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# Fuzzy neural network sliding-mode position controller for induction servo motor drive

R.-J.Wai and F.-J.Lin

Abstract: A sliding-mode controller with an integral-operation switching surface is adopted to control the position of an induction servo motor drive. Moreover, to relax the requirement for the bound of uncertainties, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) sliding-mode controller is investigated, in which the FNN is utilised to estimate the bound of uncertainties real-time. The theoretical analyses for the proposed FNN sliding-mode controller are described in detail. In addition, to guarantee the convergence of tracking error, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates of the FNN. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed FNN sliding-mode controller provides high-performance dynamic characteristics and is robust with regard to plant parameter variations and external load disturbance. Furthermore, comparing with the sliding-mode controller, smaller control effort results, and the chattering phenomenon is much reduced by the proposed FNN sliding-modecontroller.

1

Introduction

Since the variable structure control strategy using the sliding mode can offer many good properties [l, 21, such as insensitivity to parameter variations, external disturbance rejection, and fast dynamic response, the sliding-modecontrol has been studied by many researchers for the control of the AC motor drive systems in the past decade [3-71. The motion of the control system employing sliding-mode control can be described as two modes: reaching and sliding modes. The reaching mode means the control mode before the states of the system reach the designed sliding surface, and in which there is a control action toward the sliding surface. Once the states of the controlled system enter the sliding mode, the dynamics of the system are determined by the choice of sliding hyperplanes and are independent of uncertainties and external disturbances. Furthermore, in the design of sliding-mode controller, the bound of the uncertainties, which include unknown dynamics, parameter variations and external load disturbance, must be available. However, the bound of the uncertainties is difficult to obtain in advance for practical applications in industry. Moreover, to satisfy the existence condition of the sliding mode, a conservative control law with large control effort usually results. Therefore, Karakasoglu and Sundareshan [8] proposed a novel scheme for integrating a neural network approach with an adaptive implementation of variable structure control for robotic manipulators; Lin and Chiu [9] proposed an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control system, in which a fuzzy inference mechanism is used to estimate the upper bound of uncertainties for a PM synchronous motor drive.

0IEE, 1999 IEE Proceedkgs online no. 19990290

DOL 10.1049/ipepa:19990290 Paper fmt received 30th July and in revised form 5th November 1998 The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan

IEE Proc.-Elrctr. Power Appl.. Vol 146, No. 3, May 1999

Recently much research has been done on applications of FNN systems, which combine the capability of fuzzy reasoning in handling uncertam information [9-121 and the capability of neural networks in learning from processes [13-15], in the control fields to deal with nonlinearities and uncertainties of the control systems [16-201. For instance, Chen and Teng [17] proposed a model reference control structure using an FNN controller, which is trained on-line using an FNN identifier with adaptive learning rates; Zhang and Morris [19] described a technique for the modeling of nonlinear systems using an FNN topology; Wai and Lin [20] introduced an FNN controller with adaptive learning rates to control a nonlinear mechanism. In ths study, first, a sliding-modecontroller with an integral-operation switching surface [211 is extended and applied to control the rotor position of an indirect field-oriented [22, 231 induction servo motor drive. In the sliding mode position controller, when the sliding mode occurs, the system dynamic behaves as a robust state feedback control system. Then, an FNN sliding mode position controller is investigated, in which the FNN is utilised to estimate the bound of uncertainties real-time for the position control system. The inputs of the FNN are the switching surface and its derivative, and the output of the FNN is the estimated bound of uncertainties. If the uncertainties are absent, once the switching surface is reached initially, a very small positive estimated value of bound of uncertainties would be sufficient to keep the trajectory on the switching surface, and the amplitude of chattering is small. However, when the uncertainties are present, deviations from the switching surface will require a continuous updating of the estimated value produced by the FNN to steer the system trajectory quickly back into the switching surface [SI. Though the true value of the bound of uncertainties cannot be obtained by the FNN, a less conservative control gain results in minimum control effort according to the switching surface and its derivative. Furthermore, the varied learning rates of the FNN, which are determined based on the convergence analyses using a discrete-type

