4G NETWORK

A Technical Seminar Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering Under Berhampur University

By

SANJAY KUMAR JHA

ROLL # ECE200210192

Under the guidance of

Mr. RAKESH ROSHAN

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY Palur Hills, Berhampur, Orissa - 761 008, India

ABSTRACT
1G and 2G networks supported low-bit-rate and were primarily designed for voice communication. Third-generation networks offer multimedia transmission, global roaming across a cellular or other single type of wireless network, and bit rates ranging from 384 Kbps to several Mbps. Analysts expect worldwide migration to 3G to continue through 2005, depending on market needs, carrier and operator incentives, recovery on investments in existing 1G and 2G wireless systems, and perceived threats to monopolistic wireless carriers in many countries. Meanwhile, researchers and vendors are expressing a growing interest in 4G wireless networks that support global roaming across multiple wireless and mobile networks —for example, from a cellular network to a satellite-based network to a highbandwidth wireless LAN. With this feature, users will have access to different services, increased coverage, the convenience of a single device, one bill with reduced total access cost, and more reliable wireless access even with the failure or loss of one or more networks. 4G networks will also feature IP interoperability for seamless mobile Internet access and bit rates of 50 Mbps or more.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my proud privilege to epitomize my deepest sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my guide, Mr. Rakesh Roshan for his valuable guidance, keen and sustained interest, intuitive ideas and persistent endeavor. His inspiring assistance, laconic reciprocation and affectionate care enabled me to complete my work smoothly and successfully. I am also thankful to Mr. G.V. Kiran Kumar, Technical Seminar Coordinator for giving his valuable time and support during the preparation of this report. I acknowledge with immense pleasure the sustained interest, encouraging attitude and constant inspiration rendered by Mr. Sangram Mudali, Director, NIST. His continued drive for better quality in everything that happens at NIST and selfless inspiration has always helped us to move ahead.

Sanjay Kumar Jha Roll No EC200210192

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.....................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................iii 1. INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................1 2. ARCHITECHTURE........................................................................................3 2.1 Multimode devices...............................................................................................3 2.2 Overlay network...................................................................................................4 2.3 Common access protocol.....................................................................................4 2.4 QUALITY OF SERVICE....................................................................................5 2.5 End-to-End QoS...................................................................................................5 2.6 Handoff delay.......................................................................................................6 2.7 Internet Speeds.....................................................................................................6 3. DATA TRANSMISSION IN 4G NETWORK................................................7 4. 4G PROCESSING.......................................................................................10 4.1 Receiver section ................................................................................................10 4.2 The first line of defense .....................................................................................11 4.3 Base band processing ........................................................................................13 4.4 Transmitter section ............................................................................................14 5. APPLICATION AND SERVICES.................................................................16 5.1 General Services and Applications.....................................................................17 5.2 Push, Pull, and Location-Based Services...........................................................19 6. IMPLEMENTATION.....................................................................................21 7. LIMITATIONS..............................................................................................23 8. CONCLUSION.............................................................................................24 REFERENCES................................................................................................25

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Multimode devices architecture.......................................................3 Figure 2.2: Overlay network architecture...........................................................4 Figure 2.3: Common access protocol................................................................4 Figure 5.1: Services and application...............................................................17 Figure 6.1: Technology progress in 10 years..................................................21

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1. INTRODUCTION
Cellular service providers are slowly beginning to deploy third-generation (3G) cellular services. As access technology increases, voice, video, multimedia, and broadband data services are becoming integrated into the same network. The hope once envisioned for 3G as a true broadband service has all but dwindled away. While 3G hasn't quite arrived, designers are already thinking about 4G technology. To achieve the goals of true broadband cellular service, the systems have to make the leap to a fourth-generation (4G) network. 4G is intended to provide high speed, high capacity, low cost per bit, IP based services. The goal is to have data rates up to 20 Mbps. Most probable the 4G network would be a network, which is a combination of different technologies (current cellular networks, 3G cellular network, wireless LAN, etc.) working together using suitable interoperability protocols (for example Mobile IP). There is standardization work on 4G already on the way. For example IEEE is standardizing 4G cellular networks. The aim is to support up to 4 Mbit/s speeds. The network is expected to support communications to moving vehicle up to speeds of 250 km/h. This 4G system is going to be based on OFDM modulation, CDMA and multiple antenna technology. The aim is to bring together 4G mobile technology, WLAN and satellite communications so that they can all work seamlessly together. The move to 4G is complicated by attempts to standardize on a single 3G protocol. Without a single standard on which to build, designers face significant additional challenges. Table 1 compares some of the key parameters of 3G and 4G (4G does not have any solid specification as of yet, so the parameters rely on general proposals). It is clear that some standardization is in order.

