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2.

Introduction

In the world of information technology, rapid changes have taken place in education. Intense competition and efforts toward the formation of a world-class education system have also emerged. There has been an increase in the use of multimedia technology, especially computers and special software, in the teaching of science and mathematics. Integrating technology in teaching provides greater learning opportunities for students (Roberts, 2012) and the use of technology can enhance the student abilities (Al- Aali, 2008). In addition, integrating technology in the classroom helps to produce students who are visionary and have the potential and expertise in both technology and academics.

Technological advances in mathematics education have paved the way for teachers to use technology to improve the quality of teaching and learning. As a result of the implementation of policies that emphasize the importance of using technology in education, all parties involved in education are faced with the important task of reforming methods of teaching and learning. The field of mathematics education has changed greatly due to technology. Educational technology can facilitate simple computation and the visualization of mathematics situations and relationships, allowing students to better comprehend mathematical concepts in practice. The use of technology can be a tool for students to model mathematical relationships in realworld situations.

Research completed over the last decade has confirmed the potential benefits of education technology applied to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Education technology, when used effectively, can enhance student understanding of mathematical concepts, bolster student engagement, and strengthen problem-solving skills. The last two decades of the twentieth century were marked by the advancement of technological aids in mathematics education. Graphing calculators, computer algebra systems, the World Wide Web, and more recently dynamical software paved the way for radical change in the way mathematics is taught. The variety of resources available and the lack of readiness of instructors to utilize these resources prompted many national and international organizations to set standards for the use of technology as a teaching tool in mathematics classrooms.

Since then, much research has been published on the effect of technology on the learning process of the recipients (i.e. the students) assessing both its benefits and its limitations (Abboud & Habre, 2006; Habre, 2000; Laborde, 2001; Quesada & Maxwell, 1994).

A. GeoGebra: Dynamic Mathematics Software

GeoGebra was designed by Mark Hohenwarter. This software is dynamic and includes geometry, algebra and calculus. GeoGebra is designed for use in mathematics education in secondary schools and higher educational institutions (Hohenwarter, 2004). GeoGebra software comes with basic object of object points, vectors, segments, polygons, straight lines, which are all part of a cone shape and function (Antohe, 2009; Hohenwarter, 2004) and the ability to offer various types of instruction. In addition, GeoGebra is able to perform

online, interactive teaching, which allows more opportunities for teachers to upload resources for online learning (Hohenwarter et al., 2008).

This software is open source, or free, to be downloaded by all users and is not subject to any license fee. In addition, GeoGebra software is designed for use in schools and educational institutions (Hohenwarter, 2004). GeoGebra is a versatile software, able to generate a picture or graphic visualization of mathematical ideas or concepts (Hohenwarter and Jones, 2007) and to display a picture or graphic on the simultaneous visualization of the window graphics, algebra and geometry (Arranz et al., 2009).

GeoGebra provides three different views of mathematical objects: a Graphics View (available in two different windows), a numeric Algebra View, and a Spreadsheet View.

Fig. 1: GeoGebra interface

Constructions can be made with points, vectors, segments, lines, polygons, conic sections, inequalities, implicit polynomials and functions. All of them can be changed dynamically afterwards. Elements can be entered and modified directly on screen, or through the Input Bar. GeoGebra has the ability to use variables for numbers, vectors and points, find derivatives and integrals of functions and has a full complement of commands like Root or Extremum. Teachers and students can use GeoGebra to make conjectures and to understand how to prove geometric theorems.

B. HOTS: Higher Order Thinking Skills

Higher-order thinking, also known as higher order thinking skills (HOTS), is a concept of Education reform based on learning taxonomies such as Bloom's Taxonomy. The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also have more generalized benefits. In Bloom's taxonomy, for example, skills involving analysis, evaluation and synthesis (creation of new knowledge) are thought to be of a higher order, requiring different learning and teaching methods, than the learning of facts and concepts. Higher order thinking involves the learning of complex judgmental skills such as critical thinking and problem solving. Higher order thinking is more difficult to learn or teach but also more valuable because such skills are more likely to be usable in novel situations.

