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# Multivariable calculus (MATH-234/MAST218) Winter 2014 Midterm test s luti ns !

r blem 1" Find the length of the curve x= 15 t 0 t 2 . S luti n" The length is defined by the formula
L= x ( t )+ y ( t )+ z ( t ) dt
2 2 2 0 2 7,

y= 42 t

5,

z = 70 t ,

n our !roblem,
2 0 "

x ( t )= 105 t
4

",

y ( t )= 210 t
2

4,

z ( t )= 210 t . #o,

## L= (105 t )2 +( 210 t )2 +( 210 t )2 dt

= 105 t + 4 t + 4 t dt = 105 ( t + 2 )2 dt
12 \$ 4 4 0 0

2 0

0

"

## 2 2 = 105 + 210 = 24\$0. 7 3

[ ] []
7 3

!r blem 2" %a& Find the e'uation of a !arabola (ith the directri) x= 3 and the focus (1, 2 ) .

%b& Find the verte) of the !arabola you*ve found and the !oints of its intersection (ith the coordinate a)es. S luti n" +arabola is defined as a locus of !oints (hich are e'uidistant from the directri) and the focus. f ( x , y ) are coordinates of a !oint of !arabola, then its distance from the directri) is 3 x , and its distance to the focus is ( x + 1)2+( y + 2 )2 . #o, the e'uation of !arabola is s'uaring the left and the right hand sides, (e get the e'uation ( x + 1 ) +( y + 2)2=( 3 x )2 , or, after some sim!lification, ( y + 2)2=\$ ( 1 x ) . The verte) is (1, 2 ) . To find the intersection (ith 1 the x a)is, (e set y= 0 , and get e'uation \$ ( 1 x )= 4 , x= . #o, the 2 1 x interce!t is 0 . 2,

( x + 1)2+( y + 2 )2=23 x ;

( )

To find the y interce!t, (e set x= 0 , and thus (e have to solve the e'uation ( y + 2)2=\$ ; y + 2=2 2 ; y =2 2 2 . #o, the y interce!ts are the !oints ( 0,2 2 2 ) and ( 0, 2 + 2 2) . !r blem 3" Find the e'uation of a !lane (hich is orthogonal to the !lanes P1 - x + 2 y + 3 z = 1 and P2 - 3 x + 2 y + z =1 . S luti n" The !lane P1 is orthogonal to the vector u =( 1,2,3 ) , and the !lane P2 is orthogonal to the vector v =( 3,2,1 ) . f w =u v , then the vector w is orthogonal to u and v , and hence a !lane orthogonal to the vector w is !arallel to the vectors u and v , and therefore is orthogonal to the !lanes P1 and P2 . #o, (e have to find the vector w . i j w =u v = 1 2 3 2

## k 3 =( 2" ) i +( . 1) j +( 2 " ) k =(4,\$, 4) . 1

/'uation of the !lane orthogonal to the vector w and containing the !oint ( 1,2,3) is

4 ( x 1 )+ \$ ( y 2) 4 ( z 3 )=0 , or 4 x +\$ y 4 z = 0 , or x 2 y + z =0 .

!r blem 4" Find the angle bet(een the curves x= t , y = t z =t and 2 x= tan t , y = cot t , z = tan t at the !oint %1,1,1&. S luti n" 0et us (rite the vector e'uations of the curvesr 1 ( t )=( t , t t ) ,
2, 3

2,

## r 2 ( t )=( tan t , cot t , tan t ) .

Then r 1 ( t )=( 1,1,1) for t =1 (hile r 2 ( t )=( 1,1,1) for t = . The 4 2 tangent %velocity& vectors are r 1 ( t )=( 1, 2 t , 3 t ) and 1 1 2 tan t 2 2 2 r , 2 , . 2 ( t )=( sec t , cosec t , 2 tan t sec t )= 2 cos t sin t cos2 t

#o, u = r 1 ( 1 )=( 1,2,3) , and v = r 2 =( 2, 2, 4 ) . The angle bet(een 4 the curves at their intersection !oint %1,1,1& is, by definition, e'ual to the angle bet(een the tangent vectors u and v .

( )

## 10 uv 10 =0...37 . cos = = = 0.5455 . Then = arccos u v 14 24 14 24

!r blem #" Find the curvature of the gra!h of the function y = x at the !oint %1,1&. S luti n" The !arametric vector e'uation of the gra!h is r ( t )=( t , t 0 ) . 2 Then r ( t )=(1,3 t , 0 ) , r ( t )=( 0," t , 0 ) , in !articular, r ( 1)=( 1,1,0 ) , r ( 1)=( 1,3,0 ) , r ( 1)=( 0,",0 ) . The curvature is defined by the formula
3,

r r . 3 r

## i j k r ( 1) r ( 1) r ( 1 )= 1 3 0 = " k , so, r (1 )= " . 1e)t, 0 " 0

r ( 1)= 1 + 3 = 10 , hence, =
1

" 10 10