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TABLE 1: Key Parameters of 3g and 4 G Systems 3G Frequency band Bandwidth Data rate Access Forward error correction Switching Mobile top speeds 1.8 - 2.5 GHz 5 - 20 MHz Up to 2 Mbps (384 kbps deployed) W-CDMA Convolution rate 1/2, 1/3 Circuit/packet 200 km/h 4G 2 - 8 GHz 5 - 20 MHz Up to 20 Mbps MC-CDMA or OFDM (TDMA) Concatenated coding scheme Packet 200 km/h

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2. ARCHITECHTURE
One of the most challenging problems facing deployment of 4G technology is how to access several different mobile and wireless networks. Figures below show three possible architectures: using a multimode device, an overlay network, or a common access protocol.

2.1 Multimode devices

Figure 2.1: Multimode devices architecture

One configuration uses a single physical terminal with multiple interfaces to access services on different wireless networks. Early examples of this architecture include the existing Advanced Mobile Phone System/Code Division Multiple Access dualfunction cell phone, Iridium’s dualfunction satellite-cell phone, and the emerging Global System for Mobile telecommunications/Digital Enhanced cordless Terminal dual-mode cordless phone. The multimode device architecture may improve call completion and expand effective coverage area. It should also provide reliable wireless coverage in case of network, link, or switch failure. The user, device, or network can initiate handoff between networks. The device itself incorporates most of the additional complexity without requiring wireless network modification or employing interworking devices. Each network can deploy a database that keeps track of user location, device capabilities, network conditions, and user preferences. The handling of quality-of-service (QoS) issues remains an open research question.

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2.2 Overlay network

Figure 2.2: Overlay network architecture

In this architecture, a user accesses an overlay network consisting of several universal access points. These UAPs in turn select a wireless network based on availability, QoS specifications, and user defined choices. A UAP performs protocol and frequency translation, content adaptation, and QoS negotiation-renegotiation on behalf of users. The overlay network, rather than the user or device, performs handoffs as the user moves from one UAP to another. A UAP stores user, network, and device information, capabilities, and preferences. Because UAPs can keep track of the various resources a caller uses, this architecture supports single billing and subscription.

2.3 Common access protocol

Figure 2.3: Common access protocol

This protocol becomes viable if wireless networks can support one or two standard access protocols. One possible solution, which will require interworking between different networks, uses wireless asynchronous transfer mode. To implement wireless
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ATM, every wireless network must allow transmission of ATM cells with additional headers or wireless ATM cells requiring changes in the wireless networks. One or more types of satellite-based networks might use one protocol while one or more terrestrial wireless networks use another protocol.

2.4 QUALITY OF SERVICE
Supporting QoS in 4G networks will be a major challenge due to varying bit rates, channel characteristics, bandwidth allocation, fault-tolerance levels, and handoff support among heterogeneous wireless networks. QoS support can occur at the packet, transaction, circuit, user, and network levels. • Packet-level QoS applies to jitter, throughput, and error rate. Network resources such as buffer space and access protocol are likely influences. • Transaction-level QoS describes both the time it takes to complete a transaction and the packet loss rate. Certain transactions may be time sensitive, while others cannot tolerate any packet loss. • Circuit-level QoS includes call blocking for new as well as existing calls. It depends primarily on a network’s ability to establish and maintain the end-to-end circuit. Call routing and location management are two important circuit-level attributes. • User-level QoS depends on user mobility and application type. The new location may not support the minimum QoS needed, even with adaptive applications. In a complete wireless solution, the end-to-end communication between two users will likely involve multiple wireless networks. Because QoS will vary across different networks, the QoS for such users will likely be the minimum level these networks support.

