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Combining state-of-the-art technology, F-INSAS would reduce logistic burden of the individual soldier almost by 50 per cent. There are also plans to develop ‘robotic mules’ to carry additional loads of soldiers on the battlefield.
In This Issue
T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s
The concept of a triservice batch training together and passing out as a batch has served to foster course spirit and deep ties. Under no circumstances should it be diluted. “Future infantry soldiers will be equipped with more lethal weapons, better sensors for increased battlefield transparency and personal radio sets for situational awareness.” —Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh, Director General Infantry
MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) G.D. BAKSHI
E di torial
China’s challenge to India’s security is looming large on the horizon and it would be highly imprudent on our part to ignore it. Some of the indications are: China’s self-image as a predominant power of South Asia; its aspirations to be a superpower by 2049 with a powerful and modernised military capability; its compulsive use of Pakistan to keep India engaged on her western front and off balance militarily to pose any threat to Beijing; its dismissive and derogatory approach to India’s democratic experience; its strategy of encircling India through her neighbours and confining her within the subcontinent; its totally critical approach to India’s nuclear status; its negative disposition in allowing India to become a permanent member of the Security Council; its duplicity in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) negotiations; substantially improved infrastructure in the form of upgradation of its roads, railways and airfields in Tibet; its unwillingness to resolve the border dispute; its growing incursions across the “Line of Actual Control”; and its oft repeated claim over the entire Arunachal Pradesh being Chinese territory. In October, Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh’s visit to Arunachal Pradesh to address election rallies was objected to by China, strangely 10 days after the event. Are these indications along with growing prowess of the PLA and their fast paced modernisation not sufficient to perturb the Indian state? The Indian response to this growing threat in most areas is even more startling. Let us take the case of defence procurement. In the last seven years, not a single major contract has been signed in an open competition. Almost all proposals have met an untimely demise due to allegations of irregularities. In fact, most vendors have got so fed up of the vulnerability of the Indian system that some of the bigger OEMs have opted out of certain deals. Vendors find the system intimidating and dissuasive. So the tardiness of our response to an assertive China is evident. Are we going to awaken from our slumber? This issue carries the interviews of the DCOAS (P&S) and the DG Infantry apart from a host of other informative articles.
Excl u s i v e I n t e r v i ew
Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor
In an exclusive Interview to the Editor of SP’s Land Forces, Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, and SP’s Senior Technical Editor Lieutenant General (Retd) Naresh Chand, Deputy Chief of Army Staff (Policy and Systems) Lieutenant General Manbir Singh Dadwal, AVSM** and VSM, flags the modernisation efforts of the Indian Army
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
‘Pace of capital procurement has
Photographs: Abhishek / SP Guide Pubns
SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): In the reconstitution of responsibilities within the Army Headquarters in the past, what are the responsibilities and roles assigned to the DCOAS (P&S)?
Deputy Chief of Army Staff (DCOAS): As the DCOAS (P&S), my responsibility is principally related to coordinating the modernisation, equipping and capability development of the Indian Army, both for immediate and future requirements, through respective directorates. This also includes updating of short-term and longterm perspective plans in keeping with the changing security perspective, equipment availability, fiscal parameters and formulation of General Staff Policy Statements.
SP’s: Despite the changes in the Defence Procurement Policy (DPP) 2008, the procurement procedure of new weapon and other defence systems takes inordinately long which, apart from resulting in increased costs, may also result in procuring systems which are technologically outdated. What are the measures being taken to overcome this drawback?
DCOAS: The revised defence procurement procedure lays down a clear time frame for each and every activity involved in procurement, right from the stage of acceptance of necessity till the contract is signed. The entire duration of the process now ranges from 20 to 34 months. In order to achieve these timelines, preventing increased costs/ cost overruns and achieving technology updated procurements the following measures have been instituted: • Structures have been put into place for formulation of explicit and technically achievable General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR). • Statement of Cases are prepared after necessary technology scan and formulation of compliance matrix to achieve cost efficiency. • A culture of cost consciousness has been promulgated to achieve informed decisions, taking into account the lifecycle costs of a system under procurement. • Separate structure of Requests for Proposal (RFP) preparation and layered vetting, has been set up to ensure multi-vendor and cost effective selection at the Technical Evaluation Committee and Contracts Negotiation Committee stages. • Structures for evaluation of technical proposals in a transparent, fair and well-defined manner for objective in-ter se comparison has ensured that technologically outdated systems are not considered. • Suggestions to further streamline the procurement process have been made for incorporation in the DPP 2008.
SP’s: Field artillery’s equipment profile has been adversely affected by non-procurement of 155mm guns and howitzers, both the self-propelled (SP) and towed variety resulting, in a fire power deficit in the Indian Army. This has been reported extensively in the media. Request an update on the following: • Status of procurement of 155mm (SP) guns to fill existing voids • Status of procurement of 155mm (towed) guns to replace older generation equipment • Procurement of 155mm light weight how (45 calibre) for the mountains • Upgrading of existing 39 calibre 155mm how (Bofors)
the Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister) with the service chiefs, Secretaries in the Ministry of Defence and Chief of Integrated Defence Staff as its members. This involves preparation of the triservice 15-year Long-Term Integrated Perspective Plan and preparation of prioritised tri-service five years plan, including coordinating the effort of the three services. Therefore, the relevance of IDS is irrefutable. So far as delays in procurement process are concerned, we have undertaken a host of measures, including: • Increased frequency of Services Capital Acquisition Plan (SCAP) meetings. • Identification of fault lines and talking remedial measures. • Structural changes like establishment of GSQR, RFP and monitoring cells. • Recommending amendments to DPP 2008 with our experience to hasten processes. • Streamlining and evolving fresh Standard Operating Procedures for GSQR formulation, issue of RFPs and trial methodology.
“Procurement action in respect of variants of 155mm (SP) guns is underway. Trials of wheeled gun are likely to commence by the end of this year.”
howitzer for mountains. Procurement of 39 calibre ultra light howitzer is in progress as is the proposal to upgrade 155mm/39 calibre Bofors guns.
SP’s: The army’s air defence (AD) artillery is in dire straits. No new equipment, except for one regiment of Tunguska, has been inducted in the last three decades or so. All equipment currently held is outdated and, in many cases, obsolescent. What are the measures being taken to rectify this situation? Battle Tank (MBT) Arjuns. What is the status of this tank currently and what is the plan for further induction of 124 tanks which were contracted originally? Are there plans to induct beyond this figure?
SP’s: How does the Acquisition Wing, headed by the DG Acquisition, assist the procurement process? What is its role in the entire procedure?
DCOAS: Modernisation plans for army air defence include the provisioning of a judicious mix of surface-to-air missiles and air defence guns to provide air defence to value assets, both at the national and the field forces level. The sensor-to-shooter grid will be based on a secure, fast and reliable network to enable real time threat evaluation, weapon assignment and destruction of enemy aerial targets before these are able to cause any damage. The modernisation plan envisages procurement of radars for surveillance and fire control, surfaceto-air missiles and gun systems and the requisite control and reporting systems. The plan also caters adequately to improve the air defence equipment inventory with current technology weapon systems.
SP’s: L-70 guns have been with the army for more than 40 years. The radars of this system have been changed many times but the gun system has not been changed. These constitute almost 50 per cent of the strength of AD systems in the army. What is being done in this regard?
DCOAS: One armoured regiment based on MBT Arjun has been equipped with its full complement of 45 tanks. The second regiment is also being equipped with MBT Arjun. The first regiment is at present undergoing conversion training. On successful completion of the conversion training, the regiment will participate in comparative trials. The aim of comparative trials is to evaluate the operational performance of Arjun vis-à-vis the T-90 and accordingly assign an appropriate operational role to the former. A decision on further induction of MBT Arjun would be taken post the comparative trials.
SP’s: In the seminars on armoured fighting vehicles, the requirement of light tanks for the mountains in the east as well as in the western sector had emerged. Is there any move in this direction considering the requirement of the army in North Sikkim and Ladakh?
DCOAS: DG Acquisition is a member of all SCAP committees and has a major role in procurement post categorisation. The Acquisition Wing maintains a database of vendors, post acquisition proposals, such as Request for Information, on the Internet. It also prepares and issues RFP. DG Acquisition is also responsible in ‘make’ cases to follow the procurement process post conduct of feasibility studies. The DG Acquisition and his staff offer valuable advice to the services in capital procurement. A very healthy interface exists between the offices of DG Acquisition and the service headquarters.
SP’s: Long term strategic planning is the domain of DCOAS (P&S) as well as the Vice Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS)? Functionally, how are the responsibilities shared between the two?
DCOAS: The Indian Army is considering the option of inducting light tanks for certain terrain specific requirements. The GSQR for the same is at present under formulation.
SP’s: The overhaul of the T-72 tank is behind schedule by a few years. This will adversely affect the fleet of tanks held by the army. How is the army planning to get over this issue?
DCOAS: In the army, we have a well structure and balanced process for long term strategic planning which is mandate of the Perspective Planning Directorate. A part of this process is carried out under the VCOAS, especially those activities that need to be undertaken conjointly with the MO and the MI Dtes, while the rest are through the DCOAS (P&S). Among these, the development of military strategic options, evaluation of force levels, weapons mix, operational concepts and doctrines and defence cooperation are some of the activities performed under the VCOAS. On the other hand, the formulation of the army’s perspective plans and the capital acquisition are carried out under the DCOAS (P&S).
SP’s: Is the capital budget allotted to the army adequate considering the voids in the inventory and requirements of modernisation and induction of new technologies?
DCOAS: Procurement action in respect of variants of 155mm (SP) guns is underway. Trials of wheeled gun are likely to commence by the end of this year. As regards 155mm/52 calibre (SP) gun, the GSQR is being revised on account of poor vendor response. There is, however, no proposal for procurement of 45 calibre
DCOAS: The L-70 gun systems, alongwith its radar, is at present providing air defence to certain specified value assets. The effectiveness of this system has been enhanced by upgrading the existing radars and by procuring better technology radars. Moreover, the process of identifying successor for L-70 gun as well as the radar is in progress. Based on the threat evaluation of the future air threats, a well considered decision has been taken to convert some L-70 regiments into surface-to-air missile regiments. Balance L-70 regiments would be equipped either with an upgraded L-70 gun or with a new generation air defence gun system in due course.
