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# Solubility: The

amount that dissolves in a given quantity at a given temperature to produce a saturated solution. Solute: The substance that is to be dissolved by the solvent, usually the lesser amount of the two. Solvent: The substance that dissolves the solute, usually the greater amount of the two.

Solution: A homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. Electrolyte: Compounds that conduct an electric current in aqueous solutions or in a molten state. Saturated Solution: contains the maximum quantity that can be dissolved. Unsaturated Solution: contains less than the max quantity that can be dissolved. Supersaturated Solution: contains more solute than is possible to be dissolved.

The freezing point of a substance is defined as the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the solid and the liquid states of that substance are equal. The more ions in solution, the greater the effect on the freezing point. We can calculate the effect of these solute particles by using the following formula: DTf = Kf x msolute x i
DTf = the change in freezing point Kf = molar freezing point depression constant for the substance (for water = 1.86C/m) i = number of ions in solution

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. Because vapor pressure is lowered by the addition of a nonvolatile solute, the boiling point is increased. We can calculate the change in boiling point in a way thats similar to how we calculate the change in freezing point: DTb = Kb x msolute x I Kb = molar boiling point elevation constant (for water = 0.51C/m)

Vapor Pressure-the pressure of a vapor in contact with its liquid or solid form When a nonvolatile solute is added to a liquid to form a solution, the vapor pressure above that solution decreases. Vapor pressure is temperature-dependent Higher concentration of solute particles, less solvent at the interface and the lower the vapor pressure. Relationship referred as Raoults Law.

Placing a solution with a pure solvent in same container with semipermeable membrane will cause one to be lowered while other increases. Osmosis- the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides. Osmotic Pressure- the pressure of a solution against a semipermeable membrane to prevent water from flowing inward across the membrane. Reverse Osmosis-the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.

= (nRT/V)i -osmotic pressure n-number of moles of solute R-ideal gas constant T-Kelvin temperature V-volume of solution i-vant Hoff factor