2.5 End-to-End QoS
Developers need to do much more work to address end-to-end QoS. They may need to modify many existing QoS schemes, including admission control, dynamic resource reservation, and QoS renegotiation to support 4G users’ diverse QoS requirements. The overhead of implementing these QoS schemes at different levels requires careful evaluation. A wireless network could make its current QoS
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information available to all other wireless networks in either a distributed or centralized fashion so they can effectively use the available network resources. Additionally, deploying a global QoS scheme may support the diverse requirements of users with different mobility patterns. The effect of implementing a single QoS scheme across the networks instead of relying on each network’s QoS scheme requires study.

2.6 Handoff delay
Handoff delay poses another important QoS-related issue in 4G wireless networks. Although likely to be smaller in intranetwork handoffs, the delay can be problematic in internetwork handoffs because of authentication procedures that require message exchange, multiple-database accesses, and negotiation- renegotiation due to a significant difference between needed and available QoS. During the handoff process, the user may experience a significant drop in QoS that will affect the performance of both upper-layer protocols and applications. Deploying a priority-based algorithm and using location-aware adaptive applications can reduce both handoff delay and QoS variability. When there is a potential for considerable variation between senders’ and receivers’ device capabilities, deploying a receiver-specific filter in part of the network close to the source can effectively reduce the amount of traffic and processing, perhaps satisfying other users’ QoS needs.

2.7 Internet Speeds
2.5G is the interim solution for current 2G networks to have 3G functionality. 2.5G networks are being designed such that a smooth transition (software upgrade) to 3G can be realized. 2.5G networks currently offer true data speeds up to 28kbps. In comparison, the theoretical speed of 3G can be up to 2 Mbps, i.e., approximately 200 times faster than previous 2G networks. This added speed and throughput would make it possible to run applications such as streaming video clips. It is anticipated that 4G speeds could be as high as 100 Mbps. Thus, 4G will represent another quantum leap in mobile Internet speeds and picture quality. Ericsson confirms that 4G could bring connection speeds of up to 50 times faster than 3G networks and could offer three-dimensional visual experiences for the first time. The following graph represents what has been the typical progression of wireless communications:
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3. DATA TRANSMISSION IN 4G

NETWORK

To achieve a 4G standard, a new approach is needed to avoid the divisiveness we've seen in the 3G realms. One promising underlying technology to accomplish this is multicarrier modulation (MCM), a derivative of frequency-division multiplexing. MCM is not a new technology; forms of multicarrier systems are currently used in DSL modems, and digital audio/video broadcast (DAB/DVB). MCM is a baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth subchannels to transmit information. Normally implemented with Fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, MCM's advantages include better performance in the intersymbol interference (ISI) environment, and avoidance of single-frequency interferers. However, MCM increases the peak-to-average ratio (PAVR) of the signal, and to overcome ISI a cyclic extension or guard band must be added to the data. Equation 1, describes peak to average adjustment - the difference of the PAVR between MCM and a single carrier system is a function of the number of subcarriers (N) as: (1) Any increase in PAVR requires an increase in the linearity of the system to reduce distortion. Proposed approaches to reduce PAVR have consequences, however. One such technique is clipping the signal; this results in more non-linearity. Linearization techniques can be used, but they increase the cost of the system, and amplifier backoff may still be required. Cyclic extension works as follows: If N is the original length of a block, and the channel's response is of length M, the cyclically extended symbol has a new length of N + M - 1. The image presented by this sequence, to the convolution with the channel, looks as if it was convolved with a periodic sequence consisting of a repetition of the original block of N. Therefore, the new symbol of length N + M - 1 sampling periods has no ISI. The cost is an increase in energy and uncoded bits added to the data. At the MCM receiver, only N samples are processed, and M - 1 samples are discarded, resulting in a loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as shown in Equation 2.
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(2) Two different types of MCM are likely candidates for 4G as listed in Table 1. These include multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) using time division multiple access (TDMA). Note: MC-CDMA is actually OFDM with a CDMA overlay. Similar to single-carrier CDMA systems, the users are multiplexed with orthogonal codes to distinguish users in MC-CDMA. However, in MC-CDMA, each user can be allocated several codes, where the data is spread in time or frequency. Either way, multiple users access the system simultaneously. In OFDM with TDMA, the users are allocated time intervals to transmit and receive data. As with 3G systems, 4G systems have to deal with issues of multiple access interference and timing. Differences between OFDM with TDMA and MC-CDMA can also be seen in the types of modulation used in each subcarrier. Typically, MC-CDMA uses quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), while OFDM with TDMA could use more high-level modulations (HLM), such as, multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) (where M = 4 to 256). However, to optimize overall system performance, adaptive modulation can be used; where the level of QAM for all subcarriers is chosen based on measured parameters. Let's consider this at the component level. The structure of a 4G transceiver is similar to any other wideband wireless transceiver. Variances from a typical transceiver are mainly in the base band processing. A multicarrier modulated signal appears to the RF/IF section of the transceiver as a broadband high PAVR signal. Base stations and mobiles are distinguished in that base stations transmit and receive/ decode more than one mobile, while a mobile is for a single user. A mobile may be a cell phone, a computer, or other personal communication device.