SP’s: On May 25, a Press Information Bureau release reported that after 35 years of research, the army equipped itself with the first regiment of Main
DCOAS: There have been some slippages in the planned schedule of overhaul of the T-72 tanks. The MGO is addressing this aspect holistically through a multipronged approach, including continuous and uninterrupted supply of spares. The aspect of outsourcing overhaul to the private sector is also being analysed.
SP’s: With the introduction of Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), has the system of procurement been facilitated? The impression among the strategic community is that unacceptable delays continue to occur in this respect. What measures are planned to overcome this drawback?
DCOAS: Under the new acquisition system, the Deputy Chief of IDS is the exofficio Member Secretary of the Defence Acquisition Council, which is chaired by
DCOAS: Adequate defence outlay has been earmarked by the government to meet the envisaged defence requirements. Government has time and again assured that enhanced defence outlay will be made available, as and when required, to achieve modernisation goals. With the formulation of DPP 2008 and reforms in procurement procedures, the pace of capital procurement has increased, resulting in overall enhanced combat effectiveness and utilisation of allocated financial outlay. Requirement of additional defence budget is contingent to our capability to procure equipment. We have been assured that, as and when required, additional funds will be made available. SP
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
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SP’s Land Forces (SP’s): Outline your vision on the growth and employment of infantry in future conflicts. Do you foresee any change in roles, tasks, organisation and equipment of the Infantry Battalion in the future?
T Ê TE-À-TÊTE
looks ahead by 20 years’
Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh (DG INF): In any victory, the major contribution is of the infantry. Even in future conflicts, the infantry will remain the decisive combat arm, the role of which is to close in, capture or destroy the enemy and hold ground. Iraq, Afghanistan and Lebanon have shown us that Revolution in Military Affairs with heavy reliance only on standoff weapons and technologies have failed to deliver its objectives. The infantry soldier, duly empowered with adequate lethality, would be the greatest force multiplier and would continue as the decisive arm of combat even in future scenario. No change in the basic role of the infantry is thus likely, be it offensive, defensive or asymmetric warfare, though the tasks would vary. I visualise the infantry’s continued commitment in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations, border management, maintaining the sanctity of the Line of Control (LC), Line of Actual Control, Actual Ground Position Line, internal security duties, aid to civil authorities in providing relief and maintaining law and order and peace as outlined in the UN Charter. Review of organisation and equipment profile of infantry is an ongoing process necessitated by the changes in technology and keeping up with our neighbours. Continuous efforts are undertaken to make it more vibrant and dynamic to meet the future challenges of asymmetric warfare. Future infantry soldiers will be equipped with more lethal weapons, better sensors for increased battlefield transparency and personal radio sets for situational awareness besides greater protection in keeping with the operational needs.
SP’s: Changed nature of warfare demands a change in tactical employment of infantry; Fourth Generation Warfare advocates operating in smaller groups. How will this impact upon the recruitment standards, training and junior leadership?
Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh, Director General Infantry, in a candid conversation with Editor of SP’s Land Forces Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, shared his thoughts on a host of important issues affecting the infantry
each soldier to function as an advanced lethal platform that serves both as a sensor and a shooter and fits seamlessly into the overall all arms fighting hierarchy. To begin with, we are looking to attract recruits with higher education standards and IQ. The focus of training at the regimental centres is to enhance the physical and mental toughness of the recruits to sustain the pressures of modern day conflict in addition to training on the tactical aspects and handling of hi-tech weapon and equipment that are being inducted into the infantry. This is further reinforced in the Infantry Battalions where training is a continuous process of preparation for conflict as per the role of the unit/formation. As part of career progression, infantry soldiers are moulded and prepared to progressively assume greater responsibilities as junior leaders. This aspect has gained greater importance in view of the emphasis • Improvement in fire power-both in quantum and accuracy. • Sensors to provide day/night all weather capability. • Information sharing through networking and information management by automation. My endeavour is to further enhance the capability of our infantry soldier and equip him with adequate lethality, protection and situational awareness to meet the challenges of both conventional and the next generation of warfare. We are in the process of adopting the above technologies towards meeting the operational objectives set out for the infantry.
SP’s: What is the progress on the Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) project? Among its various stages of development, have any stage been completed as yet? What are the highlights of each stage of development? Have the requirements been outsourced or will the system be developed ingeniously?
sive tasks against well armed and motivated rebels. Since infantry units are fully trained and combat experienced in such operations in India, they find it very easy to adapt to the prevailing environment in UN missions and come out with flying colours in any task that is assigned to them. In addition, the Indian Army equips all infantry units proceeding on UN missions to the best standards, suitably augmented by mechanised infantry, engineers and signal elements, where required.
SP’s: Considering the severe shortage of young officers in the units and involvement of Commanding Officers in formation tasks, especially in peacetime, is the unit administration and man management suffering? How can this issue be tackled at the level of the army?
“Future infantry soldiers will be equipped with more lethal weapons, better sensors for increased battlefield transparency and personal radio sets for situational awareness.”
on small team operations, and today junior leaders are consciously being groomed to display greater mental toughness, initiative, presence of mind and self-reliance to meet the current and future challenges.
SP’s: Technology is driving the change in method of war-fighting. What technologies should the infantry units and formations adopt to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in future wars?
DG INF: The project proposal has been approved by the Chief of the Army Staff and sanction to commence initial phase of the programme has been accorded. Being a complex hi-tech system-of-systems, we would like to explore all avenues to obtain current, state-of-the-art technology. We are hoping to progress the programme as a partnership between the defence and private industry with infusion of the best possible technology available in the world and mate it to our unique operational requirements to create a solution that is of global standards and fully addresses our needs.
SP’s: The infantry has been the bedrock of the Indian Army’s participation in UN Peacekeeping operations. How can its performance be further improved?
DG INF: The current and future operational scenarios are likely to be characterised by high tempo of operations in an asymmetrical environment, possibly against a nuclear backdrop, and will demand a high level of initiative, decision making and tolerance for ambiguity on the part of the soldier. To survive and operate in the changed paradigm of Fourth Generation Warfare, the infantry soldier needs to imbibe the qualities that enable
DG INF: With rapid advancements in the field of science and technology, the nature of warfare is also changing. Future wars are likely to be short, intense and characterised by greater transparency, increased accuracy and lethality with much higher tempo of activities. In these times, while the army needs to maintain conventional deterrence, it should also be prepared to face the more probable threat of asymmetric war. The technological advancements that would impact future operations of infantry can be categorised as under:
DG INF: Indian contingents in UN Peacekeeping operations have earned a reputation for professionalism that is perhaps unrivalled by any other country. We are today considered by the UN as the most versatile troop contributing country primarily because of our professionalism and the zeal for doing our duty with honour and pride. These UN operations are predominantly infantry-based with a multitude of tasks encompassing both conventional and non-conventional missions. Just to name a few, tasks vary from counter-insurgency related activities such as establishment of a grid based deployment, protection of convoys, cordon and search, search and destroy operations, to conventional operations such as unit level and even formation level offen-
DG INF: There is no denying the fact that there is a shortage of officers in the units, however, the army is alive to this issue and is addressing it proactively so that there is no fall in the standards of either unit administration or man management or training and operational tasks. The junior leaders (Young Officers/ Junior Commissioned Officers) are being groomed to look after unit administration and man management aspects with special emphasis to interpersonal relations. Leave policy of a soldier has been made liberal and adequate attention is given to rest and recoup of the soldier. The Commanding Officer, other officers and junior leaders are easily approachable and domestic problem of soldiers are being looked into. Living standards of a soldier is constantly getting upgraded and it suffices to say that there has been a marked improvement in the quality of life and the soldier is comfortable and happy. At the army level, steps are being taken to enhance availability of officers at the cutting edge, that is, at the Infantry Battalion level. A few of these steps include increasing intake of officers, making short service entry more attractive and policies to ensure only essential on essential duties are pulled out of units on staff duties and extra regimental employment with due care not to dilute the fighting efficiency of the Infantry Battalion.
SP’s: Is the modernisation of the infantry on track? What are the major voids in this regard?
DG INF: Modernisation of the infantry is progressing as planned and there are no voids.
SP’s: How does the army cater for the high mental stress and fatigue of the soldier in
Continued on page 6
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
Photographs: SP Guide Pubns
G R E AT P E R F OR M ANCES.
DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF ELECTRONIC DEFENCE SYSTEMS.
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
DG Infantry Interview
Continued from page 4
counter insurgency areas? Are they taught to handle the stress factor?
DG INF: The army is addressing the issue of stress with the seriousness and concern that it deserves. Managing stress is a command function and is done at all levels. There are well laid out and formalised standard operating procedures on the subject existing in the units and all ranks are being regularly sensitised on the gravity of the situation. Senior officers in the chain are carrying out necessary checks during their interaction, visits and inspection of units and formations. The causative factors for increased stress are basically socio-economic, environmental and psychological. The army is taking numerous remedial measures to arrest this condition. Enforcement of a liberalised leave policy, focus on leadership and man management, frequent visits by senior officers to units and formations to assess conditions of employment and living, increasing contact between the leaders and the led, sensitising Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) and NonCommissioned Officers (NCOs) to be alive to the sensitivity of the troops and accord-
protection will be provided. The web equipment of a soldier will need improvement and will be in consonance with the modernisation of infantry.
SP’s: Terrorists infiltrating Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) are now far better trained and better equipped. What are we doing to offset these advantages?
DG INF: Such terrorists have been welltrained all along. The infrastructure has been in place and operational long enough. So far as equipment is concerned, the only change has been the usage of Global Positioning System and the proliferation of mobile phones. We are continually upgrading and refining our tactics in order to have the upper hand.