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where 6. Vol. in which T.* 6s - 6 I Tr id'. and U. 3. and the integration of the following estimated slip angular velocity: W. Lr is the rotor inductance per phase. 7 ISM drive svstem (3) Js B where T. a ramp comparison current-controlled PWM voltage source inverter. 1 System configurationo f d i r e c t fEU-oriented lnductwn motor servo drive DCM = DC machine ISM = induction servo motor RCCC = ramp comparison current control Lyapunov function. e field-weakening control RCCC q p4THIJjd-l limiter pmf? speed controller controller co-ordinate translator er * . The control algorithms are realised in a Pentium computer. e * . 2. J is the moment of inertia. 1 1 for the o d n e identification of the Jacobian of the system.* represent the commands of position and speed of rotor. a speed control loop. The induction servo motor used in this drive system is a three-phase Y-connected two-pole 8OOW 60Hz 12OVf5. which consists of an induction servo motor loaded with a DC machine. 2. 1 ~ (1) The block diagram of an indirect field-oriented inductiori servo motor drive system is shown in Fig. The block diagram of the computer control system for the indirect field-oriented induction motor servo drive is shown in Fig. sinlcos generator es. s Tr2is (4) I I Fig.4A type.+ er 41 digital filter and dO. The unit vector used in the transformation matrix is generated by using the measured rotor position 6. No.3-phase 220v 60Hz rectifier I I + Y e. is the position of rotor flux) generator. + j sin e . 146. &. TL represents the torque of external load disturbance. L./dt -. and a position control loop. 6. the induction motor drive shown in Fig. 2 Indirect field-oriented induction motor drive by the block diagram of rotor position control shown in Fig. To reduce the calculation burden of the IEE Proc-Elect. a coordinate translator. Moreover. s is the Laplace operator. B is the damping coefficient. Fig. an indirect field-oriented mechanism. np is the number of pole pairs. id* is the flux current command. is the rotor time-constant. May 1999 . is the electric torque. 3.. 1 [22.l H p ( s )= + =- 2 . = Ktii. iqs* is the torque current command.. is the'magnetising inductance per phase. a unit vector (cos 6. 231.2 SirnplfEd control system block diagmm By using the field-oriented technique. and U. Power Appl. 1 can be reasonably represented 298 where T. are used in the online training of the FNN to alleviate heavy computation requirements of the identifier [15. represent the position and speed of rotor. in Fig. Kt is the torque constant.

in the sliding mode can be arbitrary assigned by K. No.+(D. 12.+B.64 x Nms2 ( A . 12.U(t) + D P T ~ (9) U ( t )= K X ( t ) . + ( D . TL ISM drive system (10) where hAP. the position error x l ( t )will converge to zero exponentially if the pole of eqn.f s g n ( S ( t ) ) IEE Proc.(t) = . 1 1 is governed by the following equation: X ( t ) = (A. from eqns. if the states of the system represented by eqn. the closed-loop eigenvalues. Reformulate eqn. 11 reach the switching surface eqn. Based on the developed switching surface.control computer I I Computer-controlled &tion DCM = DC machine ISM = induction servo motor Fig.)-' BpT is the pseudo inverse.K)X(t) (13) From eqn. Vol. 13. The curve fitting technique based on step response technique is applied to find the drive model offline at the nominal condition with TL = ONm. and ADp are the associated uncertainties. 9 is controllable.) U ( t ) B = 1. the system dynamics will behave as a state feedback control system. Power Appl.X(t) where + B. then X ( t ) = A . Thus. The switching surface mth integral-operation for the sliding mode position controller is given by Shyu and Shieh [21]: II 3 I I I I Fig. 11. then the equivalent dynamics of eqn.4 Induction servo motor drive with s l h g mode position controller S ( t )= C X ( t )Sliding mode position controller The sliding mode position controller is shown in Fig. Since the pair (Ap. the coordinate transformation is implemented by an AD2S100 AC vector processor [24]. + AD.)TL where Bpi L? (BpTB. Moreover.X(t) + B:AB. K ) X ( T ) ~ .(t) (6) kl(t)= = -w. T= 0 1 + (8) The above equation can be represented as: X ( t ) = A. X ( t ) B. 9 with uncertainties: X(t)= - Kt = 0. From eqn. 10. LIB.) T L + + + AB.3 s m o motor drive system with vector processor CPU and to increase the accuracy of the three-phase command current. (Ap + B$O. The results are - Consider eqn. + AD. and K is a state feedback gain matrix. 146. ( U ( t ) L ( t ) ) (11) where L(t) is the lumped uncertainty and is defined by + + L ( t ) = B:AA. AA.2 2 ( t ) (7) Then the induction servo motor drive system can be represented in the following statespace form: -e&) (12) where C E Rlx2and is set as a positive constant matrix. Bp) in eqn. S(t) = 0.U(t) . in the sliding mode. 3..e.) X ( t ) (B. namely S(t) = S(t) = 0. B.384 Nm/A J = 9. 4. 12 and 13. May 1999 (14) 299 . the controlled system is insensitive to the lumped uncertainty. a switching control law which guarantees the reachability and existence of the sliding mode is then proposed in the following: [ k ( A .-Electr. 13 is designed to locate on the left-hand plane. where the state variables are defined as follows: x1 ( t )= e: . + B .134 x Nms/rad (5) The '-' symbol represents the system parameter in the nominal condition.

