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Introduction To Architecture

Architectural Dictionary of
Terms, Movements and Architects

Billie Grahm & Mike Garde


Aesthetics architectural design b : the

A particular theory or conception of beauty or bottom of something considered
art : a particular taste for or approach to what as its support : FOUNDATION
is pleasing to the senses and especially sight c (1) : a side or face of a geo-
Altar metrical figure from which an
1 : a usually raised structure or place on which altitude can be constructed;
sacrifices are offered or especially : one on which the
incense is burned in worship figure stands (2) : the length of
2 : a table on which the a base
eucharistic elements are Capital
consecrated or which serves The uppermost member of a
as a center of worship or column or pilaster crowning the
ritual shaft and taking the weight of
Arch the entablature
n 1 : a typically curved structural member Cathedral
spanning an opening and serving as a support Of, relating to, or containing a
(as for the wall or other weight above the bishop’s official throne (cathe-
opening) dra)
2 a : something resembling an arch in form or Circulation
function; especially : 1 : orderly movement through a circuit;
either of two vaulted 2 : FLOW
portions of the bony Civic Structure
structure of the foot A structure of or relating to a citizen, a city,
that impart elasticity citizenship
to it b : a curvature Column
having the form of an arch - See Page 19 A supporting pillar; especially : one consisting
Barrel Vault of a usually round shaft, a capital, and a base
Built like an arch would be Concept
built, complete with key 1 : something conceived in the mind
stone, but then extruded into 2 : an abstract or generic idea generalized
depth. An arch will hold a from particular instances
wall above a door or a synonym see IDEA
bridge, anything narrow in
width when compared to its
A large hemispherical roof or
height, length, and mass.
Where as a barreled vault can
support a room. Folly
A building that serves no need,
only built for ascetics. It can be
1 a (1) : the lower part of a wall, pier, or
of any size.
column considered as a separate architectural
feature (2) : the lower part of a complete


n 1 : lack of good sense or normal prudence Minaret

and foresight A tall slender tower of a mosque having one or
2 a : criminally or tragically foolish actions or more balconies from
conduct b obsolete : EVIL, WICKEDNESS; which the summons to
especially : lewd behavior prayer is cried by the
3 : a foolish act or idea muezzin
4 : an excessively costly or unprofitable Nave
undertaking The main part of the
5 : an often extravagant picturesque building interior of a church;
erected to suit a fanciful taste especially : the long narrow central
hall in a cruciform church that rises
Geodesic Dome higher than the aisles flanking it to
Explain that… form a clerestory
Gothic A Far Eastern tower usually with
a: of, relating to, or having the roofs curving upward at the division
characteristics of a style of architecture devel- of each of several stories and
oped in northern France and spreading through erected as a temple or memorial
western Europe from the middle of the 12th Pendentive
century to the early 16th century that is One of the concave trian-
characterized by the converging of gular members that
weights and strains at isolated supports a dome over a
points upon slender vertical square space
piers and counterbalancing
buttresses and by pointed
1 plural piazze : an open square
arches and vaulting
especially in an Italian town
b : of or relating to an archi-
2 a : an arcaded and roofed
tectural style reflecting the
gallery b dialect : VERANDA,
influence of the medieval

High Style
Requirements Plan
(Churches, Pyramids, Greek Temples) Adrawing or
-Important Civic Structure diagram drawn on a
-Planed by an Architect plane: as a : a top
-Financial Backing or horizontal view
Indigenous of an object
Having originated in and being produced, Plane
growing, living, or occurring naturally in a A surface of such nature that a straight line
particular region or environment


joining two of its points lies wholly in the especially : an underground passage or room
surface b : a flat or level surface b : an underground storage compartment
Precedent Verandah
prior in time, order, arrangement, or signifi- a usually roofed open
cance gallery or portico
Renaissance attached to the exte-
1 capitalized a : the transitional movement in rior of a building
Europe between medieval and modern times Vernacular
beginning in the 14th century in Italy, lasting of, relating to, or
into the 17th century, and marked by a human- characteristic of a
istic revival of classical influence expressed in period, place, or
a flowering of the arts and literature and by the group; especially : of,
beginnings of modern science b : the period of relating to, or being
the Renaissance c : the neoclassic style of the common building
architecture prevailing during the Renaissance style of a period or
2 often capitalized : a movement or period of place
vigorous artistic and intellectual activity
Roof Pitch
Roof’s degree of slope
the cylindrical pillar between the capital and
the base
2 : a usually movable cover or screen for a
window or door
3 : a mechanical device that limits the passage
of light; especially : a
camera attachment
that exposes the film
or plate by opening
and closing an aper-
1 a : an arched structure of masonry usually
forming a ceiling or roof b : something (as the
sky) resembling a vault c : an arched or dome-
shaped anatomical structure
2 a : a space covered by an arched structure;