SP’s: In future wars, smaller, lighter, more mobile forces will dominate the battlefield. This will demand a very high standard of junior leadership and a change in attitudes of the officer cadre in the army. How is the transformation being achieved?
ponent of infantry units and sub-units is contemplated; however, their employment would be based on tactical requirements. In the future battle field scenario, the role of infantry is likely to remain unchanged though the nature of war is likely to be significantly different. The future infantry soldier will be equipped with a good personal weapon system and smart surveillance devices with dedicated data links to provide situational awareness and to achieve synergy with other arms and services in a network centric warfare scenario. The new generation weapons planned to be procured for the infantry are lighter and have more lethality due to changing technology. Hence, it is visualised that future infantry soldiers will be more lethal in execution and lighter on foot for better mobility.
SP’s: Today, a large amount of infantry is organised to hold ground and be employed defensively. Considering the changed nature of war, how is the army planning to overcome this mental block and transform the infantry to become a more dynamic force in the future?
Northeast is providing a good setting to keep the units operationally worthy. What has been the experience of the infantry units in this regard?
DG INF: The LC environment definitely provides a good setting to keep our units operationally worthy as there is no substitute for experience. The experience of coming under effective fire cannot be substituted by any amount of training. Evading effective fire, closing in on the adversary and neutralising him by own fire calls for a high degree of field craft, weapon handling and raw courage. However, training for different operations of war is also required since all operations are different in their nature and experience in only one operation does not guarantee success in other operations.
SP’s: Modern armies, like the US Army, have adopted a variety of new weapon systems to fight in Afghanistan which are worth examining and emulating. These include unmanned aerial and ground systems, robotics and radio communications with over-the-horizon tech-
DG INF: The 21st century environment is one of unprecedented complexity, ambiguity,
ing high priority to officer-man relationship are among the measures initiated. In addition, regular exercise and games including Yoga is also being encouraged as an effective ‘stress buster’. Units are also being encouraged to use the services of ‘Psychological Health Mentors’, who are trained in psychiatric centres. These mentors include the religious teachers, army education corps JCOs and NCOs and regimental medical officers. In addition, suitable setup have been established at Army Headquarters, Command Headquarters and Formation Headquarters to monitor and periodically review measures to be adopted to arrest stress related cases.
SP’s: Some time ago it was reported by the media that uniform and equipment of all ranks is being improved and standardised. How will this impact upon the Infantry soldier? Please elucidate on the planned improvements.
DG INF: Good quality of uniform and equipment has a direct bearing on the fighting efficiency, morale and confidence of the soldier. In our effort to meet the needs of the soldier and ensure standardised equipment profile, a new combat uniform has been trial evaluated. It is likely to be issued to all ranks shortly. In addition to this, a lighter ballistic helmet and bullet proof jacket for individual
speed and organisational change. The future leaders must, therefore, be versatile, flexible, adaptive and innovative to remain effective in this changed environment. There is a need for the leader to be able to operate in a network centric environment. To this end, the Indian Army is training its officers to be network enabled. A number of high technology systems are being fielded in the infantry, which calls for a high level of technical expertise and mental ability on the part of the junior leaders. However, the next generation of warfare also means that the leaders have to strike the right balance of effective man management, tactical requirements and technical skills. We are grooming our junior leaders to raise their technical threshold in addition to their basic training on greater mental toughness, initiative, presence of mind and self-reliance to meet the current and future challenges.
SP’s: How can the infantry units be made lighter in manpower and yet capable of generating greater firepower and lethality to cater for the requirements of network centric environment and Fourth Generation Warfare?
DG INF: While defending our borders has traditionally been perceived as the primary aim of the armed forces, that role has evolved over time to include task based formations specialising in offensive operations, special operations, counter-insurgency/terrorism, and so on. The current organisation of a standard Infantry Battalion has been prepared based on the operational role and functions of the infantry in various types of terrain and, accordingly, in addition to a standard Infantry Battalion, we have modifications for mountains, deserts, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and counter terrorist operations. Various specialised weapons and equipment are authorised for operating under these modifications. The infantry is, as such, a dynamic force characterised by its ability to adapt. The training of all ranks is so structured, that each and every officer and soldier is able to take part in all operations of war with equal dexterity. In addition, the various wargames and exercises also condition and train the soldier in various operations of war.
SP’s: One of the biggest problems in peacetime is to keep combat units honed for battle. The LC environment in J&K and the
nology. Their Future Combat Systems will comprise a new family of eight vehicles, the non-line-of-sight launch system and advanced tactical and urban sensors, all connected to a state-of-art network of computers, software and radios that will allow full connectivity between soldiers at any level from brigade to squad. Is the Indian Army alive to these developments and what are its aspirations in this regard?
DG INF: Infantry is manpower intensive, thus no reduction in the manpower com-
DG INF: Modernisation of the infantry is a continuous and ongoing process. We have launched major modernisation plans with particular emphasis on improvement in firepower, mobility, surveillance and night fighting capability. Some of these weapons and equipment, such as Multiple Grenade Launchers, Automatic Grenade Launchers and simulators, have already been inducted and state-of-the-art rifle, carbine, protective gear, communication and over the hill surveillance by unmanned aerial vehicles are in the pipeline. The F-INSAS project is also looking forward 20 years ahead. The project aims to empower the infantry soldier with state-ofthe-art digital technology, connecting the soldier to his commanders, increasing his situational awareness and achieving seamless connectivity in order to fight in a network centric environment. SP
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
DRS Tablets for the US Army
DRS Technologies receives order from Elbit Systems for military rugged tablet computers for US Army’s Firecon programme
RS Technologies, Inc., has received a $3.4 million (Rs 16 crore) contract to provide Military Rugged Tablet (MRT) systems for the US Army Mortar’s Firecon programme at Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey. The contract was awarded to DRS by Elbit Systems of America in Fort Worth, Texas. The systems are designed and manufactured at the DRS Tactical Systems business unit in Melbourne, Florida. Deliveries will begin this year and continue through 2014. The US Army will utilise the MRT as the centralised controller device and computer for the Mortars FireCon system which links mortar fires capability with the
digital battlefield. “We are pleased that our MRT has been selected by Elbit Fort-Worth for this mission-critical army application. This award reinforces our commitment to the design and production of the MRT, the premiere mission-critical ultra-rugged tablet in use today by the US Army, Marine Corps and Air Force,” said Mike Sarrica, Vice President and General Manager of DRS Tactical Systems, Inc. The MRT was designed with a sunlight readable display and dual core processing to perform in the most extreme conditions, including on the move operations. MRT capabilities include increased pro-
cessing speed via dual-core technology, a removable Hard Disk Drive, a Night Vision Imaging System capable 10.4” display and embedded MIL-STD-1275 power conditioning. The DRS MRT establishes new standards in performance for highly rugged military computers meeting MIL-STD810F, and MIL-STD-461E specifications. DRS Tactical Systems is a global leader in ultra-rugged, commercial-off-the-shelfbased computers, displays and embedded workstations, handheld devices, tablet computers, and integrated peripheral products. The products of this DRS group have been incorporated into the US Army’s Force XXI Battle Command,
Brigade and Below programme, the US Army’s Common Hardware/Software II and III programme, and the UK’s BOWMAN integrated battlefield communications system programme. DRS Technologies, headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey, is a leading supplier of integrated products, services and support to military forces, intelligence agencies and prime contractors worldwide. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Finmeccanica S.p.A. which employs more than 73,000 people worldwide. For more information about DRS Technologies, please visit the company’s website at www.drs.com. SP
T h e O N LY j o u r n a l i n A s i a d e d i c a t e d t o L a n d F o r c e s
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45 YEARS FINAL.indd 1
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SP's LandForces 05-09.indd 1
10/31/09 12:33:40 PM
In an exclusive Interview to the Editor of SP’s Land Forces, Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, and SP’s Senior Technical Editor Lieutenant General (Retd) Naresh Chand, Deputy Chief of Army Staff (Policy and Systems) Lieutenant General Manbir Singh Dadwal, AVSM** and VSM, flags the modernisation efforts of the Indian Army The concept of a tri-service batch training together and passing out as a batch has served to foster course spirit and deep ties. Under no circumstances should it be diluted.
Interview of Deputy Chief of Army Staff
Lt General Manbir Singh Dadwal
T TH HE I N • Y AN DI CH AN es IN A Jo in • N ES RM th o E (P Y e S po • D LA) TR ll on AR ON & ’t G co Kn MY ER m o ? m
Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh, Director General Infantry, in a candid conversation with Editor of SP’s Land Forces Lieutenant General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor, shared his thoughts on a host of important issues affecting the infantry
Yudh Abhyas 2009
Pictures & videos of the first Indo-US joint exercise of mechanised forces
Launch of SP’s Special Supplement at the C4I2 Summit held in Delhi on August 10 and 11 (Report on p9). Video is also available
Forging Tri-service Bonds
MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) G.D. BAKSHI
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
Photograph: DRS Technologies
THE SO DIER
as a System
I n fantr y
F-INSAS, a big ticket project of the IA with estimated cost of $2 billion (Rs 9,300 crore), is expected to be completed by 2020
onjoined upon the broader concept of Revolution of Military Affairs, Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS) is a revolutionary soldier modernisation programme of the Indian Army (IA). Essentially based on the concept of modular force, it encapsulates the army’s vision of a future battlefield scenario wherein the individual infantry soldier forms an important node in a wider communication network and in real-time shares with his buddy soldier, sub-units and the overall C4I2 (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Information and Intelligence) network a common situational awareness of the battlefield. Increasingly popular with a number of modern armies in the world, the concept has grown with the need to provide the foot soldiers of the IA with significant lethality, survivability, mobility, battle command, awareness, sustainability and combat effectiveness in future. The growing threat of urban insurgency in India, intermingled with high-tech nature of modern terrorism, has put additional onus on the IA to equip and train its special operation forces in a digitised environment so as to enable it’s commanders to correctly assess ground situations in counter-insurgency operations, take split-second decisions, coordinate movement of troops in action and counter enemy’s fire power with increased fire power, precision and lethality—all in real time.
on-line health monitoring system, protective clothing and other such accessories, would look like characters straight out of Hollywood thriller movies—think Arnold Schwarzenegger from Terminator. Combining state-of-the-art technology, at present available in composite material sciences, nanotechnology, information technology, biotechnology and robotics, F-INSAS would reduce logistic burden of the individual soldier almost by 50 per cent. As part of the drive to modernise the Indian infantry further, there are also plans to develop ‘robotic mules’ to carry additional loads of soldiers on the battlefield. These remotelycontrolled robotic mules will also carry automated-weapons to launch concentrated fire power on the enemy. Truly, a new dawn of high-tech warfare in a fully digitised environment awaits the Indian infantry soldiers.