However. the net input and the net output are represented as net: = x:. IW} = .C(A. the parameter variations of the system are difficult to measure.'(neta) = net:. which comprises an input (the i layer). + B . :Y output layer 0 FNN sliding mode position controller The major advantage of a sliding-mode controller is its insensitive to parameter variations and external load disturbance once on the switching surface. Large control gainfis often required to minimise the time required to reach the switching surface from the initial state.*) according to the S(t) and its derivative. . Therefore. 6. 5. 2 (19) IEE Proc. The signal propagation and the basic function in each layer is introduced below. The condition for the reachability and existence of a sliding mode is [l] surface will require a continuous updating of Kf produced by the FNN to steer the system trajectory quickly back into the switching surface.. once the switching surface is reached initially. a rule (the k layer) and an output layer (the o layer).L(t)} = . Vol. . where xll = S(t) and x2' = s(t). 14 with IL(t)l 5 J : Since the selection of the control gainfhas a si&icant effect on the system performance. s+o lim S S < o Differentiate S(t) and multiply with S(t). rule layer k membership . 14. a very small positive value of Kr would be sufficient to keep the trajectory on the switching surface.6 Structure offour-layer FNN Layer I: input layer For every node i in this layer. 3. and the output of the FNN is Kr.C%{ f ' IS(t)I .where sgn(. and the selection of the control gain f relative to the magnitude of uncertainties to keep the trajectory on the sliding surface. it will yield unnecessary deviations from the switchmg surface. i = 1 . where the inputs of the FNN are S(t) and its derivative. However. as shown in Fig.f s g n ( S ( t ) ) CB. Therefore. 5 I&twn servo motor drive with FNN sliding mode position controller f sgn(S(t))+ W)l . + + W)l +~.K f s g n ( S ( t ) ) (18) L . an FNN is utilised to estimate the bound of uncertainties real-time for the sliding mode position control system.) is a sign function defined as +1 if S ( t ) > 0 -1 if S ( t ) < 0 and the control gain f is set as IL(t)l 5 f .S ( t ) L ( t ) } + The adjustment of Kf is stop when the output error between the position command and the actual plant is zero. Although using a conservative constant control gain results in a simple implementation of the sliding-mode controller. 146. 4 4. usually a conservative control law with large control gain f is selected. .K)X(t)} ~~ ~ (16) Replacing the control input U(t) with eqn. .CB. K ) X ( t ) } = S ( t ) { C[ A p X ( t ) B p ( W . when the uncertainties are present.1 = f.then (15) S ( t ) S ( t )= S ( t ) { C X ( t ). May 1999 . y. a membership (the j layer). If the uncertainties are absent.{ flS(t)l . layer I inout Fig. causing a large amount of "is adopted in t h s study chattering [8]. Power Appl. and the amplitude of chattering is small.I S M . Replacingfby Krin eqn. + B . No. ? " sliding-mode The control block diagram of the I controller is shown in Fig. I Description of FNN A four-layer FNN.C ( A . the above equation can be rewritten as S ( t ) S ( t )= S ( t ) { C[ A p X ( t ) +%(KX - Fig.. K ) X ( t ) ) = S ( t ) { . 14. an F to facilitate adaptive control gain adjustment.CB. is adopted to implement the FNN.IS(t)l{ f - lM)l} L 0 (17) The existence condition of the sliding mode can be satisfied using the position controller eqn.C(A.-Electr. If the output error e 0 as t -+ CO implies S and S 0 as t 03. the following equation can be obtained: - - - U ( t ) = K X ( t ). a less conservative control gain is resulted to achieve minimum control effort (i. . deviations from the switching 300 . Though the true value of the lumped uncertainty cannot be obtained by the FNN.CB. and the exact value of the external load disturbance is also difficult to know in advance for practical applications.