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The line between RF and base band will be closer for a 4G system. Data will be converted from analog to digital or vice versa at high data rates to increase the flexibility of the system. Also, typical RF components such as power amplifiers and antennas will require sophisticated signal processing techniques to create the capabilities needed for broadband high data rate signals. In the transmit path inphase and quadrature (I&Q) signals are upconverted to an IF, and then converted to RF and amplified for transmission. In the receive path the data is taken from the antenna at RF, filtered, amplified, and downconverted for base band processing. The transceiver provides power control, timing and synchronization, and frequency information. When multicarrier modulation is used, frequency information is crucial. If the data is not synchronized properly the transceiver will not be able to decode it. From a high level, the structure of the RF/IF portions of the mobile and base station are similar, however, there are significant differences in their architectures and performance requirements. Key drivers for both are performance and cost; mobiles also need to consider power consumption and size.

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4. 4G PROCESSING
Given that 4G is based on a multicarrier technique, key base band components for the transmitter and receiver are the FFT and its inverse (IFFT). In the transmit path the data is generated, coded, modulated, transformed, cyclically extended, and then passed to the RF/IF section. In the receive path the cyclic extension is removed, the data is transformed, detected, and decoded. If the data is voice, it goes to a vocoder. The base band subsystem will be implemented with a number of ICs, including digital signal processors (DSPs), microcontrollers, and ASICs. Software, an important part of the transceiver, implements the different algorithms, coding, and overall state machine of the transceiver. The base station could have numerous DSPs. For example, if smart antennas are used, each user needs access to a DSP to perform the needed adjustments to the antenna beam.

4.1 Receiver section
4G will require an improved receiver section, compared to 3G, to achieve the desired performance in data rates and reliability of communication. As shown in Equation 3, Shannon's Theorem specifies the minimum required SNR for reliable communication: (3) Where C is the channel capacity (which is the data rate), and BW is the bandwidth. For 3G, using the 2-Mbps data rate in a 5-MHz bandwidth, the SNR is only 1.2 dB. In 4G, approximately 12-dB SNR is required for a 20-Mbps data rate in a 5-MHz bandwidth. This shows that for the increased data rates of 4G, the transceiver system must perform significantly better than 3G. With any receiver, the main issues for efficiency and sensitivity are noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, spurious rejection, and power consumption. 4G is no exception; the sensitivity can be determined as shown in Equation 4 :

(4)

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Where KTo is the thermal noise (for this equation it is -174 dBm), BW is the receiver bandwidth, NF is the receiver noise figure, and SNRavgMCM is the average SNR for a MCM system needed for an expected bit error rate. For a 4G receiver using a 5-MHz RF bandwidth, 16 QAM modulation and NF of 3 dB, the receiver sensitivity is -87 dBm. For 3G, the receiver sensitivity needs to be -122 dBm; the difference is due to the modulation and PAVR. This illustrates the need to reduce PAVR by clipping or coding. Also the gain is required to be linear, and the group delay must be flat over the bandwidth of the signal. The receiver front end provides a signal path from the antenna to the base band processor. It consists of a bandpass filter, a low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a downconverter. De-pending on the type of receiver there could be two downconversions (as in a super-heterodyne receiver), where one downconversion converts the signal to an IF. The signal is then filtered and then downconverted to or near base band to be sampled. The other configuration has one downconversion, as in a homodyne (zero IF or ZIF) receiver, where the data is converted directly to baseband. The challenge in the receiver design is to achieve the required sensitivity, intermodulation, and spurious rejection, while operating at low power.