Warning Sensors (A-, B-, C-, Radar-, Health-, Laser-, IFF Device, Landmine Detection Sensor) GPS
A Worldwide Phenomenon
Inertial Navigation System
Fills the Critical Digital Gap
F-INSAS, in fact, is at the heart of infantry modernisation drive of the IA which has been on for the past few years. The 2007-08 Annual Report of the Ministry of Defence mentions, “In pursuit for modernisation, the Infantry Battalions are being provided state-of-the-art weapon systems of greater lethality, range and precision, thermal imaging devices, bullet and mine proof vehicles and secure radio communications.” In May 2006, while elaborating upon the need for soldier modernisation programme, the Parliament’s Standing Committee on Defence in its eleventh report (on page 83) to the 14th Lok Sabha stated, “The programme has been visualised as a next-generation infantry small arms system that will give the Indian soldier unprecedented capability in the 21st century digitised battlefield.” F-INSAS aims to fill a critical digital gap in the Infantry Division of the IA. Implemented completely, it would turn the Infantry soldiers into self-contained killing machines by 2020. Termed as ‘soldier as a system’, the ongoing soldier modernisation programme visualises the future infantry soldier as someone who is equipped with lightweight dual-caliber weapons which has integrated thermal sight and fire control system. The future infantry soldier of the IA wears a helmet which has in-built sensors to help improve his situational awareness on the battlefield and communicate with other nodes in the network. The future soldiers, equipped with latest gizmos, such as wearable computers, anti-mine shoes,
The IA, however, is not alone in seeking to modernise its infantry soldiers in such a revolutionary way. At present, there are about 20 such heavily funded and futuristic programmes underway by different armies around the world. The US, naturally, is at the forefront of soldier modernisation programme globally. However, France, Germany, and UK have also made significant advances towards modernisation of their foot soldiers. China and Russia, though relatively new to this growing worldwide military phenomenon, are making serious inroads in the promising world market of soldier modernisation equipment. A recent industry report has estimated that soldier modernisation applications generated a total of $440 million (Rs 2,045 crore) in sales worldwide last year. The report concludes that this revenue will steadily rise over the next decade. The Indian military, with a major thrust towards modernization, is expected to import military hardware worth $30 billion (Rs 1,39,530 crore) over the next five years. A significant part of this import bill is likely to be channeled towards buying of soldier modernisation equipments for the special operation forces and the infantry soldiers of the IA.
Clothing, Protection and Carrying System
Proposal also included night-vision devices, laser designators and detachable underbarrel grenade launchers. In order to meet future army small arms requirements, the state-owned Ordnance Factories Board, is reportedly working jointly with Israel Military Industries on the prototype of a small weapon that will feature an improved sighting system and a miniaturized computer to improve accuracy. Essentially a combined project of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the military, FINSAS has generated huge interests among global defence industry players, like Rolta Thales Limited, EADS and Israel’s Elbit Systems. With Israel in an advisory role, the state-owned DRDO is the lead developer of FINSAS programme, even as indigenous companies like Tata, Godrej, Alpha Technologies, and L&T are eagerly waiting for their share of the F-INSAS cake. However, with DRDO as the main driver of F-INSAS project, one can never be sure whether the infantry’s most ambitious soldier modernisation project will meet the cut-off year of 2020. Such pessimism ensues from the fact that many of DRDO’s vital projects in the past have been inordinately delayed, resulting in cost overruns. Besides, procedural lapses and civil-military hiccups which are normal for India could also take the F-INSAS project well beyond its scheduled time frame. The army’s insistence on DRDO meeting specific standards, particularly those relating to size and weight, can force the F-INSAS project take the eventual import route at the cost of indigenisation. Hence, maintaining stra-
Combining state-of-the-art technology, F-INSAS would reduce logistic burden of the soldier almost by 50 per cent. There are also plans to develop ‘robotic mules’ to carry excess loads of soldiers on the battlefield.
tegic autonomy will remain a big challenge before the DRDO. Integration of various systems and sub-systems within the stipulated time-frame, cost effectiveness, weight and size, power, data connectivity, man and machine interface, and so on are issues that will have to be successfully dealt with. The DRDO has, however, with foreign collaboration, produced some cutting edge weapon technology for the armed forces. F-INSAS is not a project that involves high technology. With collaboration from foreign companies, including technology made available from indigenous sources, it should not be difficult for the DRDO to help the IA meet the emerging challenges of the 21st century digitised warfare. SP
The author is a Military Analyst.
F-INSAS, a big ticket project of the IA with estimated cost of $2 billion (Rs 9,300 crore), is expected to be completed by 2020. The army hopes to equip initially up to 10 infantry battalions for F-INSAS user trials by 2015. The project has indeed moved beyond the conceptualisation phase and stands at a point where procurement of major systems and sub-systems are underway. With the first F-INSAS equipment likely to be handed over to the army by 2012, about 5,000 members of India’s special operations forces have already been equipped with Israelimade Tavor assault rifles. A global tender valued at around $1.1 billion (Rs 5,117 crore) was issued by India’s Ministry of Defence towards Aprilend last year for procurement of 43,318 close quarter battle carbines to bolster F-INSAS programme. The Request for
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
Skyranger E 260x191.qxd
New tasks, new solutions
The Skyranger gun system is a self-propelled multi-mission system for protecting mobile units and stationary assets. Thanks to modular armour, the unmanned turret can be optimally outfitted for the mission at hand. Using the high performance Ahead ammunition, the Oerlikon 35 mm revolver gun of the Skyranger system is the ideal weapon for engaging air and ground targets. An electro-optic tracking sensor or tracking radar controls the weapon and automatically tracks the assigned target. More information at: www.rheinmetall-defence.com
Rheinmetall Marketing Office India · The Taj Mahal Hotel · Office Suite 422 · Number One Mansingh Road · New Delhi · 110011 India · Phone +91 11 23 02 60 60 · Fax +91 11 23 02 60 50
DECISION Support Architecture
The army needs a seamless digitised communication network capable of picking up information from sensors deployed in the battlespace and passing it on a need-to-know basis to all concerned commanders in the field
LT GENERAL (RETD) V.K. KAPOOR
t present, the Indian Army (IA) is organised, equipped and trained for Third Generation, industrial age conflicts engaging low and medium level technology. The threat from traditional adversaries has been paramount in motivating the prevailing concepts and doctrines of war and organisational structures. This has manifested in the preparation and readiness for limited conventional conflicts apart from the Low Intensity Conflict Operations (LICO) which is being fought within India’s borders and in which the army has been embroiled since the 1950s. The latter involvement has become far more acute and critical since the onset of the ‘Proxy War’ in Jammu and Kashmir, assisted, encouraged, and funded by Pakistan, since 1989. The future challenges mainly lie in the domain of LICO, including counterinsurgency and counter-terrorist operations. However, considering the unstable conditions in most of our neighbouring
The IA wants to create a seamless link from the top to the bottom as an integrated command and control enterprise. The Command Information and Decision Support System will be the hub of this enterprise.
states and China’s continuing belligerence, India cannot afford to lower its military preparedness because it may well be forced to fight wars whose origin or root cause may be beyond its control. Hence, the army has to be prepared to fight limited conventional wars of high intensity and acquire a relatively small but power-
ful OOA capability—in other words, a tri-service expeditionary capability, in addition to a nuanced capability for LICO. Excessive obsession with conventional defensive operations has skewed the army’s organisations, operational doctrines, concepts, equipment pattern and deployment. Even the training of its forces needs a change in orientation. The traditional methods of war fighting have favoured deliberate set piece offensive and defensive military operations against fixed defences and, hence, the operational philosophy favours ‘force-on-force’ attrition oriented operations which are tactically biased and in short wars, especially in the mountains, the gains are going to be limited unless the army changes its operational doctrine and the method of waging wars and acquire new capabilities. Strategic and tactical air mobility, together with the development of network enabled warfare capability and the ability to launch effects based operations against state and non-state actors, will consider-
ably enhance the IA’s capabilities.