W J ) . 1. (27) Layer 2: The multiplication operation is done in this layer. first the energy function E is chosen as 1 (0. The update law of q.I = gw. For the kth rule node = q. (21) where x i 3 represents the jth input to the node of layer 3. which multiplies the input signals and outputs the result of the product. . Then.- - + 1) = mz. Although the identifier [15. 6 . only the error term needs to be calculated and propagated. .. anet: and the weight is updated by the amount IEE Proc -Electr Power Appl . 80) dU. yj" = fj2(net'$)= exp(net5) (oijI2 j = 1. h y e r 4: The error term to be propagated is given by (29) where rlm is the learning-rate parameter of the mean of the Gaussian functions.(N) AW. . the mean and the standard deviation of the Gaussian function in thejth term of .2: (25) where qbv is the learning-rate parameter of the connecting weights of the FNN. I = (n/$ is the number of rules with complete rule connection if each input node has the same linguistic variables. The error term is computed as follows: 6?= -- aE &et'$ k where the connecting weight wk4. The Gaussian function is adopted as the membershp function. = -- -[ - d E 86.19.(N 1) = w..n (20) where inij and q. Layer 3: rule layer Each node k in this layer is denoted by n.2 Online learning algorithm The central part of the learning algorithm for an FNN concerns how to recursively obtain a gradient vector in which each element in the learning algorithm is defined as the derivative of an energy function with respect to a parameter of the network using the chain rule. where N denotes the number of iterations. the method is generally referred as the backpropagation learning rule. N o 3. the learning algorithm based on the back-propagation method is described below. respectively. which computes the overall output as the absolute value of the s m mation of all incoming signals k = 1 .m . 6 . xk4 represents the kth input to the node of layer 4.(N 023 g23 (32) The exact calculation of the Jacobian of the plant. To overcome this problem - . The weights of the output layer are updated according to the following equation (26) w2.)2 = -e2 1 E =(23) 2 2 where e denotes the output error between the position command and the actual plant. Muy 1999 30 1 . to the node of layer 2..i5. If the output error e 0 as t M implies S and S 0 as t m.. Layer 4: output layer The single node o in ths layer is labelled as 1x1.. .. 171 can be implemented to calculate the Jacobian of the plant. Layer 3: Since the weights in this layer are unified. For thejth node net. -- dE anet. ( N + 1) = ( N ) + Am23 (31) dnet: aE 80. are. . heavy computation effort is required.. and yf Kf and the update law of mijis 4. is the output action strength of the 0th output associated with the kth rule. dU ay: Vol 146.is 1 (30) where v0 is the learning-rate parameter of the standard deviation of the Gaussian functions.) 2 23 dE ay: ay/. are assumed to be unity. The mean and standard deviation of the hidden layer are updated as follows: m. To describe the online learning algorithm of the FNN using the supervised gradient decent method..the weights between the membership layer and the rule layer. = - = [-%I + (x: . the ith input linguistic variable x and n is the total number of the linguistic variables with respect to the input nodes.(N) + Am."anet: (+ + anet: dwko ..1 is the absolute value. dU dy.Layer 2: membership layer In t h s layer each node performs a membershp function. cannot be determined due to the uncertainties of the plant dynamics. . Since the gradient vector is calculated in the direction opposite to the flow of the output of each node [16-20].