4.2 The first line of defense
The receiver bandpass filter is the first line of defense to eliminate unwanted interference and noise. This filter must be able to achieve the cutoff needed for each bandwidth. In a 4G implementation, the bandwidth could be as low as 5 MHz and as high as 20 MHz. If the filter were to be only 5-MHz wide, it would not have the capabilities to use the 20-MHz bandwidth. However, if the filter is 20-MHz wide and the signal is only 5-MHz wide, the extra interference would increase the noise and reduce sensitivity. This means that a tunable filter is needed. One option would be a bank of filters with different bandwidths, where selection is made based on the need. A typical LNA has a noise figure of approximately 1 dB and a gain of about 20 dB. A trade-off is made between gain and noise to provide the best solution. The LNA sets
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the noise figure of the overall receiver, since it is one of the first components of the receiver. Because of the high PAVR of the signal, the LNA will also have to be very linear to minimize any extra distortion. The downconverter section of the receiver will have to achieve good linearity and noise figure while consuming minimal power. A measure of the linearity in the mixer section is the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). This is directly related to the second and third order intermodulation products also known as IP2 and IP3. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is the key component that can break the new system. System issues of the ADC concern whether or not to use undersampling, the PAVR of the signal, the bandwidth, and the sampling rate. For a 5-MHz bandwidth signal a typical sampling rate would be 20 MHz. If IF sampling is used, the aperture uncertainty or jitter must be low enough to prevent errors. The next requirement is the dynamic range. For an MCM system using the theoretical PAVR for a 512-point IFFT, the dynamic range required would be 80 dB, which is equal to 13 bits. This relationship is demonstrated in Equation 5, which shows quantization noise, determined from the link budget as follows:

(5) The desired quantization noise is determined by the average ratio of average signal power to average noise spectrum density measured in dB (Eb/No) for the sub carriers, the data rate (DR), and backoff (which is generally 15 dB). The constant 20 dB is added to the end to put the quantization noise 20 dB lower than the system noise. The number of bits can be calculated as shown in Equation 6.

(6) In this equation, fs is the sampling rate. If the signal has interference or blocking, the ADC requires additional bits. The required dynamic range of the ADC could increase from 15 to 17 bits.
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4.3 Base band processing
The error correction coding of 4G has not yet been proposed, however, it is known that 4G will provide different levels of QoS, including data rates and bit error rates. It is likely that a form of concatenated coding will also be used, and this could be a turbo code as used in 3G, or a combination of a block code and a convolutional code. This increases the complexity of the base band processing in the receive section. 4G base band signal-processing components will include ASICs, DSPs, microcontrollers, and FPGAs. The receiver will take the data from the ADC, and then use it to detect the proper signals. Base band processing techniques such as smart antennas and multi-user detection will be required to reduce interference. MCM is a base band process. The sub carriers are created using IFFT in the transmitter, and FFT is used in the receiver to recover the data. A fast DSP is needed for parsing and processing the data. Different algorithms can be used to create a smart antenna; the goal is to improve the signal by adjusting the beam pattern of the antennas. The number of DSPs needed to implement a smart antenna depends on the type of algorithm used. The two basic types of smart antenna are switched-beam antennas and adaptive arrays. The former selects a beam pattern from a set of predetermined patterns, while the latter dynamically steers narrow beams toward multiple users. Generally speaking, SA is more likely is used in a base station than a mobile, due to size and power restriction. Multi-user detection (MUD) is used to eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) present in CDMA systems. Based on the known spreading waveform for each user, MUD determines the signal from other users and can eliminate this from the desired signal. Mobile devices do not normally contain the spreading codes of the other users in the cell, so MUD will likely be implemented only in base stations, where it can improve the capacity of the reverse (mobile-to-base) link.

