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More on Aristotles Appeals

Pathos, Ethos, Logos

Emotional appeals or appeals to pathos sometimes called pathetic appeals; arguments from the heart. Its not necessarily the emotion a writer puts into the work: its how he appeals to the readers emotions. Sometimes the facts alone wont carry the argument, and sometimes eliciting emotion from readers will help the writer fulfill her purpose.

Pathos (contd)
When writers and speakers can find the words and images to evoke certain emotions in people, they might also move their audiences to sympathize with ideas they connect to those feelings, and even to act on them (Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz 49).

Pathos (contd)
To the Troops at Tillbury Queen Elizabeth I The ASPCA commercials Pathos covers all the emotions the pride and courage Elizabeth evokes, the sadness and empathy Sarah McLachlan does, as well as happiness, frustration, etc. Humor is also considered an emotion, as in this Natalie Dee cartoon.

Ethical appeals or appeals to ethos; Arguments based on character. Writers can appeal to pathos in order to build a bridge between themselves and their readers. This leads us to ethos. It has to do with ethics some in that as a writer you want your readers to trust you, and as readers you listen to whom you trust. Heres a different/better way to think about it:

Ethos (contd)
Before well listen to others, we usually must respect their authority, admire their integrity and motives, or at least acknowledge what they stand for [. . . .] Establishing persuasive ethos, however, is not simply a matter of seeming honest or likable but also of affirming an identity and sharing values with ones intended audiences (61).

Ethos (contd)
Appeal to ethos in two ways:
Writers shape themselves as they make their argument: with their language, the evidence they offer, the respect they show for their audience and for whom they disagree. Their reputations, previous lives, previous work

Ethos (contd)
To establish a persuasive ethos, a writer can Claim authority by showing he is knowledgeable (from doing the right research, from past experiences). Establish credibility by making reasonable claims and backing them up, by showing respect for his audience (this includes visual conveyance of his message as well) . Come clean about his motives what is the purpose behind the argument?

Appeals to logic or logical appeals; appeals based on fact and reason. The most valued appeal in most academic writing. Note that appealing to ethossetting that foundation of trust between writer and readerwill open readers up to trusting a writers logic.

Logos (contd)
To appeal to logos, a writer can Provide hard evidence
Facts Statistics Surveys and polls Testimonies, narratives, interviews

Use reason and common sense

Logos (contd)
Provide logical structure for argument
Degree: more of a good thing or less of a bad thing is good. Example: If I can get a ten-year warranty on a humble Kia, shouldnt I get the same or better from Lexus? or Better a conventional war now than a nuclear confrontation later. Analogies: explaining by comparison. Precedent: citing past/other situations to explain the reasonableness of the argument at hand.

Works Cited
Lunsford, Andrea A. and John J. Ruszkiewicz. Everythings An Argument 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2007. Print.