point, line, plane, & volume

Additive Form A horizontal molded projection that crowns or

Modifying a form by adding to it completes a building or wall. The uppermost
Architrave part of an entablature.
The lowermost part of an entablature in Datum
classical architecture that rests directly on top A point, line, or surface used as a reference, as
of a column. in surveying, mapping, or geology.
Axis Entablature
A straight line about which a body or geomet- The upper section of a classical building,
ric object rotates or may be conceived to resting on the columns and constituting the
rotate. architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Beam Façade
A squared-off log or a large, oblong piece of The face of a building, especially the principal
timber, metal, or stone used especially as a face.
horizontal support in construction. Frieze
Bearing Wall System A plain or decorated horizontal part of an
A wall that offers structural support for the entablature between the architrave and cor-
building. Verse a wall that offers no structural nice.
support and could be removed at will Frontal Approach
Berm An approach to a building that is perpendicular
A narrow ledge or shelf, as along the top or or parell to the building.
bottom of a slope. Grid Organization
Cantilever Identical units distributed evenly.
A projecting structure, such as a beam, that is Tend to work well with ideas about making
supported at one end and carries a load at the efficient systems of infrastructure, a street grid
other end or along its length. for getting cars around, or a structural grid for
Centralized Organization supporting floors, or a cubicle grid that can
expand and contract with different functional
A covered walk with an open colonnade on
A series in which each element is graded or
one side, running along the walls of buildings
that face a quadrangle.
Linear Organization
Clustered Organization
Schemes that tend to collect themselves
around or on some sort of a major axis
Colonnade Obelisk
A structure composed of columns placed at A tall, four-sided shaft of stone, usually ta-
regular intervals. pered and monolithic, that rises to a pointed
Colonnade Façade pyramidal top.
Oblique Approach

point, line, plane, & volume

An approach to a building in which has no Exact correspondence of form and constituent

right angle. configuration on opposite sides of a dividing
Order line or plane or about a center or an axis.
There are five orders to classical architecture; Topography
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Com- Graphic representation of the surface features
posite of a place or region on a map, indicating their
relative positions and elevations.
A building or part of a building that is excep-
tionally high in proportion to its width and
Planar Form A marked change, as in appearance or charac-
ter, usually for the better.
Platonic Solid
any one of five solids whose faces are congru-
ent regular polygons and whose polyhedral
angles are all congruent
Primary Elements
The most basic of all shapes, Square, Circle,
and Triangle
Radial Organization

The act or process or an instance of repeating
or being repeated.

Movement or variation characterized by the
regular recurrence or alternation of different
quantities or conditions.
A room, gallery, or glassed-in porch exposed
to the sun.
Spiral Approach