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4.4 Transmitter section
The purpose of the transmitter is to generate and send information. As the data rate for 4G increases, the need for a clean signal also increases. One way to increase capacity is to increase frequency reuse. As the cell size gets smaller to accommodate more frequency reuse, smaller base stations are required. Smaller cell sizes need less transmit power to reach the edge of the cell, though better system engineering is required to reduce intra-cell interference. One critical issue to consider is spurious noise. The regulatory agencies have stringent requirements on the amount of unwanted noise that can be sent out of the range of the spectrum allocated. In addition, excess noise in the system can seriously diminish the system's capacity. With the wider bandwidth system and high PAVR associated with 4G, it will be difficult to achieve good performance without help of linearity techniques (for example, predistortion of the signal to the PA). To effectively accomplish this task, feedback between the RF and base band is required. The algorithm to perform the feedback is done in the DSP, which is part of the base band data processing. Power control will also be important in 4G to help achieve the desired performance; this helps in controlling high PAVR - different services need different levels of power due to the different rates and QoS levels required. Therefore, power control needs to be a very tight, closed loop. Base band processing is just as critical whether dealing with the receiver or transmitter sections. As we've seed, RF and base band work in tandem to produce 4G signals. The base band processing of a 4G transmitter will obviously be more complicated than in a 3G design. Let's consider the chain of command. The digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is an important piece of the transmit chain. It requires a high slew rate to minimize distortion, especially with the high PAVR of the MCM signals. Generally, data is oversampled 2.5 to 4 times; by increasing the oversampling ratio of the DAC, the step size between samples decreases. This minimizes distortion.
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In the baseband processing section of the transmit chain, the signal is encoded, modulated, transformed using an IFFT, and then a cyclic extension is added. Dynamic packet assignment or dynamic frequency selection are techniques which can increase the capacity of the system. Feedback from the mobile is needed to accomplish these techniques. The baseband processing will have to be fast to support the high data rates. Even as 3G begins to roll out, system designers and services providers are looking forward to a true wireless broadband cellular system, or 4G. To achieve the goals of 4G, technology will need to improve significantly in order to handle the intensive algorithms in the baseband processing and the wide bandwidth of a high PAVR signal. Novel techniques will also have to be employed to help the system achieve the desired capacity and throughput. High-performance signal processing will have to be used for the antenna systems, power amplifier, and detection of the signal.

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5. APPLICATION AND SERVICES
Today’s wireless users expect great things from tomorrow’s wireless networks. As stated earlier, these expectations have been fueled by hype about what the next generations of wireless networks will offer. Application developers and service providers are paying close attention to user expectations to determine what services to develop and offer. Wireless users can be categorized into generalized segments. The wireless industry must understand these segments and what drives each segment’s requirements and expectations for the next generation of wireless technology. Users can be segmented in many ways. According to a recent presentation by Lucent Technologies at the Supercomm 2001 conference in June, Lucent is considering segmenting users into the following categories: Gender, Age, Internet Usage, Income Brackets, and Mobile Professional. The Gender segment refers to new female users, versus traditional male users. These users are typically medium-income individuals. The types of applications being developed for this segment are social and entertainment applications such as instant messaging and chatting. The Age segment is composed of the youth market—generally individuals 18 years old or younger. Typically these users do not pay for their own service—their parents or guardians do. The types of applications being developed for this segment are social and entertainment applications such as music services. The Internet Usage segment is composed of individuals that typically spend longer than average (i.e., more than about 32 minutes per session1) browsing the Internet. Typical users in this segment are technology focused. The types of applications being developed for this segment are information applications such as personalized news services and streaming news feeds (i.e., delivered with audio, video, text, or any combination of the three). These users are especially difficult for providers to satisfy because they are accustomed to the Internet model of billing (i.e., essentially unlimited usage for a small, fixed fee). The Income Bracket user segment is composed of middle-aged, value-conscious individuals. The types of applications being developed for this segment are information services such as up-to-the-minute, personalized stock tickers. These users are also generally safety oriented; therefore, regular, reliable voice and data communications are paramount. The Mobile Professional segment refers to users who rely on wireless devices to conduct day-to-day business. This segment includes professionals who travel on a regular basis. These users are generally very important
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to service providers because they often spend more to obtain the services they require. The types of applications being developed for this segment are messaging applications such as mobile faxing, e-mailing, and instant messaging. To augment solid applications, providers are also developing subscriber equipment to allow for roaming on disparate, worldwide wireless networks using a single communications device (worldwide interoperability). Like the Income Brackets segment, the Mobile Professional bracket

Figure 5.1: Services and application

demands regular, reliable voice and data communications. Public safety interests fit well in the Mobile Professional segment. In addition to the overall functionality required by the Mobile Professional segment, public safety users require guaranteed secure communications. More details regarding the impacts of next generation applications on the public safety community are presented later in this document

