Bonus question – Tutorial 9


Estimate the time it takes to cook a potato in a microwave oven. Assume that the oven is irradiated by a plane wave in top half of a window on one side of the oven. Find all necessary values (size and power of microwave oven, size and heat capacity of potato, etc) and then a) Estimate the power in each mode of the oven b) Integrate the energy density over the volume of the potato, for each mode c) Estimate the change in temperature of the potato per unit time and subsequently the time to cook it.

Assumptions : For a typical microwave oven, we shall assume the following details: Dimensions of microwave oven : Cuboidal with 0.4×0.3×0.3 m3. Let us orient our longitudinal axis along the length (the side with dimension 0.4 m and our transverse plane as the plane parallel to the plane containing the breadth and the height (0.3 ×0.3 m2). Dimensions of potato: Cubical potato of dimensions 0.05×0.05×0.05 m3. Specic Heat Capacity of water: 4.187 KJ/(Kg K) Water Content in Potato : 80 % Potato’s initial temperature considered: 30•C We shall assume that the potato gets heated upto 70• C Mass of Potato : 100 grams (0.1 Kg) Exciting frequency in the microwave oven: 2.45 GHz. (resonant frequency of water). (We shall allow a bandwidth of about 0.05GHz because the frequencies practically won’t be exactly at the resonant frequency but would be band containing it (preferably centred around it)). Let the input electric eld corresponding to the input EM wave have a magnitude |E|. Let us assume that the input power has been obtained from a wattage of 800 W. Power density of the input wave is . Therefore, . Solving, we get |E| = 2.588 KV/m.


05GHz) or so. We do this by taking the dot product of E Let us assume that we integrate at a particular z and this will just give out a constant term.(1.3.2. we make an important assumption: The input electric eld can be approximately thought of as part of some wave and thus have a phase variation linearly related with (the longitudinal axis) Therefore. (I would choose my z to around the middle of the length so that it is nearby the potato’s position).p) ≡ (3. 5): We now have to determine a315. Let us allow a bandwidth around the operating frequency (about 0. 1. Here. [Note: ( |E| = Eo)] That is. 5): Mode (1. We know have the inequality as follows: . we have the electric elds for the two modes existing as follows: Mode (3.1.4m. we get the following possible modes: (m.5). (Where m. We now determine what all modes can be present in the oven for the given statistical data.n. Solving. Let us make a convenient choice of z = 0.n.3m and d = 0.p are integers and p cannot be equal to 0). (Basically amnp and bmnp represent the coecients (magnitudes) of the mode’s (corresponding to that particular m.n.Let us assume that the input eld gets redistributed due to reections from the walls of the cavity resonator that the microwave oven functions as and gets distributed into dierent modes (each mode is identied by its m. 2 .n. We now have to determine the coecients amnp and bmnp for each of these 2 modes and our job is done. a = b = 0.p ) and the energy is thus split up into these modes. 3.5).p ) transverse electric eld’s components along the two transverse axes (x and y) and this is also the total electric eld as we are assuming TE mode. (without loss of generality. We know that ω2ϵµ=(mπ/a)2+(nπ/b)2+(pπ/d)2 . I am assuming the input is there completely along one of the axes in the transverse plane(for simplicty in the forthcoming inner product calculations that will be used to determine the spatial fourier coecients). Before going to that.

3.5): P(m.n. we need to consider 0.8044J/s Let us assume that the time taken to heat the potato is ∆t seconds. we shall make an approximation of using the average energy per time by taking the derivative of the energy density of electric field’s volume integral.n.374901W/m2 Power in mode (1 .23s = 9 minutes 7 seconds 3 . we get that time=547.1355J/s Total power supplied to potato Ptotal = 28.1.1 Kg.6689J/s from mode 2 .5) : P(m.1.1.Modal Power Analysis: Power in mode (3. P3. If the wave has a frequency f .p)=3.4 J.p)=3.1.08 Kg for m.5 = 382. Average Energy per unit time is being calculate (so that we can consider it as average power and then calculate the required time by using Required Energy=Average Power×Time for heating up. P1. Therefore. But only 80% of the mass is water.5potato = 21. To simplify our process of calculating hard integrals (volume).3. then the instantaneous power would have frequency 2f and there we have 2ω multiplied (actually division as far as time is concerned to get the average energy).23889W/m2 We now integrate the energy density over the volume of the potato. we get Q =13398. The amount of heat taken up for the potato (heat calculations) is as follows: Q = mCwater(∆T) where Cwater =4. Therefore.5 = 2593. (∆T)1 = 40•C (=(70• − 30•)C). from mode 1 .187 KJ/(Kg K) and m = 0. Evaluating thus.5potato = 7. Let us assume that we have an efficiency of 85% in heating the potato through the EM Wave radiations.

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