Structural Grid


point, line, plane, & volume

Auditorium are often found broken into advancing and

1 : the part of a public building where an receding planes, and a general tendency to
audience sits multiply re-entrant angles sometimes affects
2 : a room, hall, or building used for public even the treatment of the quoins.
gatherings Roofs can be flat, low-pitched hipped, or
Bannister mansard. Windows may be framed by free-
A handrail with its supporting posts standing columns, balustraded sill, and
pedimented entablature on top. Pronounced
Beaus arts classicism
cornices and enriched entablatures are topped
This style is named after the Ecole des Beaux
with a tall parapet, balustrade, or monumental
Arts in Paris, where some of America’s most
attic story.
prominent turn-of-the-century architects had
studied. Established in the Napoleonic era, the Chimney
Ecole des Beaux Arts replaced the Academy of Avertical structure incorporated into a building
Painting and Sculpture founded by Louis XIV and enclosing a flue or flues that carry off
in 1648, and the Academy of Architecture smoke; especially : the part of such a structure
founded in 1675. extending above a roof
Characterized by its grandiosity, was widely Corrugated Ceiling
applied in America from about 1880 to 1930. To form or shape into wrinkles or folds or into
The Ecole favored the study of Greek and alternating ridges and grooves
Roman buildings, composition, symmetry and Crypt
elaborate two-dimensional wash or watercolor a chamber (as a vault) wholly or partly under-
renderings of the buildings. Due to its ideal- ground; especially : a vault under the main
ized origins, Beaux-Arts Classicism is the style floor of a church b : a chamber in a mauso-
of many well-known colossal public buildings, leum
such as courthouses, libraries (New York Grotto
Public Library), museums, and railroad termi- an artificial recess or structure made to re-
nals (Grand Central Terminal in New York semble a natural cave
City). Masonry
Buildings in this style can usually be recog- something constructed of materials used by a
nized by their large and grandiose composition skilled worker who builds by laying units of
with an exuberance of detail and variety of substantial material (as stone or brick)
stone finishes. The façade is massive and
symmetrical with a projecting central pavilion.
a surface decoration made by inlaying small
Colossal columns (especially Corinthian or
pieces of variously colored material to form
Ionic) grouped in pairs are one of the most
pictures or patterns; also : the process of
common features of the Beaux-Arts Classi-
making it
cism, along with monumental flights of steps,
and free-standing statuary. Moulding
In large buildings is typical a five part compo- To fit the contours of.
sition, with a climatic central mass dominating To ornament with molding or carving <molded
the wings and their terminal features. Fronts picture frames>

point, line, plane, & volume

1 : a plane curve generated by a point moving
so that its distance from a fixed point is equal
to its distance from a fixed line : the intersec-
tion of a right circular cone with a plane
parallel to an element of the cone
2 : something bowl-shaped (as an antenna or
microphone reflector)
A vertical shaft in which stairs are located.
The skeleton of something that is constructed.
To support, strengthen, or stiffen by or as if by
a truss.
Of, relating to, characteristic of, or constitut-
ing a city.
Winter Garden
An indoor garden, like a greenhouse but also
has the benefit of indoor heat.

arts & crafts

Baluster composed of cement, sand, and lime, and

One of the upright, usually rounded or vase- applied while wet.
shaped supports of a balustrade. Surrealism
Balustrade A 20th-century literary and artistic movement
A rail and the row of balusters or posts that that attempts to express the workings of the
support it, as along the front of a gallery. subconscious and is characterized by fantastic
Bay Window imagery and incongruous juxtaposition of
A large window or series of windows project- subject matter.
ing from the outer wall of a building and Villa
forming a recess within. The often large, luxurious country house of a
Bungalow well-to-do person.
A small house or cottage usually having a
single story and sometimes an additional attic
A structure, usually brick or stone, built
against a wall for support or reinforcement.
A flat horizontal band or member between
moldings, especially in a classical entablature.
Half Timbered Wall

A small house on the grounds of an estate or a
park, used by a caretaker or gatekeeper.
An ornamental flower garden having the beds
and paths arranged to form a pattern.
An arbor or a passageway of columns support-
ing a roof of trelliswork on which climbing
plants are trained to grow.
American furniture designer. A leader of the
Arts and Crafts Movement, he is credited with
creating the Mission furniture style.
A durable finish for exterior walls, usually

arts & crafts

Aisle low-pitched roof and that is usually filled with

1 : the side of a church nave separated by piers relief sculpture in classical architecture; also :
from the nave proper a similar form used as a decoration
2 a : a passage (as in a theater or railroad Pilaster
passenger car) separating sections of seats b : an upright architectural member that is rectan-
a passage (as in a store or warehouse) for gular in plan and is structurally a pier but
inside traffic architecturally treated as a column and that
Cornice usually projects a third of its width or less
See Column from the wall
Futurism Tectonic
n 1 : a movement in art, music, and litera-
ture begun in Italy about 1909 and marked Ventilation
especially by an effort to give formal expres- Movement of Air
sion to the dynamic energy and movement of Werbund
mechanical processes
2 : a point of view that finds meaning or
fulfillment in the future rather than in the past
or present
n 1 : a frame for supporting barrels
2 : a frame structure raised on side supports so
as to span over or around something: as a : a
platform made to carry a traveling crane and
supported by towers or side frames running on
parallel tracks; also : a movable structure with
platforms at different levels used for erecting
and servicing rockets before launching b : a
structure spanning several railroad tracks and
displaying signals for each
A horizontal main structural member (as in a
building or bridge) that supports vertical loads
and that consists of a single piece or of more
than one piece bound together
Infill Panel
Support and molding for poring concrete
La Citta Nuova
“The New City”
A triangular space that forms the gable of a