A New Battlefield Environment
A new battlefield environment has emerged due to the advent of standoff, multi-spectral sensors with real time communications that give situational awareness so that targets can be acquired, prioritised and destroyed, by day or by night, in all weather conditions, throughout the battlefield, with stand off weapon systems firing precision attack munitions. It is being pointed out by many analysts that indirect and stand-off engagements from aircraft, unmanned combat aerial vehicles and long range artillery can relieve ground elements including armour from the role of destroying enemy combat elements at close quarters. However, this is fallacious argument because it stands disproved in both Iraq and Afghanistan. While such technologies are lethal and do provide an overContinued on page 10
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
Decision Support Architecture
continued from page 9
TAC C3I Architecture
The architecture depicted diagrammatically comprises of the following elements: • ACCCS: Artillery Combat Command and Control System for automation of all artillery tasks in the field which includes preparation and execution of fire plans, direction, control and correction of fire, and functions at the artillery command post and at the gun end. This system has already been fielded in the combat formations of the army. • EWS: Electronic Warfare System is based on the electronic warfare units operated by the Corps of Signals of the army whose linkage in the system has finalised. Their integration in the CIDSS of the army will now be progressed in Phase II of the Project for which sanction of the government has been sought. • ELINT: Electronic Intelligence units are operated by the Intelligence staff of the formation and their linkage in the CIDSS is also being progressed. They will also get integrated in Phase II of the project. • BMS: Battle Management System, which is being designed to operate at the unit level and below, will synthesise the battle picture for the unit commander whether it be an infantry unit or an armoured regiment. Tanks and selected infantrymen will become situational awareness platforms. This project which was started only about two years ago is now being pushed at a faster rate as this constitutes the cutting edge of the army’s CIDSS programme. Future Infantry Soldier as a System (F-INSAS), which is a part of this project is being progressed by the Infantry directorate but will be a part of the overall BMS of the IA. • AD C&R: Air Defence Control and Reporting System will automate the detection, identification, designation and destruction tasks of the Army Air Defence Artillery. It would, therefore, have to be integrated with the Indian Air Force’s air defence network. The project is at present is in the test bed stage. • BSS: Battlefield Surveillance System will integrate all surveillance resources of the army, including, radars, UAVs, electro optical systems, photographic and visual systems to provide a coherent picture to the commander. This is also at the test bed stage.
ments together have to be handled by yet another agency. Theoretically, this can be done by the Deputy Chief of Army Staff (Information Systems and Training), or the DCOAS (IS&T), to whom both the DGs report. However, in reality, this is not possible as the DCOAS does not have the staff or the technical expertise to handle the subjects concerned. Different armies have evolved different models. The most favoured model is where one DG (from the command stream, General Cadre) controls both information and communications. In IA’s case, it could be the DGIS accorded the status of a Principle Staff Officer (PSO) similar to that of the DCOAS. This would ensure integration and cohesion. However, the IA being very large and the Corps of Signals being a major arm, may have felt the necessity of letting the Signals have its own identity, thus it seems that the army, has now decided to put both the DGs under the Director General Military Operations (DGMO) who in the restructuring of the Army Headquarters is likely to be made a PSO. But this model alone will not solve the problem because, at present, the DGMO’s organisation does not have any section head with any expertise or knowledge of information systems under development and is staffed, in the concerned sections, with officers from the Corps of Signals whose bias is evident from the delays
Organisation of DGIS
DGIS (Director General Information Systems)
ADGIS ADG MIL SVY
PMO ACCCS PMO BSS PMO CIDSS PMO AD C&RS AIC
DDG IT AS DC
CAMS (Centre of Automated Mil Svy) ADMC (Army Digital Mapping Centre) 501 FSEG (Field Svy Eng. GP) DIGIT (Def Institute for Geo Spatial Info & Eng)
Index for Abbreviations
• ADGIS - Additional Director General Information Systems • ADG MIL SVY - Additional Director General Military Survey. • DDG MISO - Deputy Director General, Management Information Systems Organisation. • ASTROIDS - Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System. • CIDSS - COMMANDERS INFORMATION AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM. WILL RIDE ON TACTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM. • BMS WILL RIDE ON REGIMENTAL/BATTALION COMBAT NET RADIO. • AD C&R - AIR DEFENCE CONTROL & REPORTING SYSTEM. • BSS - BATTLE FIELD SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM • ACCCS - ARTILLERY COMMAND, CONTROL AND COMPUTER SYSTEM. • EWS - ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM. • BMS - BATTLE MANGEMENT SYSTEM. • ELINT - ELECTRONIC INTELLIGENCE. • TAC C3I - TACTICAL COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS & INTELLIGENCE. • Ops - Operations • Int - Intelligence • PMO - Project management office • Lgs - Logistics
whelming advantage over the adversary if he does not possess them, they do not preclude the use of infantry and armour on the ground. No gains can be consolidated without occupation of ground and establishment of a peaceful order. In fact, asymmetric and Fourth Generation wars in the modern era will demand a greater focus on all arms combat but with selective employment of ground troops. The tactics and the manner of employment will differ considerably. Such wars will also mandate a far greater integration within the army and tri-service integration at the operational
and military strategic levels which is currently lacking. Further, while the Indian armed forces do possess a few technologies in the standalone mode they are neither integrated nor networked even though they are progressively moving towards this direction.
four functions—operations, intelligence, logistics and terrain. At the core of this enterprise are three vital links. At the apex is the Army Strategic Operational Information Dissemination System which will connect Army Headquarters to the Command Headquarters and forward to the Corps Headquarters while rearwards it will connect to the national command post, the other Services and other national level entities. The latter portion dealing with the national strategic level will be enabled through the C4I2SR (Command, Control, Computers, Communications, Intelligence, Information, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) System when it gets established. The second vital link will connect the Corps Headquarters forward to the Battalion Headquarters. This will be the Tactical C3I (Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence) system which will be based on the tactical communication system which in turn will currently rely on satellite communications, radio relay equipment and other modes of communications which will allow for static and mobile operations. The third link, the Battle Management System (BMS), will be at the Battalion (unit) level and below and will be based on combat net radio. The army’s TAC C3I system is designed to assist in planning, directing and controlling field forces. Its function is to provide: • Commanders at all echelons with accurate, timely and credible information, • Means to process, display and evaluate data for situational awareness as an aid for decision support, and • Capabilities to transmit order and decisions to own forces and weapon systems both during war and peace.
Complete integration of information and communications seems to be the major weakness of the army
that are taking place in clearing the project files. The DGMO will have to have a section solely responsible for information systems with qualified officers from the General Cadre stream to be able to render operationally useful advice and to come to logical conclusions in respect of the problems facing the DGIS.
Time is of the Essence
Command & Control
The IA wants to create a seamless link from the top to the bottom as an integrated command and control enterprise. Command Information and Decision Support System (CIDSS) will be the hub of this enterprise which will integrate
Currently, communications and information, which cannot be segregated in operational usage, are being dealt by two director generals (DGs), both Lieutenant Generals, who are handling their respective departments, namely DG Signals and DG Information Systems (DGIS). Their cohesion and integration are proving difficult due to differing perceptions and turf wars and, hence, these two depart-
The work on IA’s CIDSS and many of its various projects had started few decades ago. However, a fresh impetus was injected into this project with fresh inputs from the US military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the combined effects of digitisation of the battlefield with the stand-off, multi-spectral sensors that give situational awareness about enemy and own troops. This led to the amalgamation of existing structures and the creation of the DGIS organisation in 2004. Despite the dynamism of the present DGIS, the overall progress in the army is slow considering the vital necessity of establishing a seamless digitised communication network within the army which is capable of picking up information from the sensors deployed in the battlespace and passing it on a need-to-know basis to all concerned commanders in the field. This requires complete integration of information and communications which seems to be the major weakness of the army. Out of the projects undertaken by the DGIS, BMS is the least developed due to a late start. This being at the cutting edge of our combat capability requires close and constant monitoring at all levels. Moreover, due to the fast changing and evolving technologies in the two fields of communications and information, and the time required for absorption and development, delays in decision making and acquiring new technologies can adversely impact our combat capability in the long run. SP
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
I ndo-US Joint Ex er ci se
YUDH ABHYAS 2009
s part of the ongoing Indo-US Defence Cooperation, Indo-US joint exercise Yudh Abhyas 2009 was conducted at Babina, an Indian Army base located 25 km from Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh, from October 12 to 29. Around 1,000 military personnel from the Indian and US Army participated in the exercise under the aegis of HQ Southern Command. The Indian Army’s 7th Mechanised Infantry Battalion of 94 Armored Brigade, 31 Armored Division took part along with the US Army’s 2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry Regiment, “Strykehorse”, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, from Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. Troops and equipment of 7th Mechanised Infantry comprising more than 50 BMP-2 Infantry combat vehicles participated along with 26 Strykers and five Humvees of the US Army.
SCOPE OF THE EXERCISE
The scope of the exercise was to conduct Indo-US joint training exercise with the focus on counter-insurgency/terrorism in a semi-urban scenario under UN Peacekeeping Operations Chapter VII. The following aspects were emphasised: • Peace keeping operations, including military coordination, military decision making process and rules of engagement (ROE). • Stability Operations, including mounting and ROE, mine/counterImprovised Explosive Devices operations and patrolling. • Human rights aspects. • Civil-military operations, including road opening, convoy protection and humanitarian assistance issues. • Community operations. • Logistics support operations, including equipment issues and humanitarian assistance issues. • Share and learn from each others experience through combined military decision making and planning process, and employment of forces. • Promote mutual trust and understanding through exchange of tactics, techniques and procedures and associated logistics support. • Exposure to high technology based weapons, equipment and systems. • Exercise was conducted under UN mandate.
THE MANY FIRSTS
The exercise had the following firsts associated with it: • First Indo-US joint mechanised forces exercise. • First time that the Strykers were deployed in India. • First time that an Indian mechanised battalion participated along with the Stryker squadron in a joint exercise under overall command of an Indian brigade headquarters.
• Both sides achieved interoperability and the capability to function alongside for operations under a UN Mandate. • The US troops were exposed to the rich culture and traditions of India. They appreciated the warm hospitality. • The Indian troops gained exposure to contemporary weapon systems and technology being used by the US troops. • The mission statement set out for the exercise was fully met. SP
Photographs: Indian Army
For videos, visit www.spslandforces.net
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
Forging Tri-Service Bonds
The concept of a tri-service batch training together and passing out as a batch has served to foster course spirit and deep ties. Under no circumstances should it be diluted.
MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) G.D. BAKSHI
he prime lesson to emerge from the Second World War was the critical need for synergy and jointness in operations. The dominant trend in that war was the thrust towards inter-services synergy and integration. Thus, the German Blitzkrieg synthesised the action of the Panzer Tank formations with the Stuka Dive Bombers (which virtually served as flying artillery). It was this air-land synergy that restored manoeuvre to pre-eminence on the battlefields. On the high seas, the aircraft carriers replaced the battleships as the decisive element in naval warfare. In the jungles of Burma, to counter the Japanese tactics of deep infiltration and encirclement, the Allies resorted to creating admin boxes that were maintained entirely by the air when cut off. Amphibious operations reflected the ultimate in inter-services synergy that went far beyond mere cooperation and entailed a very high level of joint planning and execution. At the end of World War II, the British military leadership was acutely conscious of the need for inter-services synergy in modern warfare. So much so that Lord Louis Mountbatten and Field Marshal Auchinlek, when laying the foundations for the armed forces of free India, overwhelmingly emphasised on jointness. The National Defence Academy (NDA) and the Defence Services Staff College, therefore, were mooted as inter-services institutions and have done tremendous service in fostering jointness in the Indian armed forces. The NDA, in particular, was a unique and pioneering concept for it ushered in jointness at the very grass roots or the entry level itself. It thereby laid the foundations for Inter-services synergy. This was renewed at the Staff College at the mid-career level and reinforced at the National Defence College at the one star level. The peak of inter-services synergy was witnessed in the 1971 War for the liberation of Bangladesh. By 1991, a significant milestone was reached when all three service chiefs were from the first course NDA (then JSW). In the Kargil War, again all three chiefs were from the NDA, rendering a significant boost to inter-services synergy. However, services the world over have a tendency to revert to turf wars and dissonance. The NDA was designed as an institution of excellence. To attract the brightest and best teaching staff in India, its first British Principal J.T.M. Gibson had raised the salaries of civilian instructors to virtually three times of what was then being paid in the best public schools. That is why the NDA attracted the cream of the best civilian teaching talent in the country in the 1950s and 1960s. Unfortunately, thereafter (at the stage of making them permanent) a Joint Secretary in the Ministry took the inexplicable decision to reduce the remuneration of civilian instructors to below that being earned by their peers in academic institutions, on the plea that they were only teaching undergraduates. This was a body blow to the NDA. Today, the NDA cannot attract decent staff at these meager pays.
Result is: vacancies go unsubscribed and over 60 per cent of the civilian teaching staff in the NDA is employed on an ad-hoc basis. This has had a disastrous effect on teaching standards at this premiere institution. The armed forces must correct this drift and, if required (as an emergency measure), augment salaries from Service Welfare funds (in terms of an NDA allowance) to attract and retain the best talent in the country. Another severe jolt to jointness has come in the form of the navy’s recent decision to switch to a four-year B.Tech degree for all its entrants. Though the
If the navy insists that all its officers must be B.Tech graduates, the NDA can run a B.Tech course
The most deleterious effect of the decision lies in the implementation wherein naval graduates will complete only two years at the NDA and the balance two at the Naval Academy. The core concept of
each service going its own way. The army is already severely short of officers. Infantry and fighting arm officers have done well in combat without B.Tech degrees. Imposing B.Tech curricula will further restrict the number of applicants. Good outdoor oriented students from the arts or commerce streams would be lost. We need to tap this pool to get our fair share of the higher ability levels at the intake stage. There was a time when the NDA attracted the cream of the country’s elite public schools. That sadly is no longer the case. Some concrete suggestions to sustain jointness at this premier institution and improve curricula: • Four-year BA/B.Sc (Honours) Courses: All services could shift to a four-year BA/B.Sc (Honours) and B.Tech courses (for selected naval/ air force/army cadets who aspire to these). It is noteworthy that many civilian universities are opting for such honours courses. Three years could be done at the NDA and the final year at the finishing academies of the three services. • BA (Honours) courses in Military History, Military Geography & International Relations: The NDA must introduce BA (Hons) Courses in Military History and Military Geography (with emphasis on India). There are no institutes in the country exclusively catering to these vital subjects. The NDA must become a centre for excellence in the study of Indian Military History and Geography in the country. International Relations is also a vital subject for the study of strategy per se. The American armed forces send their officers on study leave to gain degrees in this field. This needs to be introduced as an honours course at the NDA for the non-technical stream. • B.Tech Stream: If the navy insists that all its officers must be B.Tech graduates, the NDA can run a B.Tech course. The first three years must be done at the NDA and only the final year at the Naval Academy. The concept of a tri-service batch training together and passing out as a batch has served to foster course spirit and deep bonding, besides serving as a strong adhesive to achieve coherence. Under no circumstances should this overwhelming advantage over all regional armed forces be diluted. Inter-services synergy has become a crucial and overriding need for victory in war. India had inherited an excellent structure for promoting jointness at the grass roots/entry level itself. It remains a pioneering concept. The three wings of the Indian armed forces cannot lose the tremendous benefits of synergy. The services cannot afford to go our separate ways. In fact, the need of the hour is to sustain and further jointness to even greater levels. The NDA is a national asset for jointness. It must be strengthened and its unique character preserved. SP
proposal has considerable merit, there is room for discussion and debate. IIT graduates and geeks may not always make the best combat leaders and war fighters. Generalists are needed to avoid tunnel vision and give the overviews and strategic direction. Physical fitness and a yen for combat may not always be the strong point of IIT/B.Tech graduates. In any case, the army and the air force are not on board on the decision to switch from BA/B.Sc courses entirely to the B.Tech stream.
Illustration: Ratan Sonal
There was a time when the National Defence Academy attracted the cream of the country’s elite public schools. That sadly is no longer the case.
jointness—wherein army, navy and air force cadets join the academy together, train together for three years and then pass out as a course—stands broken. It has taken six decades to build the structures of jointness. Today, the need for jointness and synergy has become crucial and overriding. At its initiation, the NDA was an exciting concept, far ahead of its time. It was emulated by Australia and many developing countries. Today, we cannot afford to dilute the basic structures of jointness on the plea of
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
Te chnolog y
Some of the latest and the best in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles vie for attention with a Main Battle Tank from China. Here’s a glimpse at the most modern technology on offer.
BY OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT
he Indian Military has been aware of the significance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and their “force multiplier” ever since they became conscious of their weaknesses in the field of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, especially during “Operation Parakram” in 20012002. However indigenous efforts failed
to produce satisfactory results compelling the Indian armed forces to seek UAVs from abroad. The concept of this combat tool in the hands of field commanders has now, not only gathered great momentum but has matured significantly thanks to new technologies. Two Modern UAVs and Chinas latest MBT are described in the ensuing paragraphs.
UK-based AESIR has developed a VTOL UAV that has no external rotating parts, instead it relies on a phenomenon known as the Coanda effect to generate lift. The effect can be seen by placing a can in front of a lit candle. If you blow directly at the candle, the air will bend around it and extinguish the candle—that’s the Coanda effect. In AESIR UAV, air velocity is created in the centre of the craft using a fan and then directing the air flow through an outlet so it follows over the curved surface. The amount of lift generated is dependent upon the velocity, mass and density of the air. To help reduce the weight of the craft and maximise durability the craft are made from carbon fiber. Since the rotation of the fan causes the body of the UAV to rotate in the opposite direction, AESIR placed a series of vanes in the airflow around the outside of the body to neutralise this effect. Moveable flaps on sections of the lifting surface provide yaw control to allow the UAV to turn left or right. And flaps on the outside of the craft use the lift airflow to provide directional control, causing the craft to tilt and move in the direction of the tilt. The AESIR family comprises a 300 mm diameter craft called Vidar, Odin which is a 1m diameter craft with a payload capability of 10 kg, and Hoder which is a multi-engine craft with the capability to lift a payload of 1 tonne. Vidar is a highly portable craft designed to provide surveillance and situational awareness inside buildings, and in close confined spaces. It has an electric engine powered by Lithium Polymer batteries to provide up to 15 minutes of flight time. It
weighs 400 g and is capable of carrying a 100 g payload. Odin is fitted with a Wankel Rotary internal combustion engine fueled by JP-8 jet fuel. It weighs 10 kg and can carry a 10 kg payload for up to an hour. Fitted with an autonomous flight control system and managed through a simple to operate ground control system, it can be adapted to a range of tasks, including intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance, communications relay and electronic warfare, asset protection, Improvised Explosive Device detection and can be used as a weapon or loitering munition. Hoder is a heavy lift craft that weighs 1.5 tonne and is capable of carrying a 1 tonne payload for up to eight hours. It is primarily intended for cargo transport and re-supply vehicle for front line forces, but can be adapted to become a long endurance craft by reducing the payload and increasing the fuel. Hoder is in the early stages of development but AESIR expect that it will be multi-engined. Given that the VTOL UAVs have applications beyond the military, it may not be long before there’s an explosion in UFO sightings that can be attributed to the AESIR craft.
