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Anderson LINCOLN, DARWIN, AND LIBERAL INFLUENCE AT UNIVERSITIES Abstract This essay describes, in fair detail, the rising

epidemic of liberal political influence at higher learning institutions across the nation. While using Adam Gopniks Angels and Ages as the reference book for this research, the thesis of this paper is achieved through academic findings and personal experiences. Lincoln, Darwin, and Liberal Influence at Universities aims to take an unbiased stance on unveiling the growing issue of political influence at public and private universities nationwide. The thesis clearly states that the book Angels and Ages: A Short Book about Darwin, Lincoln and Modern Life by Adam Gopnik serves as evidence for liberal propaganda in university teachings. Consider for yourself the effects of this unchecked change in teachings and apply the research presented in this paper to your experiences. Through research, it is concluded that the book Angels and Ages does, in fact, serve as evidence for liberal propaganda in classroom material. Further, the paper realizes the indisputable nature of political influenceslargely democraticat learning institutions. The paper concludes on the thesis by bringing together the ideas and research of the paper in support of the main objective: defining Angels and Ages by Adam Gopnik as a liberally influential piece of coursework.

Anderson 1 Broox Anderson Dr. Sue Bennett HON 1010A-01 15 April 2014 Lincoln, Darwin, and Liberal Influence at Universities College: the social mandate for success, prosperity, and acceptance. Unspoken and universally known, this sentimentepitomized by attitudes of the sectis held as a weapon in the arsenal wielded by post-secondary learning institutions and their immediate members of faculty. Consider the lines of text youve read in your own college experiences, and the overall determinations of course content youve been subjected to. Some might recall explicitly political material, or otherwise inherently neutral subject matter. In my own experience, the book Angels and Ages: A Short Book about Darwin, Lincoln and Modern Life by Adam Gopnik serves as evidence for liberal propaganda in university teachings. The format of Angels and Ages is that of an extremely long essay. The author, Adam Gopnik, discusses seemingly (although, in reality, completely) nonparallel topics in an effort to associate two separate historical individualswho were entirely free from the opposite entitys influencein an effort to promote the thought that their coalescent achievements, ideals, and writings (see: bias) affect our modernity. While it may be true that, singularly, their respective works and accomplishments served as a basis for modern culture and thought, the idea that their nonexistent collective achievementas is presented through the format of the booksomehow formed to reach out to us today is illogical.

Anderson 2 There is a vast amount of evidence directly in the text of the book that I would define as liberal propaganda, influence, or connotation. By example, Great books of science, like all great books, are worth readingbecause they advance our liberal education (Gopnik 200). As well as this excerpt, discussing the secession of Quebec, division of Czechoslovakia, and Civil War: profoundly, there is something dangerous about the equation of military success and moral right; the argument favoring violence for the sake of an ideal can make us idealize violence, and gets even the most liberal-minded people, who ought to know better, to forget what the actual costs of war are. (Gopnik 202) In sequence, it is the purpose of this paper to illustrate this thesis clearly, and to provide for a discovery of the faceted nature of higher learning in society today by thoroughly wielding my voice to pronounce that resolve is needed in polishing some of those facets. To enforce the reality of my thesis, I have included a quote by the late Eric L. Dey, Associate Professor of Higher Education at the University of Virginia: The positive relationship between education and social and political liberalism has been described as one of the most stable and consistent findings in empirical social research of contemporary American society. This pattern has been documented in numerous sociological studies, and a careful review of the college impact literature also points to specific (albeit modest) college-related effects on students' social and political attitudes and values. (Dey 535) At the date Deys findings were published, modest influence may have been apparent in the studies data. However, in the decade-plus since Deys research, it is my personal assertion that the liberal influence in post-secondary classrooms has waxed rampant and continues to grow, unchecked.

Anderson 3 From personal experience, Joe Green, Professor of Economics and Political Science at Dixie State University, once exclaimed that something like 75 percent of all college professors, nation-wide, affiliates themselves with the democratic party of government (Personal). Undoubtedly, this disproportion in affiliation leaks influence into the classroom, and, therefore, the teachings and overall learning experience of students is affected. Eric L. Dey uncovers, most college impact researchers have found that college tends to promote liberalism (Dey 537). Plainly, Dey supports the idea that, logically, politics weaves into classrooms. This innate trait of the majority of educational institutions need not be tolerated, but rather pushed against, as this paper is aiming to do. However, this atmosphere of democratic thought isnt only affecting the views of students; all non-democratic affiliates of an institution are adversely affected. Inside class lectures, Professor Green would occasionally comment on the alienation he received for his ideals from other faculty members. Now, it is fairly accepted that the study of economics favors conservatism, but does not promote it so rashly. Simply, this section of study involves the basic workings of an economy and applies the science of theory and fact. These ideas irrefutably make up a basis for conservatism, but the class material is not explicitly conservative or politically influential in any way. It allows for the thought of the students so that they have the opportunity to apply their feelings and attitudes toward class learning without outside influence. Other, less moderated subject classes fail to supply the gap between teaching and guiding. By strict data, it is apparent that colleges and universities are the unanticipated prism by which students political thoughts must enter and leave; often refracted. In short, there is a

Anderson 4 tendency for students to change in the direction of institutional norms (Dey 550). The goal, it would appear, is to omit that refraction. Moreover, Dey found simply through his research that students entering politically liberal institutions become increasingly liberal (550). This lends itself to explanation, but raises the question: why do politically liberal, or politically conservative, institutions continue to exist? It is, rather quietly, largely because of staff members and their ability to mold students malleable agendas. This, again, is evidenced by Adam Gopnik in Angels and Ages, The liberal belief in the primacy of the single case is not an illusion nurtured by fancy but a hope quietly underscoredat a distance, pianissimoby science (221). In conclusion, as Gail Saunders-Smith from Youngstown State University lauds in her essay What We Say Does Matter: Words carry meanings and feelings. Educators use language to improve thinking so as to increase learning (3). When this is the model we view as students, it is almost impossible not to be influenced by what instructors present in a classroom setting or a required reading assignment. It is an exploitation of trust. As is evidenced by the reading of Angels and Ages by Adam Gopnik, liberal agendas are apparent in post-secondary institution classrooms.

Anderson 5 Works Cited Dey, Eric L. "Undergraduate Political Attitudes: An Examination of Peer, Faculty, and Social Influences." Research in Higher Education 37.5 (1996): 535-54. JSTOR. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. Gopnik, Adam. Angels and Ages: A Short Book about Darwin, Lincoln, and Modern Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Print. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2013. Saunders-Smith, Gail. "What We Say Does Matter." Illinois Reading Council Journal 42.2 (2014): 3-8. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.