Higher order thinking skills are grounded in lower order skills such as discriminations, simple application and analysis, and cognitive strategies and are linked to prior knowledge of subject matter content. Appropriate teaching strategies and learning environments facilitate their growth as do student persistence, self-monitoring, and open-

minded, flexible attitudes. This definition is consistent with current theories related to how higher order thinking skills are learned and developed. Although different theoreticians and researchers use different frameworks to describe higher order skills and how they are acquired, all frameworks are in general agreement concerning the conditions under which they prosper.

Fig. 2: Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy

Questioning should be used purposefully to achieve well-defines goals. Typically a teacher would vary the level of questions within a single lesson.

Usually questions at the lower levels are Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually appropriate for: evaluating students' preparation most appropriate for: and encouraging students to think more deeply and critically. students' strengths and problem solving, encouraging discussions. stimulating students to seek information on their own.

comprehension. diagnosing

weaknesses. reviewing and/or summarizing content.

2.1

Research Literature

Many recent literatures show that new developments and considerations are highly appreciated all over the world. Mathematics education authors both in teaching and learning mathematics connect the issue with pedagogical considerations (Galbraith and Haines, 1998; Murphy and Greenwood, 1998; Garofalo et. al. 2000; Kadijevich and Haapasalo, 2001; McAlister et. al., 2005). These considerations usually focus on cognitive dimensions of mathematics education and effective computer (and educational software) use in action (Monaghan, 1993, 2004) and highlight their effects on students learning, achievements and affective dimensions. For example, an acceptable level of computer use has positive effect on students views, performance and confidence about the context.

Computer algebra systems (e.g. Derive, Maple) and dynamic geometry software (e.g. Cabri Geometry, Geometers Sketchpad) started to attract more attention along with new developments in technology all around the world. Consequently, new software packages are developed and tried to be integrated into teaching and learning environments. The use of computers as a mathematics teaching aid can improve student motivation and increase their confidence (Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 2000). Nowadays, many software programs can be used to help students be more responsible for their own learning through creative and interesting exploration. Teaching and learning software are now increasingly important, especially in the subject of calculus (Ahmad Fauzi et al., 2009).

Mathematical software, such as MathCAD, Maple, Autographs, and the like, has been widely used in the teaching and learning mathematics. Many studies have

been conducted on the effects of using various software packages on teaching and learning of mathematics. However, the existing studies show inconsistent results.

When teaching mathematics, teachers use traditional methods that are commonly used to explain mathematical concepts and procedures. Teachers should also consider using technology that is useful and beneficial to students. Teaching should be planned so that the process of teaching and learning will run smoothly and effectively. Positive approach will produce a positive and effective result (Ager, 2000). Teachers must be willing to accept change and make technology a reality in the classroom. Teachers who are entrusted to educate the nation's future leaders should give serious attention to the use of technology in teaching and learning. Educators should strive to ensure that mathematics is interesting for students to learn while focusing on important concepts in mathematics.

In addition to building skills in mathematics, learning using technology can have a positive long-term effect on students. By giving them the opportunity to learn and understand mathematics through technology, students are provided with knowledge to compete and function in the high-tech world. It is the responsibility of educators to provide a bright future for students in the face of the world that depends on Mathematics, Science, and Technology (Furner & Marinas, 2007).

Currently, the inclusion of technology in the classroom has been widespread in rural and urban areas. Therefore, in order to help educators integrate technology in teaching and learning mathematics, teachers can use GeoGebra as one of the alternatives. This software can be downloaded from the official website of GeoGebra

free of charge and is able to work across various platforms, including Windows, Macintosh, Linux, and Unix (www.geogebra.org). The most interesting aspect of GeoGebra is a virtual community of users who frequently contribute to the free teaching materials produced. GeoGebra can be used to teach Geometry, Algebra, and Calculus (Antohe, 2009; Hutkemri & Effandi, 2010; Rincon, 2009).

GeoGebra effectively disseminates knowledge that includes planning, delivery, guidance, and evaluation that aims to spread the knowledge or skills to students (Hutkemri & Effandi, 2010). GeoGebra software has the potential to help teachers implement teaching test conjecture on geometry, algebra, and calculus.