frank lloyd wright

Adobe Now a signature item of FLW, he created

A sun-dried, unburned brick of clay and straw. stained glass designs dubbed leaded glass.
Atrium Mayan Architecture
A usually skylighted central area, often con- An acieant form of architecture whos creaters
taining plants, in some modern buildings, are almost totaly unknown to todays society.
especially of a public or commercial nature. For FLW their style provided great influence
Axial Organization Mullion
A vertical member, as of stone or wood,
Balcony dividing a window or other opening.
A platform that projects from the wall of a Organic
building and is surrounded by a railing, balus- Of, relating to, or derived from living organ-
trade, or parapet. isms
Clerestory Parapet
An upper portion of a wall containing win- A low protective wall or railing along the edge
dows for supplying natural light to a building. of a raised structure such as a roof or balcony.
Curtain Wall Piano Nobile
A nonbearing wall, often of glass and steel, Living and dining spaces on second level.
fixed to the outside of a building and serving Pier
especially as cladding. Any of various vertical supporting structures
Eaves Porch
The projecting overhang at the lower edge of a A structure attached to the exterior of a
roof. building often forming a covered entrance.
Fenestration Porte-Cochere
The design and placement of windows in a A roofed structure covering a driveway at the
building. entrance of a building to provide shelter while
Gallery entering or leaving a vehicle.
An upper section, often with a sloping floor, Prairie Style
projecting from the rear or side walls of a A style of decorative arts associated with this
theater or an auditorium to provide additional school, characterized especially by strong
seating. horizontal and vertical elements.
Hearth Prototype - An original type, form, or instance
The floor of a fireplace, usually extending into serving as a basis or standard for later stages.
a room and paved with brick, flagstone, or Pulpit
cement. An elevated platform, lectern, or stand used in
Inglenook preaching or conducting a religious service.
A bench, especially either of two facing Shingle Style –
benches, placed in a nook or corner beside a
fireplace. Shingles
Leaded Glass A thin oblong piece of material, such as wood
or slate, that is laid in overlapping rows to

frank lloyd wright

cover the roof or sides of a house or other

An overhead window, as in a roof, admitting
A very tall building.
A spiral.
An ordering system in which the subject is
broken up into three equal parts.

le corbusier

Architectural Promenade Modular system

Path true the building, usually using a ramp. Constructed with standardized units or dimen-
To see the architectural element inside the sions for flexibility and variety in use
house. Monastery
Beton Brut A house for persons under religious vows
The French word for concrete, left in its Palladio
natural aspect, Bare concrete Andrea 1508-1580 Italian architect; adapted
Brise-soleil principles of Roman architecture; devised
A sun-break or check used in hot climates to Palladian motif of bay with rounded opening
shade the window opening flanked by two squared openings
Building envelope Piloti
The outside wall of a building Large support columns used by Le Corbusier
Collective housing to raise his structures off the ground. Similar
A building owned by more then one people. to pilings or stilts
The building is spit like share for a companies. Portico
Each person own a part of the building. A porch or walkway with a roof supported by
Domino system columns, often leading to the entrance of a
System of structural columns and cantilevered building.
slabs, given the possibility to have big win- Primary Solids
dows. The Basic fundamental shapes (Circle, Square,
Double height space Triangle)
A room opened on two levels Prototype
Elevated base plan A: an original model on which something is
A portion of the floor elevated, usually sepa- patterned
rated bay stairs B: a first full-scale and usually functional form
Essential joys of a new type or design of a construction
Part of the Corbusier Theories: Light, Space, Purism
Greenery A movement in the 1920’s in Paris started by
Five points of architecture Le Corbusier.
Piloty, Roof terrace, Free façade, Free Plan, Reinforced concrete
Strip Windows Introduced at the turn of the 19th century it is
Free façade concrete that has added support re-bars in the
Planar façade, no bearing walls. middle set up before pouring
International style Strip windows
The style created by Le Corbusier Continuous windows along a façade
Tried top understand the anatomy of the past, Surface articulation
to revel principal of organization. The articulation of a surface.
L’Esprit Nouveau Tabula Rasa
Wanted house to be a “machine for living in”

le corbusier

A clean slate approach not concerned with

Umbrella roof
A water collecting roof.
A: a subterranean room
B: a vaulted chamber under a church

