parameters available for

quasi-static strain rates and dynamic strain rates. In the numerical simulations of

compression tests by ABAQUS [21] the specimen is completely modelled with 226

991 nodes and 216 004 solid elements (type C3D8R in Explicit or C3D8 in Stan-

dard). The specimen is supported by a ﬁxed rigid wall and is impacted by a second

moving one with an imposed velocity of 5 m/s. Rigid walls are chosen as inﬁnite

planes with inﬁnite mass and ﬁnite friction (f

c

=0.005). The undeformed sample

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering 9

Table 1. The initial parameters values for dynamic tests.

Case

d=20µm: 100.0 ≤ A ≤ 1000.0, 50.0 ≤ B ≤ 1000.0, 0.01 ≤ n ≤ 1.5

1.0x 10

+3

≤ ˙ ε

vp

0

≤ 1.0x 10

+5

, 0.01 ≤ D ≤ 0.3,

d=980nm: 100.0 ≤ A ≤ 1000.0, 100.0 ≤ B ≤ 1000.0, 0.01 ≤ n ≤ 1.5

1.0x 10

+4

≤ ˙ ε

vp

0

≤ 1.0x 10

+7

, 0.01 ≤ D ≤ 0.3,

d=268nm: 500.0 ≤ A ≤ 2000.0, 10. ≤ b ≤ 100.0,

1.0x 10

+5

≤ ˙ ε

vp

0

≤ 1.0x 10

+7

, 0.01 ≤ D ≤ 0.3

d=138nm: 500.0 ≤ A ≤ 3000.0, 50.0 ≤ b ≤ 500.0,

1.0x 10

+5

≤ ˙ ε

vp

0

≤ 1.0x 10

+7

, 0.01 ≤ D ≤ 0.3

d=80nm: 1000.0 ≤ A ≤ 5000.0, 50.0 ≤ b ≤ 500.0,

1.0x 10

+5

≤ ˙ ε

vp

0

≤ 1.0x 10

+7

, 0.01 ≤ D ≤ 0.3

mesh and the Mises stress distribution for dynamical compression are presented on

Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b.

(a)

(Avg: 75%)

S, Mises

+1.528e+03

+1.531e+03

+1.533e+03

+1.536e+03

+1.539e+03

+1.542e+03

+1.545e+03

+1.548e+03

+1.551e+03

+1.554e+03

+1.557e+03

(b)

Fig. 1. a) The mesh used in numerical simulations and b) Mises stress distri-

bution for dynamic compression test of iron for ε

vp

= 0.08 and d = 268nm.

Simulation leads to plastic strain and strain rates in the same range than experi-

mentation. Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 compares the experimental and simulated stress–strain

diagrams for a 5 m/s impact test. This results shows that identiﬁcation of consti-

tutive models for nano-iron with shear bands can be performed even with a plastic

range of about 0.1.

Finally, the following constitutive parameters are found for the quasi-static and

dynamic compression tests when d < 300 nm, f

SB

> 0, B = 0, a=5, f

SB

0

=0.95,

D = 0.08 and n = 0 (no hardening) and β = (A, b, ˙ ε

vp

0

) for quasi-static compres-

sion and β = (A, b, ˙ ε

vp

0

) for dynamic compression:

Table 2. The identiﬁed constitutive parameters when d < 300 nm.

quasi-static dynamic

d ˙ ε

vp

0

(d)[s

–1

]

A(d)[MPa] b(d) A(d)[MPa] b(d)

80 nm 2363.53 50.24 2086.57 56.49 145.0 x 10

+6

138 nm 2047.83 52.85 1882.40 55.11 50.5 x 10

+6

268 nm 1160.0 27.46 1237.09 30.01 50.1 x 10

+6

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

10 T. Fr¸ a´s, Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna and R.B. P¸ echerski

Fig. 2. True stress – true strain for quasistatic compression test for polycrys-

talline iron. Solid lines represent curves obtained from viscoplasticity model

accounting for shear bands according to equation (21) for d > 300nm and

according to equation (22) for d < 300nm, symbols correspond to the qua-

sistatic experimental data for iron of purity 99.9% obtained in two-step con-

solidation procedure to form bulk Fe with desired grain size from Jia et al. [3].

Fig. 3. True stress – true strain for dynamic compression test for polycrys-

talline iron. Solid lines represent curves obtained from viscoplasticity model

accounting for shear bands according to equations (21) for d > 300nm and ac-

cording to equation (22) for d < 300nm, symbols correspond to the dynamic

experimental data for iron of purity 99.9% obtained in two-step consolidation

procedure to form bulk Fe with desired grain size from Jia et al. [3].

6. Conclusions

The proposed description of viscoplastic behaviour of high strength metals, in

particular UFG and nc-metals, can be extended accounting for the application of

more adequate yield criterion, which in the case of associated ﬂow law, provides

October 23, 2009 14:42 Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering Rzeszow˙09˙Invers4

REFERENCES 11

also the appropriate potential function. According to our studies [29], the yield

criterion, which is adequate to strength materials and multiphase materials, e.g.

metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites reinforced by particles of nano and

micro size should be pressure dependent, as it was discussed in early papers of W.

Burzy´ nski (1929) [25], [26]. Such a criteria take, in the principal axes, the shape of a

rotationally symmetric paraboloid for isotropic materials and ellipsoidal paraboloid

for materials having orthotropic symmetry [28], [29], Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b.

(a) (b)

Fig. 4. a) Burzy´ nski yield limit for plane stress approximating the results

presented in [23]; b) Burzy´ nski yield surface in the principal axes coordinates

calculated for the data in plane stress given in Fig. 4. a).

Acknowledgement(s)

The part of this work was made within the framework of the Research Project

0364/B/T02/2008/35 of the Ministry of Higher Education and Science of Poland.

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