. . 1 Since the sliding mode condition shown in eqn... . :.. . Vol. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . ... . .... According to the qualitative knowledge of the dynamic behaviour of the plant... .... . . .. (ii) rotor position a Command tracking response without pre-training b Control effort without pre-training Fig. . I .. nine and one neurons at the input. * ... . ... .. . . * ..... \ ... .. I]..... 146... .... . 0 40. .. 8a and 8b show the simulated results without the pre-training of the FNN.i I . The effectiveness of the online training FNN based on the varied learning rates with pre-training process for the application of estimating the lumped uncertainty will be demonstrated by the following simulation and experimental results. In the simulation. . ~ ~ 0 (36) . .. I ... .... : ... .. .. ) I I if S ( t ) 2 E S(~)/E if S ( t ) < 1 ~ -1 if S ( t ) 5 --E 1 .. . . . ...... . '.1 is chosen as a compromise between the stability and the reduction of chattering... whch guarantee the convergence of traclung error based on the analyses of a discrete-type Lyapunov function.. membership. . . .. the varied learning rates.... . . . . s : I I 1 20 . .. .. Moreover. I i.. . 20 . To reduce the chattering phenomenon due to the switchng control law. .. ... . .. . .. . . . . . . Then the switching control law can be modified to the smooth control law in the following forms for both the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers: U ( t )= K X ( t ). .. . . . . . .. No. 3 . j . . .. I I I . . .. . . ..L .. . the parameters of the control laws are given in the following: C = [ l 11. ... l I ..... E = 0. ... . . six.: . . . (34) 0 1 2 3 4 5 b time. . . . .. .. Then. . . . . . . I . 18 is used.. Moreover.. . . where the theoretic value of the lumped uncertainty is the and the estimated value is the ICr. 0 40 0 a I 1 . .. I 2 time. . I .. .... . .. . . . . .. . ..-Electr.. s Fig. the 0.... K = [ 2 5 0 -401. I 4 ... .. .. The learning processes of Ks are shown in Fig. ... . Eqn. a -201 0 b ... . . ......... .. . .... j.. 5 Simulated results . .. . ... . ... . . .... The FNN has two. .. .. .. . . 3...r. ..: ...... 2 .. :. ..... .. . .. Therefore. ....... . . i I : . .8 Function evaluation of FNN (i) Experimental value K j (ii) theoreticalvalue L(t) a Theoretic. are derived in the Appendix. All the parameters of the membershp functions and connective weights are randomly initialised in the range [0.and estimated values of lumped uncertainty without pre-training b S(t) and S(t) without pre-training U ( t ) = K X ( t ) .. is used to initial the parameters of the FNN to achieve good control characteristics.and to increase the online learning rate of the parameters of the FNN.. a . 7a. . 1 0. ... . The pre-training process. ... .the Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function in this study. . . time.. .... ... . :. .... .. May 1999 . .. suppose that the TL = 1Nm with the nomnal case changing to case 1 is given at 2s. .. .... 7b... 4.... .... . which is aimed at extracting the connective weights and membershp functions from the process of iterative learning. .. . .9 Function evaluation of FNN (i) Command... ... * . . s i i 4 i I 5 (i) Command. . ... . (i) rotor position a Command tracking response with pre-training b Control effort with pre-training 4 5 IEE Proc. . l . a step command with 2n rad is also given at 2% and the control law in eqn... 15 is not satisfied within the boundary layer. . . .... . I 7.. . . . . the sign function in eqns..... . .. ... . . I I . ... .. . . . 14 and 18 can be replaced by the following saturation function: 7 J s - Q . I . .. ...... .... rule and output layers.... . I ... .._ r m (U . . . -20 ... . . . s s a t ( S ( t ) )= and the boundary layer E is a small positive constant and usually chosen by trial and error. will increase or decrease as U increases or decreases.. . I . s Fig.KfSUt(S(t)) 4 L 0). .. . the FNN learns a Kf which is little higher than the 2 -e sgn (z) sgn(s(t)>sgn(nett> (33) at). 7. 2 ... .. s : . B = 5 x B (37) -40 I I I I I I 0 1 2 3 b time. . Figs.7 Function evaluation of FNN The simulated results of the learning processes for the FNN sliding-modecontroller are given here. .. . .... a pre-training process is implemented to enhance the control performance.... .. . : :.. .. .. . To train the FNN effectively. . Power Appi. the mechanical inertia and damping constants are significantly vaned to allow the transfer function model Hp(s) to be changed from that of a nominal case to: case 1: J = 5 x 302 i' 0 I . . . After the occurrence of the TL and parameter variations.. . . . 5 . I ..... . . 24 now becomes 5. i : .. . .. .f sat(S(t)) (35) In addition. . . -20 . .. . .p. a I .. . ... the sgn(d0Jd U ) in the FNN sliding mode position controller is set to be +1 for practical implementation. 4:S(t) . .. respectively...L ..7 Function evaluation of FNN . . . ... .2.. ... ..'. . .. . . . I I C 3 The control performance of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers are compared in t h s section by simulated results. . I 1 I I 2 3 4 ! I 5 : time. i i 1 i i 2 i ' i 3 time....... . i. . .. I o .. ... . . . .. .. ... .... . .3 Convergence and analyses of FNN Selection of values for the learning-rate parameters has a significant effect on the network performance. ... . * . .