mies van der rohe

Architrave A low wall serving as a foundation or terrace

lower most division of a classical entablature, wall
resting directly on column capitals and sup- Plinth
porting the frieze. A: the lowest member of a base : SUBBASE
Ebony B: a block upon which the moldings of an
Any of several tropical trees, having dark architrave or trim are stopped at the bottom
colored heartwood. Plaza
Expressionism A: a public square in a city or town
Dominate style in Northern Europe about B: an open area usually located near urban
1905 – 25. In architecture, it is a part continu- buildings and often featuring walkways, trees
ation of Art Nouveau. and shrubs, places to sit, and sometimes shops
Fluidity Temple
Easily changed or tending to change. An edifice for religious exercises
Smooth change Travertine
A mineral consisting of a massive usually
layered calcium carbonate (as aragonite or
calcite) formed by deposition from spring
Front of the building having a classical carat
waters or especially from hot springs
ere, symmetric, and imposing.
Universal Space
Space inside or outside that can be used for
Hall, foyer, or waiting room near the front
any type of activity or purpose
entrance of a building
An exhibition sponsored by werkbund. A
Painter who influenced architects, was associ-
master plan
ated with the De Stijl movement, which
inspired geometric abstraction.
A kind of chalcedony that occurs in bands. Is
used as a stone veneer on buildings and also
on countertops.
something that divides; especially : an interior
dividing wall
A: a part of a building projecting from the rest
B : one of several detached or semidetached
units into which a building is sometimes


Acoustics Having part of the floor plan

The qualities that determine the ability of an built into the site allowing it to
enclosure (as an auditorium) to reflect sound be lower then the res
waves in such a way as to produce distinct Karelian House
1 : an oval or circular building with rising tiers Laminated Timber
of seats ranged about an open space and used Glue laminated timber beams are load bearing
in ancient Rome especially for contests and structural members for roofs, floors or other
spectacles construction situations e.g. bridges, posts etc.
2 a : a very large auditorium b : a room Glulam is an engineered product using stress
with a gallery from which doctors and rated, seasoned and selected timbers - usually
students may observe surgical operations c radiata pine or Douglas fir. Each single piece
: a rising gallery in a modern theater d : a of timber is graded and end jointed to produce
flat or gently sloping area surrounded by the length required. Multiple layers of timber -
abrupt slopes laminations - not exceeding 45mm thickness
3 : a place of public games or contests are bonded together with suitable adhesives to
Anthropomorphism provide a variety of sectional beam sizes. By
an interpretation of what is not human or building up large, strong members from a
personal in terms of human or personal char- number of thin laminations, any size, shape
acteristics and length of member can be manufactured.
Canopy Glulam members are stronger weight for
1 a : a cloth covering suspended over a bed b weight than other structural materials.
: a cover (as of cloth) fixed or carried above a Lightwell
person of high rank or a sacred object : Like a watter well in the fact that it pearces
BALDACHIN c : a protective covering: as (1) the ground, but rather a lightwell runs next to
: the uppermost spreading branchy layer of a the building and only travels the necessary
forest (2) : AWNING, MARQUEE distance to allow light into a window placed
2 : an ornamental rooflike structure (what would be) below the ground level.
3 a : the transparent enclosure over an air- Louvres
plane cockpit b : the fabric part of a parachute 1 : a roof lantern or turret often with slatted
that catches the air apertures for escape of smoke or admission of
Cladding light in a medieval building
Something that covers or overlays; specifically 2 a : an opening provided with one or more
: metal coating bonded to a metal core slanted fixed or movable fins to allow flow of
Courtyard air but to exclude rain or sun or to provide
A court or enclosure adjacent to a building (as privacy b : a finned or vaned device for con-
a house or palace) trolling a flow of air or the radiation of light c
Depressed Floor Plan : a fin or shutter of a louver
New Regionalism


Analysis suggests that every place and every

issue is best addressed at the spatial level that
enables us to understand how that particular
region works and how it can be acted upon. It
also means that ideas and actions which are
based on the interconnectedness of economic,
environmental, and social systems, must
tolerate some ambiguity in the application of
the regions concept, and accept that ultimately
it is a functional, pragmatic idea; and that the
particular scope of region that best helps to
address effectively these interconnected issues
is the region that we mean.
1 : a Finnish steam bath in which the steam is
provided by water thrown on hot stones; also :
a bathhouse or room used for such a bath
2 : a dry heat bath; also : a room or cabinet
used for such a bath
The art or practice of graphic delineation in
detail usually on maps or charts of natural and
man-made features of a place or region espe-
cially in a way to show their relative positions
and elevations