RQ-11 Raven UAS, USA
The RQ-11 Raven is a lightweight unmanned aircraft system (UAS). It is designed for rapid deployment and high mobility for military and commercial operations. The Raven meets army requirements for low-altitude reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition. It can be operated manually or programmed for autonomous operation, utilising the system’s advanced avionics and GPS navigation. RQ-11 UAVs are manufactured in two variants—the RQ-11A and the RQ-11B—designed and manufactured by AeroVironment. More than 3,000 RQ11As were produced before 2006. The RQ-11A Raven UAV weighs about 1.9 kg. It has a flight endurance of 80 minutes and an effective operational
radius of about 10 km. Raven has a flying speed of 45 km/h to 95 km/h at typical operating altitude between 100 ft to 1,000 ft. RQ-11A Raven provides flexibility, with remote control or control through ground station. It allows completely autonomous missions using GPS waypoint navigation. CCD colour video and an infrared camera constitute the standard mission payloads. The Raven B system is an enhanced version of the battle-proven Raven A. It is a lightweight system designed for rapid deployment and high mobility for both military and commercial applications. The Raven B is the most advanced SUAV deployed with the US armed forces. RQ11B has a wingspan of 4.5 ft and a weight of 4.2 lb. Launched by hand, Raven provides aerial observation, day or night, at line-of-sight ranges of 10 km or more. It can deliver real-time colour or infrared imagery to ground control and remote viewing stations, as well as IR laser illumination of ground targets. The Raven allows military units to conduct intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance over danger zones without committing soldiers. It allows the task force to monitor an area with a less obtrusive presence and live video capabilities during day and night. Launched in just minutes, by hand, into the air like a model airplane, the Raven lands itself by auto-piloting to a near hover. It does not require carefully prepared landing strips. Requiring no elaborate support facilities, the Raven ideally suits forward-deployed units. Automated features and GPS technology make it simple to operate, requiring no specialised skills or indepth flight training.
military areas are currently equipped with this MBT. Type 99 is similar, in many aspects to the M1A1 tank and the Western Leopard 2. Western influences have been noticed in the angular welded turret design. The MBT carries 9M119 Refleks, anti-tank guided missile of Russian origin which is produced in China under a local licence. Its NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) codename is AT-11 Sniper. It has a diesel engine which is turbo charged and uses German technology, and the tank is liquid cooled. Explosive reaction armour (ERA) units were added to the turret and hull’s front portion. This contains approximately 1,000 mm to 1,200 mm of steel armour. The Type 99 has a 1,500HP diesel engine while the ZTZ98 uses a 1,200HP diesel engine. The hull and turret are built of welded steel armour. The modular design allows
PLA’s Main Battle Tank
ZTZ99 main battle tank (MBT) is also called the Type 99. It entered service in 2001. It is a successor to Type 98 G, which in turn was a successor to Type 98. Manufactured for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) by China Northern Industries Corporation (CNGC) or Norinco, the ZTZ99 MBT is considered one of the 12 best tanks in the world. It is a third-generation battle tank and, but due to its high cost (unit cost approximately $2.5 million; Rs 11 crore), it was built in small numbers. In comparison to older Chinese-made tanks, the MBT has improved capabilities in terms of protection, power and mobility. It has a crew of three. It was made to compete with western tanks. Armoured regiments in China’s Shenyang and Beijing
damaged sections to be easily replaced. New upgrades can be placed giving it increased service life. The turret’s inside design layout is modelled on Russian style. The MBT closely resembles the Russian 2A46M autoloader’s design. There is provision for extra ammunition in the fighting compartment. This makes the MBT highly susceptible to fire once penetrated. The MBT requires a bustle autoloader, on which production has not been started yet. Type 99A2, the most advanced variant, is undergoing trials and will enter service after 2009. Significant improvements of Type 99A2 make it a new tank altogether. Some of the upgrades include an information terminal and aiming system. It also includes bigger turret with a bigger tail chamber and arrow-shaped armour. It has a periscope for the commander and an integrated propulsion system with an active protection system which is set on the turret . The tank is powered by a 1,500HP diesel engine, derived from the German MB871ka501 diesel technology. The power-to-weight ratio stands at approximately 27.78, and the tank’s battle weight is 54 tonnes. The engine propels the tank with an on road speed of 80km/h and cross country speed of 65 km/h. It takes only 12 seconds to climb acceleration speeds from 0 to 32 km/h. One reverse gear and seven forward gears assist the transmission. SP
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
S how Repor t
Four packed business days drew visitors from across UK and all over world to the event held in London
OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT
he world’s largest fully integrated defence and security exhibition, Defence Systems and Equipment International (DSEi) 2009 served as an ideal platform for senior international trade and military experts from across the supply chain to interact in an optimal business environment. It provided one-onone opportunities to share ideas, discuss industry developments, conduct business and network for future growth. Visitors came from UK and all over the world to experience first-hand the latest land, air and sea capabilities of more than 1,350 companies from 40 countries over four packed business days. This year, SP Guide Publications was represented at the event held in London from September 8 to 11 by Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal and Director Sales and Marketing Neetu Dhulia.
Declarations & Debuts
At the event, TruePosition, Inc., a leading provider of wireless location technologies and solutions and a subsidiary of Liberty Media Corporation announced that it was awarded a multimillion dollar contract for its TruePosition Location Platform to be used for national security purposes. Oldbury UK used its DSEi debut attendance to announce and launch a number of new developments and products, and demonstrate the developing scope and diversity of its defence, homeland security and specialist applications business. Oldbury UK Managing Director Richard Skan said, “Our debut appearance at DSEi should be read as a very strong affirmation that we intend to grow our defence sector business at a world market level, both organically and via alliances or similar arrangements.” Cobham demonstrated its new Eagle Close Combat Radio at DSEi. Eagle is a third generation, full duplex, ad-hoc networked radio specifically designed as a short range Infantry Section/Squad radio. It allows up to five talkers to speak simultaneously in a conference mode, and provides a simultaneous encrypted voice and data capability, allowing complete flexibility of use. Eagle incorporates an automatic rebroadcast facility which both extends its range and provides excellent coverage in urban areas. Envitia launched the next generation of MapLink Pro at DSEi. This new release included exciting new functionality, offering customers enhanced capabilities while maintaining the high performance and unrivalled disparate data integration of all previous releases. The new MapLink Pro includes full integration with Google maps, comprehensive spatial database integration, a fully Open Geospatial Consortium compliant Web Feature Services client interface to
complement the already accredited Web Mapping Service, and full motion video integration along with many minor additions to the already rich feature set. Designed to give soldiers the most versatile hands-free tactical light possible, the new Sidewinder from Streamlight has 20 functions, four selectable Light Emitting Diode (LED) colours and intensity levels, plus strobe, together with an innovative articulating light head—all in one compact, lightweight and waterproof package. The Truck-Lite display includes the new 7” LED headlamp. As the first LED headlamps in commercial production, the headlamps are entering service on a wide variety of military vehicles. Thermoteknix has just launched the shutterless 384x288 25μ pitch MICROCAM module—a featherweight 30g (1oz), miniature 4x4cm (1.57x1.57 inch) thermal imager with a power consumption of <0.6 Watt. MICROCAM uses a full third less than its nearest competitor and can be easily integrated into any handheld, portable, UAV, night vision or sighting systems product. AR Modular RF will be launching KMW1031, a 20 watt output tactical booster amplifier for man pack, or man portable applications; KMW1035, the “ AR-50 Mini-vehicle booster”, a 50 watt output tactical booster amplifier for base and vehicle applications; and KMW1040HP, the “ AR-75 vehicle booster”, a 75 watt output tactical booster amplifier with remote control system for base and vehicle applications. Plextek announced a number of important performance enhancements to its range of Blighter ground surveillance radars, including significantly extended detection ranges and support for wider scan angles as well as introducing its new Vortex FastScan technology. These new features further enhance the radar’s capability to deliver classleading ‘Persistent Surveillance’, offering unrivalled protection against both convenA robot from Northrop Grumman
tional and asymmetric threats. The UK Ministry of Defence has placed the first order for a new generation of helmet-mounted displays developed by BAE Systems. The Royal Navy will purchase 12 remote sighting systems incorporating BAE Systems’ Q-Sight display, for its Lynx Mk8 helicopters. GigaCom AB has developed a new product to expand the use of fibre optics in harsh environments. D-sub EBOSA is an expanded beam insert for the company’s D-sub connector, which it converts into a robust fibre optical connector. Expanded beam technology makes this connector ideal in rough environments and less sensitive to dust, vibrations and temperature changes. AIS delivered its 1,000th IMU02 unit. This unit was part of the first high rate production batch (200 per month) for Raytheon Missile Systems Excalibur precision guided missile system. The SiIMU02R is in service on a range of programmes including the A Darter, Boundary scan enhanced. GOEPEL Electronics presented new innovations for its extended JTAG/boundary scan solutions and also in automated optical inspection. These include the VarioTAP, the first real fusion of JTAG emulation and boundary scan that has changed the boundary scan world decisively. SELEX Communications, a Finmeccanica company, introduced the Fixed Base Force Protection (FBFP) System, building on the key design features of the Enhanced Personal Role Radio (EZPRR) to provide enhanced Force Protection in and around base camps and command posts. The FBFP provides a cohesive communications infrastructure, providing an all-informed, all-secure, all on one network system of communication. It enhances the effectiveness of individuals committed to fundamental roles, such as Force Protection, by giving them the flexibility to utilise vehicles, static guard posts, vehicle check points and foot patrols. GigaCom launched the 38999 EBOSA a cost effective expanded beam termini, which will expand the use of fibre optics in harsh environments.
A full array of Elbit Systems’ solutions was on view at DSEi. The exhibition provided an excellent opportunity for visitors to view Elbit Systems. LILY is a new family of lightweight Thermal Imaging Weapon Sights (TWS) designed for use by individual infantry soldiers, which provide significant
advantages for operations in total darkness and in even the most difficult environmental conditions. MARS is an uncooled, hand-held thermal imager with target acquisition capabilities, is extremely lightweight (1.7 kg, including a rechargeable battery) and compact. Combined with low power consumption and an operating duration of over eight hours before recharge, MARS is an optimal solution for a wide range of applications including, security and perimeter defence, infantry, scouts, special units and target acquisition for infantry commanders. CORAL 3-5 μm FPA Thermal Imaging Camera is a high resolution hand-held dual FOV personal thermal imaging camera with integral GPS receiver. It is lightweight, easy to operate and provides excellent picture quality. The system’s applications include infantry, scout and perimeter defence missions. Portal Laser Designator Range-Finder weighs 5.5 kg and is designated to ranges of 10 km. Ruggedised to meet and even exceed harsh environmental conditions in accordance with IAW MIL-STD-810, it can be carried by an individual soldier and used for stand-off designation for maximum protection. A Micro Multi-Purpose Advanced Stabilized System, the Micro-CoMPASSTM is an 8” lightweight and compact payload system for small UAVs, airborne, marine and ground applications. Protel Solutions launched Omnitron Systems’ iConverter 4xT1/E1 MUX at DSEi. The 4xT1/E1 MUX is a four-port multiplexer that aggregates up to four independent T1/E1 channels from copper links onto a fibre optic link, and is the newest member of the popular iConverter fibre access platform. The Radiall LxC-R is a multi-purpose, single channel fibre optic connector for harsh environments. Steatite demonstrated its extensive knowledge and experience of supporting the defence and aerospace industries at this year’s DSEi exhibition. Each of the company’s four divisions—Steatite Rugged, Steatite Batteries, Wordsworth Technology and ICP—presented compelling new products, systems, and technology tailored for demanding military communications applications. Among the technologies on display were standard and customised rugged computer systems with high reliability user-friendly equipment interfaces. ProTel Solutions demonstrated the Winlink 1000, RadWin’s Video Surveillance Solution. Radwin’s wireless, field proven, Point-to-Point broadband solution leverages sub 6GHz licence free bands to provide instantly deployable, high quality video surveillance in any environment. By providing a robust, dedicated link per camera or per cluster of cameras, the solution offers high reliability, is simpler to install and easily scalable. SP
SP’S LAND FORCE S 5/ 2 0 09
Photographs: www.thermoteknix.com, Northrop Grumman
News i n B r i e f
Husky Tactical Support Vehicle, United Kingdom
including the new Panhard PVP (petit vehicule protégé). The vehicle-mounted information system is interoperable with the army’s other information systems, including FELIN integrated equipment suite (soldier modernisation programme). Sagem, in cooperation with information technology company Cap Gemini, has delivered around 1,200 SITEL systems out of a planned 4,500 terminals. Two questionnaires giving specific inputs for the light tank (wheeled and tracked) along with the RFI have been sent to the vendors who have been requested to respond to the RFI by October 30.