. ... .... . I I I S .4 . .. .. ........ . . On the other hand. . . . .. . ..... ... ' . ...... . 10 .. 1 ... 0 a 2 4 6 time..... ...... . . . I . .. . . Since the theoretic value of the lumped uncertainty is close to 10 from the results shown in Fig... : 0 -2 . ! .. (ii) rotor position b Control effort 0 a 1 2 3 time. . . .. Since the FNN has been pre-trained... . . . . loa the position error is zero before the step command given at 2s. .. ... ... s 8 10 a (i) Command.. . . (ii) theoretical value L(r) a Theoretical and estimated values of lumped uncertainty with pre-training b S(t) and S(t) with pre-training . .. 1 1 . .. .. . .... ... .. ! . . L. .. .. L .. .. . .. I .. .. . . in Fig. s 8 10 3 4 I 5 time. . .. ati)Command... .. ... . .. .. ....-Electr. I I . .. .. . .. ... . . . .. .. . loa. ..... .. Vol. s . . . . I ' ' 4 ... I I 1 2 6 time. 4 6 time. May 1999 . . . . . ' 1 (ii): . .. .. . .. . . loa and lob show the simulated results with the pre-training of the FNN. . .. .... .. .. . .... . .. . . . ... ._ .. 0 a 2 4 6 time. L : .... .. . . . . I I I I I I I I I ! 0 2 4 6 8 b time. ... . ..... ... .. the performance of the rotor position response is not good. (ii) rotor position b Control effort a 0 b 2 4 6 time.. . . . .L . 0 ... Fi . I . .... .. .. 2 . . .. ... ! ... ... . ..... After the given of the step command.. .. . . . . ....'. . . . 9b.. .. . . .. .. . . # y I . Power Appl.. .. . . . ... s 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 b time..... ...... . . . . . .. . In Fig.... .. . .. :..theoretic value. . .... ! 8 ! . s 4 5 . . 4 6 time. . . .: : . .... . # . (ii) rotor position b Control effort IEE Proc... . . The rotor position responses of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers using the switching control law at the nominal case with external load disturbance TL = 0 are shown in 303 a cn L... . ! L .i .. I I ... . I . . . a new estimated value of the lumped uncertainty can be obtained from the FNN which is also little higher than the theoretic value. . . . I I. 8b the S(t) and its derivative become zero when the output error e becomes zero. . . s . ... Moreover. (ii) rotor position b Control effort .. .. . 1 * 1 1 . . . ... .. .. . -50 . .. ..... . . . . .. . . .. .. (ii) rotor position b Control effort 4 -100 0 b 2 0 a 100 2 ...... .... .. .. . . ... -401 . J. . robust control performance of the rotor position response can be obtained. . .. . .. .. 11-1 8 for both the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers.... .. .. 8 6 U 2 4 2 . . . .. 1 I. * . therefore. I 0 b 1 2 ' I... ........ . . .. ... .2 Sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers In the simulation two cycles of step rotor position commands (step command = 2n rad) are given periodically.. . the Kf keeps to a constant. .. . . . . .L. . . .. ... . .. . .... I * 0 a 601 10 ! 2 ! 4 6 time.. . . 11 Sbnulation results o sluing mode controller: nominal case with T . s Fig. . . . f ..I5 Simulation results of FNN sliding mode controller: nominal case wiz TL= 0 usmg switching control law a (i) Command. .. Fig... . ... the control gainf = 20 is chosen in the simulation. ... 8 I 10 I 5.. . . 9a. s Fi .. .. . . . ..... ... . No.. -2 -50 . s 8 10 .0 using switching control Jw . .. . The control performance of the switchng control law and the smooth control law are compared in Figs. . . ...... . .. s Fi 13 Sirmlation results of slding mode controlh: nominal care with TL = !?king smooth control U (i) Command. . ! .. .. . .. I . -1oo---L-' 0 b . . ... .... ... 1 .. .. .. s ' ' 8 10 '...j. .. .. I... .. .. .. ....L ... . .... ... . . .. .... .... .. 10 Function evuluution ofFNN (i) Experimental value Kr. . . s a I . ' ' -100 .. . Since the Kfis obtained after the occurrence of the uncertainties. . . ... .......:. 6 8 10 time.. 146. .. . ..... . .. -2 ..14 Sinnhtion results of sliding mode controller TL = INm givm ut Is wi$ nominal care chmgmg to case 1 ut 5s using m o t h control law a (i) Command. . . Figs. ' . .. .. . . .. ! . . ... 3.