A place equipped for experimental study in a
science or for testing and analysis; broadly : a
place providing opportunity for experimenta-
tion, observation, or practice in a field of
deep and wide trench around the rampart of a
fortified place (as a castle) that is usually filled
with water.
Very great.
A literary, artistic, musical, or architectural
work that imitates the style of previous work.
Spent Light
“I sense Light as the giver of all presence’s,
and material as spent light. What is made by
light casts a shadow, and that shadow belongs
to light. I sense a Threshold: Light to Silence,
Silence to Light; an ambiance of inspiration, in
which the desire to be, to express, crosses with
the possible.” - Louis Kahn
1 : a tall East Indian timber tree (Tectona
grandis) of the vervain family
2 : the hard yellowish brown wood of teak
used especially for furniture and shipbuilding

post moderism - late modern

Assemblage representing bill board quality of American

1 : a collection of persons or things : GATH- streets.
ERING Fragmentation
2 : the act of assembling : the state of being during the upcoming surge in industrial gains
assembled and renewed intrests in electronic commerce/
3 a : an artistic composition made from scraps, design has taken an unconventional twist and
junk, and odds and ends (as of paper, cloth, the post war impatience has given way to a
wood, stone, or metal) b : the art of making new -modern classic as well as the opposite
assemblages new electronic fixture of many sorts . This is a
Both - And birds eye view of something related to a high
Venturi critized architecture for being “either - in electronic visage and dimensions of sorts in
or”, his approach was “both - and”. This other words a plan view of a acad generated
allowed for several levels of meaning to be drawing of a building (theoretical).
given to architectural elements and it would be Keystone
more appropate to the complication of modern 1 : the wedge-shaped piece at the crown of an
life. arch that locks the other pieces in place
Deconstructivism 2 : something on which associated things
The act of breaking something down to its depend for support
most basic principals of which the artist Minimalism
believes has greater meaning. a style or technique (as in music, literature, or
Decorated Shed design) that is characterized by extreme
In Venturi’s book, Learning From Las Vegas, spareness and simplicity
he analizes what he feels are the two types of New York Five
American architecture, the Duck, representing Five sucessiful architects in New York City
60’s pop art buildings, and Decorated Sheds, who’s influence came from the internation
representing bill board quality of American style and led to an obsession with form,
streets. sometimes at the expence of content and
Derrida function. - Peter Eisenman - Richard Meier -
1930- French philosopher & critic; founder of Michael Graves - John Hejduk - Charles
controversial deconstructionist school of Gwathney
A window set vertically in a structure project-
ing through a sloping roof; also : the roofed
structure containing such a window
In Venturi’s book, Learning From Las Vegas,
he analizes what he feels are the two types of
American architecture, the Duck, representing arch 1: 1 round: imp impost, sp springer, v voussoir, k
60’s pop art buildings, and Decorated Sheds, keystone, ext extrados, int intrados; 2 horseshoe; 3
lancet; 4 ogee; 5 trefoil; 6 basket-handle; 7 Tudor

post moderism - late modern

Palladian Window Werkbund

A large window which is divided During the period before World War
into three parts. The center I, the German Werkbund was at the
section is larger than the two side center of attempts to forge new
sections, and is usually arched. theories of architecture and design in
Renaissance architecture and light of the momentous technological
other buildings in classical styles and economic developments of
often have Palladian windows. modernity.
The term “Palladian” comes from
Andrea Palladio, a Renaissance
architect whose work inspired
some of the greatest buildings in
Europe and the United States.
Modeled after classical Greek and
Roman forms, Palladio’s buildings
often featured arched openings.
A pediment is a low-pitched triangu-
lar gable on the front of some
buildings in the Grecian or
Greek Revival style of
Pop Art
Art in which commonplace
objects (as road signs,
hamburgers, comic strips,
or soup cans) are used as subject matter and
are often physically incorporated in the work.
To build or face with usually rough-surfaced
masonry blocks having beveled or rebated
edges producing pronounced joints <a rusti-
cated facade>
To compel to reside in the country : to cause
to become rustic
Circulation of air <a room with good ventila-
tion> b : the circulation and exchange of gases
in the lungs or gills that is basic to respiration
3 : a system or means of providing fresh air