5.1 General Services and Applications
For purposes of this document, services are defined as functions offered to subscribers by providers. Applications are defined as programs, software, or features that take advantage of (apply) the services offered by the networks. Generally, four categories of services or applications are being developed for use in the next generations Information, of wireless communications. They and are Localized/Personalized Although Communications, Organizational, Entertainment.

localized/personalized information services and applications are geared to most users across all the user segments previously mentioned, these services are more critical to the Internet Usage, Income Brackets, and Mobile Professional segments. Localized/ personalized information services and applications will provide users with general news, financial news, location guides, mobile commerce, and travel services. These
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services will allow the user to establish a single profile that will be associated with the user whether in his/her home coverage area or roaming on other systems. In some European countries (e.g., Scandinavia), there are applications that track public transportation. This information allows users to time their arrival to mass transportation stops with the arrival of the bus or train. This type of localized/personalized information service is currently deployed on a limited basis in countries with enhanced 2.5G wireless networks2. This service can be either push based or pull-based, depending on whether the subscriber wants the mass transit information automatically sent to the wireless device or if the subscriber wants the mass transit information on an as-needed basis. Push and pull services are discussed in detail later in this document. Communications services and applications involve messaging and other means of staying connected. These services and applications are important to all the user segments, especially the Mobile Professional segment. Communications services include short messaging service (SMS), e-mail, video conferencing, fax, and bulletin boards. Although some of these services are available in today’s wireless systems, in future generations these services will be greatly enhanced. (Speed and reliability are the most notable enhancements planned for these services.) Organizational services include personal digital assistant (PDA) capabilities; currency exchange based on user location, and other personal management applications (e.g., calendars, call management, and address books). Organizational services and applications are relevant to all the user segments but are geared primarily to the Income Brackets and Mobile Professional user segments. Entertainment services are viewed by service providers as having the greatest potential for immediate return on investment. Entertainment services may include streaming audio, streaming video, chat, photo trading, and gaming. In the Asian wireless market, where preliminary iterations of 3G are being deployed, entertainment services are generating substantial revenue. The user segment targeted for entertainment services is the Age segment. Another service generating much excitement in the industry is mobile commerce (M-Commerce). M-commerce is the ability for subscribers to purchase items (e.g., gas, food from vending machines, etc.) using a wireless device. For example, to purchase an item from a vending machine, users would dial a phone number or access code associated with the item (most likely marked on the vending machine) and the item would be dispensed. In this scheme, the vending machine would be connected to the public switched telephone network
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(PSTN) via a modem or other gateway-type device. The wireless service provider would pass the information to the vending company and the vending company would, in turn, pass the information to the vending machine to instruct it to dispense the item. The user's wireless service account would be billed for any items purchased, much like a credit card. This type of M-commerce is currently being tested and implemented (on a very limited basis) in select countries in Europe and Asia already having advanced, 2.5G wireless networks. M-commerce can be considered Information and/or an Organization type of service.

5.2 Push, Pull, and Location-Based Services
Push and pull services are services that rely on the network’s ability to locate subscribers. In 4G, it is envisioned that networks will be able to pinpoint the exact location of subscribers, both indoors and out. This ability will make it possible for value-added functionality to be offered by service providers. Both push and pull services are further enhanced by user profiles. User profiles, established and updated by subscribers, assure that information to each user is truly customized. User profiles contain the subscriber’s preferences (e.g., likes/dislikes, schedules, and formats) and permissions (i.e., who is allowed to know who and where they are). The user’s profile would reside in a database maintained by the service provider. The user profile will be used by the serving network to push services to subscribers. For example, if a user likes a particular type of food, the network will see the preference in the user’s profile and will push information regarding restaurants that serve that type of food in the general locale of the user. Similarly, the user will be able request this same information from the network (pull) if he or she chooses not to have this information pushed to the wireless device. The challenge with location-based services is not in the applications but in the implementation. For location services to be of any real value, the network must be able to determine the location of subscribers to a high degree of accuracy—perhaps to within a few feet. Current wireless networks do not have this capability. In today’s networks, location can be determined by looking at the serving cells that are communicating with the user’s handset. At best, this technique can be accurate to within a few city blocks, not nearly the accuracy needed for 4G applications. Current plans for 4G involve using Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to route data packets to the handset. IPv6 has built in location tracking that will enhance the network’s ability to pinpoint a subscriber’s location. Some have proposed
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applying global positioning system (GPS) capabilities in handsets to help locate subscribers. GPS, however, would be helpful only to a minor extent. GPS relies on the ability its receiver to “see” multiple satellites orbiting the Earth. If the receiver has no access to the sky (i.e., it is indoors), no location information can be provided. Aside from location, the network must be able to determine various other statistics. The network must be “aware” of the users’ availability and capability. Privacy groups have already expressed concerns regarding network awareness. It is critical that service providers and users manage permissions closely in 4G networks.