.... From the simulated results shown in Figs. The robust control performance of the sliding-mode and FNN slidingmode controllers both in the command tracking and load regulation are obvious... 1% Simulation results of FNN slidhg mode controller: TL = I Nm given at I s with nominal case changing to case 1 at 5s wmg m o t h control law U (i) Command. 116 and 156. .............. . .. and there is no chattering in the control effort of the FTW sliding-mode controller. . (ii) rotor position b Control effort . Now. The associated control efforts of 304 1 disable interrupt 1ms 1ms Fig.... . -40 I l l I l l I 0 2 4 6 8 10 b time.... . . the disturbance torque with 1Nm is given at 1s. .. 13b and eqn. ... 0 b 2 4 6 time.... . .. .. ... . . . ... . the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers are shown in Fig. s ! ! L : U 0 . 12a and 16a. .... ... The associated control efforts (torque current commands) of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers are shown in Figs.. m -m m ..1 6 Simulation results of FNN slidmg mode controller: TL = 1Nm given at I s with nominal caye c h g m g to case I at 5s using witching control law a (i) Command... .. .. . U 4 . ..... 146. . . <. . s I .. . ...... .. I . The rotor position responses of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers are shown in Figs. 1 interrupt interval setting 10 calculate rotor flux position [ * I T +.. . .. s . .. 34 to reduce the chattering... . only the results of the smooth control law are presented in the experimentation.. and there is also no chattering in the control effort of the FNN sliding-mode controller. The rotor position responses of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers using the switching control law are shown in Figs.. and the amplitude of chattering "sliding-mode controller is also smaller than of the F that of the sliding-mode controller. . . . . s 8 4 enable interrupt monitor data w i z TL= 0 i i n g mooth control law a (i) Command. and the nominal Hp(s) is changed to case 1 at 5s. The robust control performance of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers both in the command traclung and load regulation are obvious. ..... . ......1 I . respectively.. . . output Be to vector processor 0 b 6 time... . No... Power Appl. .. -20 . ... and the nominal Hp(s) is changed to case 1 at 5s..... s 8 10 ~ a . . s 8 10 Fig. and the amplitude of chattering of the FNN slidingmode controller is smaller than that of the sliding-mode controller. I . . . 17b.. . . respectively. 14a and 18a. . ... 19 Flowcharts of FNN sliding mode control system IEE Proc-Electr. ... .. 13a and 170.. .. : 1 ! 0 a 2 4 6 time.... . .:. . . .. I10 initialistion -1 calculate slip angular velocity $"SI interface a -20 -40 .... ..... the disturbance torque with 1Nm is given at Is. .. ... ... respectively.. Favourable tracking responses can be obtained... . The associated control efforts are shown in Figs.. I ... l l a to 186. The chattering phenomenon in the control effort of the sliding-mode controller is much reduced. The rotor position responses for the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers using the smooth control law at the nominal case with external load disturbance TL = 0 are shown in Figs.. .. I 7 Swnulution results of FNN slidmg mode controller: nominal case 1 '7' by DAC to vector processor online learning algorithm to update parameters of FNN Since the chattering phenomenon in sliding mode control will wear the bearing mechanism and excite the unmodelled dynamics.... -2 parameters initialisation 2 4 0 a 6 8 10 time.. .... (ii) rotor position b Control effort Fi .. The chattering phenomena in the control efforts are serious due to the sign function in the switching control law... Vol.. ..... ... i .. .. -2 0 a ! 2 ! ! 4 6 8 ! ! ! 10 time. (ii) rotor position b Control effort Fig. .l. . ..... 2 4 18.. l l a and 15a.. The chattering phenomenon in the control effort of the sliding-mode controller is also much reduced. The chattering phenomena in the control efforts are also serious due to the sign function in the switching function. . fuzzy neural network sliding mode position controller calculate . . 12b and 166. Favorable tracking responses can be obtained by both types of controllers... .... ...r. ... one can conclude that the both the sliding mode and FNN slidingmode controllers with smooth control law can reduce or remove the chattering phenomenon. .... ... 14b and 1%.. . . Therefore. .. .. the sign function is replaced by the saturation function in eqn. . ... ... .... .... The associated control efforts are shown in Figs..... . . .. . . . .Figs. .... May 1999 . ...... .. . . 3.. Now.