AgustaWestland to boost availability of British Apaches
GD to develop innovative tank solutions for US Army
The Husky manufactured by Navistar Defence, is a medium-armoured high-mobility tactical support vehicle (TSV) based on the international MXT model. The vehicle has been designed specifically for the British Army under a $180 million (Rs 845 crore) contract. The British Army’s fleet of tactical support vehicles includes Wolfhound, Coyote and Husky. The vehicles are also used for transporting supplies. Husky will support light armoured vehicles, while Wolfhound and Coyote will support heavy and light armoured vehicles, respectively. Under the contract with the British Army, Navistar will supply 262 Husky vehicles to the TSV fleet for deployment in Afghanistan. The first Husky made its debut on June 24 at the UK MoD vehicle show known as DVD. The Husky is part of the operational utility vehicle systems (OUVS) programme launched in 2003. Under the OUVS programme, the UK ministry of defence procures armoured vehicles to replace the RB44, Pinzgauer and Land Rover capabilities. Husky is produced in three variants— utility vehicle, ambulance and command post vehicle. The utility variant is equipped with a flat bed, while the command and ambulance variants have enclosed cabs at the rear. An ambulance developed with enhanced protection is scheduled for service in 2010 along with the command post vehicle. The Husky is similar in construction to the mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicle. MRAP vehicles are designed to sustain improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes and belong to the category of armoured fighting. The armour has been designed by Plasan Sasa and has two removable armour kits, A-kit and B-kit. The weapons included in the weapon system have a calibre of up to 12.7mm.
The US Army has awarded a $430 million (Rs 2020 crore) contract to General Dynamics to provide engineering and manufacturing services for the army’s Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). Under the five-year contract, General Dynamics Land Systems will use its expertise to help TARDEC with its core focus areas, including system engineering, power and mobility, survivability, intelligent ground systems, vehicle electronics and architecture, force projection and software. General Dynamics Land Systems President Mark Roualet said the company would work in cooperation with suppliers, other General Dynamics business units and Michigan-based technological universities to develop innovative and advanced solutions for the army. For this contract, General Dynamics has teamed up with small and disadvantaged subcontractors, including Adaptive Materials Incorporated, Borisch Manufacturing Corporation, Pyramid Systems, VI Engineering, Vetronics Research Corporation and many others.
Raytheon wins Excalibur Ia-2 round contract
The US Army has awarded a $73.3 million (Rs 344 crore) contract to Raytheon to produce Excalibur Ia-2, 155mm precision-guided projectile rounds. The future-generation precision-guided projectile rounds provide soldiers with an accurate first-round, firefor-effect capabilities in urban settings using global positioning system guidance technology. Raytheon Excalibur programme director Steve Bennett said that the army was redefining what precision meant to the warfighter. “Precision means consistently impacting the target to within 10m. Excalibur provides this precision, which is essential to the protection of civilians and combat forces,” he said. Raytheon recently tested the Excalibur Ia1’s new inertial measurement unit by firing nine shots with a 100 per cent success rate.
The British Army has awarded a £439 million (Rs 3,405 crore) contract to helicopter manufacturer AgustaWestland, a Finmeccanica company, to increase the availability of the army’s fleet of Apache attack helicopters. Under the initial five-year contract, the company will improve the levels of the helicopters’ operational output while reducing maintenance costs to generate cost savings. The support deal also includes incentivised arrangements to increase the availability of aircraft. The initial contract to meet the Apache attack helicopter future support arrangements requirement runs through March 2014. The British Army operates 67 Apaches, of which, the first eight were built by Boeing and the remaining 59 assembled by AgustaWestland. The Apaches, many of which are deployed in Afghanistan, are used for precision attack, air escort, reconnaissance, anti-armour and special forces operations.
Publisher and Editor-in-Chief Jayant Baranwal Editor Lt General (Retd) V.K. Kapoor Assistant Editor Arundhati Das Senior Technical Group Editor Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand Contributing Editor Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Chief Special Correspondent Sangeeta Saxena Assistant Photo Editor Abhishek Singh Sub-Editor Bipasha Roy Contributors India General (Retd) V.P. Malik, Lt General (Retd) Vijay Oberoi, Lt General (Retd) R.S. Nagra, Lt General (Retd) S.R.R. Aiyengar, Air Marshal (Retd) Vinod Patney, Major General (Retd) Ashok Mehta, Major General (Retd) G.K. Nischol, Brigadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal, Brigadier (Retd) S. Mishra, Rohit Sharma Europe Andrew Brookes (UK) USA & Canada Lon Nordeen (USA) Anil R. Pustam (West Indies) South Africa Helmoed R. Heitman Chairman & Managing Director Jayant Baranwal Admin & Coordination Bharti Sharma, Survi Massey Design Associate Art Director: Ratan Sonal Layout Designs: Rajkumar Sharma, Vimlesh Kumar Yadav Sales & Marketing Director Sales & Marketing: Neetu Dhulia Head Vertical Sales: Rajeev Chugh Sales Manager: Rajiv Ranjan SP’s Website Sr. Web Developer: Shailendra P. Ashish Web Developer: Ugrashen Vishwakarma Published bimonthly by Jayant Baranwal on behalf of SP Guide Publications Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers. Printed in India by Kala Jyothi Process Pvt Ltd © SP Guide Publications, 2009 Annual Subscription Inland: Rs. 600 • Overseas: US$180 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Letter to Editor email@example.com For Advertising Details, Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD POSTAL ADDRESS Post Box No 2525, New Delhi 110 005, India Corporate Office A 133 Arjun Nagar, Opp Defence Colony, New Delhi 110 003, India Tel: +91(11) 24644693, 24644763, 24620130 Fax: +91 (11) 24647093 Regd Office Fax: +91 (11) 23622942 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Representative Offices BANGALORE, INDIA Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey 534, Jal Vayu Vihar, Kammanhalli Main Rd, Bangalore 560043, India. Tel: +91 (80) 23682534 MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd Yuri Laskin Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow 115172, Russia. Tel: +7 (495) 911 2762, Fax: +7 (495) 912 1260 www.spguidepublications.com www.spslandforces.net RNI Number: DELENG/2008/25818
Fourteenth Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa Memorial Lecture
To commemorate the memory of Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa, the first Indian C-in-C and an Infantryman, the Infantry Directorate at the Army HQ organises the ‘Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa Memorial Lecture’ as part of Infantry Day Celebrations, where eminent speakers are invited to address issue of national importance. Field Marshal Cariappa was a the first officers to receive the King’s Commission in 1919 and became the first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army on January 15, 1949. He was bestowed with the highest rank of Field Marshal by the Government on January 14, 1986. The 14th Field Marshal K.M. Cariappa Memorial Lecture was delivered by the Chief Guest M. Hamid Ansari, the Honourable Vice President of India on “Insecurity and the State : Emerging Challenges”, at DRDO Auditorium, New Delhi on October 7. Army Chief General Deepak Kapoor and other service chiefs were also present. The event was organised by the Director General of Infantry.
French Army to receive 500 Sagem vehicle info systems
Light Tanks (wheeled and tracked) for Indian Army
The Indian Army is in the process of acquiring light tanks for use in semi mountainous and mountainous regions in the North and Northeast, developed and semi-developed terrain in the western borders and in the island territories. The requirement is for approximately 200 light tanks (wheeled) and approximately 100 light tanks (tracked). The army is seeking the following information to be provided in detail in reply to the Request for Information (RFI): • Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) status of the equipment. • Names of the firms, if any, that have been authorised by the OEM to deal with the Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD). • Level of technology that the firm would be willing to transfer to a firm that will be nominated by Indian MoD. • Any other relevant inputs.
• Lieutenant General P Bhardwaj has .C. taken over as the Vice Chief of Army Staff at the Integrated Headquartes of MoD (Army), Delhi. • Lieutenant General B.S. Jaswal has taken over as the GOC–in–C of Northern Command at Udhampur. • Lieutenant General A.S. Lamba has taken over as GOC-in-C of Army Training Command at Simla. • Lieutenant General M.C. Badhani has taken over as the new Director General of Border Roads at Delhi.
The French Army will receive 500 SITEL (système d’information terminal elémentaire) vehicle-mounted tactical information systems from Sagem, a member of the Safran Group. The SITEL is a tactical radio and navigation system designed to provide connectivity between basic units and combat vehicles using a terminal with a touch screen and digital map. SITEL allows both combat and support units to exchange formatted messages, calculate the range of a target, consult data bases and share displays of tactical situations. The systems are already installed on several types of combat vehicles,
5/2009 SP’S LAND FORCES
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