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6. IMPLEMENTATION
As with all technology progressions, the “next” upgrades must be in planning and development phases while its predecessors are being deployed. This statement holds true with all mobile telecommunications to date. It seems that it will also hold true for the next generations of wireless networks. The original analog cellular systems are considered the first generation of mobile telephony (1G). In the early 1980s, 1G systems were deployed. At the same time, the cellular industry began developing the second generation of mobile telephony (2G). The difference between 1G and 2G is in the signaling techniques used: 1G used analog signaling, 2G used digital signaling. As experience shows, the lead-time for mobile phone systems development is about 10 years. It was not until the early to mid 1990s that 2G were deployed. Primary thinking and concept development on 3G generally began around 1991 as 2G systems just started to roll out. Since the general model of 10 years to develop a new mobile system is being followed, that timeline would suggest 4G should be operational some time around 2011. 4G would build on the second phase of 3G, when all networks are expected to embrace Internet protocol (IP) technology. During the last year, companies such as Ericsson, Motorola, Lucent, Nortel and Qualcomm came up with "3G-plus" concepts that would push performance of approved, though still emerging, standards beyond current ones.

Figure 6.1: Technology progress in 10 years

4G will be coming, of course. Just like 2G and 3G, 4G will require global telecom standardization to approve the technical specifications and allocate the radio
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spectrum. The current understanding is that the spectrum allocation will happen at a World Radio Conference in 2006 or 2009, with the initial standard for ‘Systems beyond IMT2000’ being developed during the following few years to be ratified by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) which is the topmost governing body to ratify all telecom standardization. The earliest that the first prototype 4G cellular networks can be deployed would be around 2010, but more likely 2012. If anybody suggests that they currently have 4G prototypes in use or being developed, are just capitalizing on technology hype without being in touch with cellular telecoms reality.

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7. LIMITATIONS
Although the concept of 4G communications shows much promise, there are still limitations that must be addressed. One major limitation is operating area. Although 2G networks are becoming more ubiquitous, there are still many areas not served. Rural areas and many buildings in metropolitan areas are not being served well by existing wireless networks. This limitation of today’s networks will carry over into future generations of wireless systems. The hype that is being created by 3G networks is giving the general public unrealistic expectations of always on, always available, anywhere, anytime communications. The public must realize that although highspeed data communications will be delivered, it will not be equivalent to the wired Internet – at least not at first. If measures are not taken now to correct perception issues, when 3G and later 4G services are deployed, there may be a great deal of disappointment associated with the deployment of the technology, and perceptions could become negative. If this were to happen, neither 3G nor 4G may realize its full potential. Another limitation is cost. The equipment required to implement a next generation network is still very expensive. Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that expenses are kept realistic. One technique currently being implemented in Asian networks is a Pay-Per-Use model of services. This model will be difficult to implement in the United States, where the public is used to a servicefor-free model (e.g., the Internet).

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8. CONCLUSION
4G networks may eventually deliver on all the promises. At times, it seems that technological advances are being made on a daily basis. These advances will make high-speed data/voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) networks a reality. In the meantime, it is important for industry to develop a strong 3G offering that is palatable for the general public. Equally as important, industry must ensure that expectations are realistic and that services meet and exceed those expectations. If all goes according to what the industry envisions, it may be sooner, rather than later that we will see wireless communications evolve. This evolution will give the general public as well as the public safety community amazing functionality from the convenience of a single handheld device.

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REFERENCES
1) “3G and Beyond… Wireless Technologies”, presented at Supercomm 2001 2) Issues in Emerging 4G Wireless Networks Upkar Varshney and Radhika Jain, Georgia State University 3) http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~jxie/4G/ 4) http://voicendata.ciol.com/content/columns/fromcell/101010301.asp 5) http://voicendata.ciol.com/content/columns/fromcell/201010301.asp

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