Index M
Centralized Organi- Fascia 9
zation 5 Fenestration 11
Chimney 7 Five points of architec- Masonry 7
Circulation 2 ture 13 Mayan Architecture 11
Civic Structure 2 Fluidity 15 Minaret 3
Cladding 16 Folly 2 Minimalism 19
Clerestory 11 Fragmentation 19 Moat 18
Acoustics 16 Cloister 5 Free façade 13 Modular system 13
Additive Form 5 Clustered Organiza- Frieze 5 Monastery 13
Adobe 11 tion 5 Frontal Approach 5 Mondrian 15
Aesthetics 2 Collective housing Frontality 15 Monumentality 18
Aisle 10 13 Mosaic 7
Altar 2 Colonnade 5 G Moulding 7
Amphitheatre 16 Colonnade Façade 5 Mullion 11
Gallery 11
Anthropomorphism 16 Column 2
Arch 2 Comice 10. See
Gantry 10 N
Geodesic Dome 3
Architectural Prom- Column Nave 3
Girder 10
enade 13 Concept 2 New Regionalism 16
Gothic 3
Architrave 5, 15 Cornice 5 New York Five 19
Grid Organization 5
Assemblage 19 Corrugated Ceiling 7 Grotto 7
Atrium 11 Courtyard 16 O
Auditorium 7 Crypt 7 H
Axial Organization 11 Curtain Wall 11 Obelisk 5
Axis 5 Half Timbered Wall 9 Oblique Approach 5
D Hearth 11 Onyx 15
B Hierarchy 5 Order 6
Datum 5 High Style 3 Organic 11
Balcony 11 Deconstructivism 19
Baluster 9 Decorated Shed 19 I P
Balustrade 9 Depressed Floor
Bannister 7 Plan 16 Indigenous 3 Pagoda 3
Barrel Vault 2 Derrida 19 Infill Panel 10 Palladian Window 20
Base 2 Dome 2 Inglenook 11 Palladio 13
Bay Window 9 Domino system 13 International style 13 Parabola 8
Beam 5 Dormer 19 Parapet 11
Bearing Wall System 5 Double height space
K Parterre 9
Beaus arts classicism 7 13 Partitioin 15
Karelian House 16 Pastiche 18
Berm 5 Duck 19 Keystone 19
Beton Brut 13 Pavillion 15
Both - And 19 E L Pediment 10, 20
Brise-soleil 13 Pendentive 3
Eaves 11 La Citta Nuova 10 Pergola 9
Building envelope 13
Ebony 15 Laboratory 18 Piano Nobile 11
Bungalow 9
Elevated base plan Laminated Timber 16 Piazza 3
Buttress 9
13 Leaded Glass 11 Pier 11
C Entablature 5 L’Esprit Nouveau 13 Pilaster 10
Essential joys 13 Lightwell 16 Piloti 13
Canopy 16 Expressionism 15 Linear Organization 5 Plan 3
Cantilever 5 Lobby 15 Planar Form 6
Capital 2 F Lodge 9 Plane 3
Cathedral 2 Louvres 16 Platonic Solid 6
Façade 5

Plaza 15 T
Plinth 15
Podium 15 Tabula Rasa 13
Pop Art 20 Teak 18
Porch 11 Tectonic 10
Porte-Cochere 11 Temple 15
Portico 13 Topography
Prairie Style 11 6, 17
Precedent 4 Tower 6
Primary Elements 6 Transformation 6
Primary Solids 13 Travertine 15
Prototype 13 Tripartite 12
Pulpit 11 Truss 8
Purism 13
R Umbrella roof 14
Radial Organization 6 Undercroft 14
Reinforced concrete Universal Space
13 15
Renaissance 4 Urban 8
Repetition 6
Rhythm 6
Roof Pitch 4 Vault 4
Rustication 20 Ventilation
10, 20
S Verandah 4
Sauna 17 Vernacular 4
Shaft 4 Villa 9
Shingle Style 11
Shingles 11
Shutters 4 Weissenhof 15
Skylight 12 Werbund 10
Skyscraper 12 Werkbund 20
Smooth change 15 Winter Garden 8
Solarium 6
Spent Light 18
Spiral Approach 6
Spire 12
Stairwell 8
Stickley 9
Strip windows 13
Structural Grid 6
Structure 8
Stucco 9
Surface articulation 13
Surrealism 9
Symmetry 6