Figs. No.-Electr.6 Experimental results The software flowcharts of the FNN sliding mode control system in the experimentation are shown in Fig. 21a and b are the results of the sliding-mode controller. Muy 1999 b vuriution: slia'mg mode controller using m o t h tmtrol h w . (11)rotor position h Control effort Some experimental results are provided here to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FNN sliding-mode controller. 19.21 Ex r m t u l results of c o m d truckmg ut nomwl mertu C tion FNN s l & g mode controller usmg m t h control kM. 146. the measured rotor position responses due to a step-load disturbance with 1 Nm of the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers using the smooth control law are shown in Figs. After enabling the interrupt. Power Appl. Time scale: 1ddiv U (I)Command. In the main program.5ddiv (i) Command: (ii) rotor position U Sliding mode controller using smooth control law h FNN sliding mode controller using smooth control law a I+ h I O ~ I - Fig. Next. Favourable tracking responses are obtained for both types of controllers. parameters and input/output (I/O) initialisation are proceeded first. (ii) rotor position h Control effort Fig. and Figs. Vol. Time scale: I ddiv U (i) Command. and the execution of the FNN slidingmode controller. 20a and b. Identical and a 1 a tion: sluiing mode controller wing smooth control labc.. 220 and b. The chattering phenomena are much reduced in the control efforts due to the saturation function in the smooth control law. Two conditions of rotor inertia are tested here. First. and the other increases the rotor inertia to approximate five times the IEE Pro<.I d clisturhuntr ( I Nm) at nominul inertk condition Time scale: 0. The interrupt service routine ISRl with lms sampling rate is used for the field-oriented mechanism. 3.22 Exprimentul results i 1 i I i b q f s t e p . the main program is used to monitor the control data. the interrupt intervals for the interrupt service routines (ISRs) are set. (ii) rotor position h Control effort Fig. Time scale 1sidiv U (I) Command. respectively. In addition. the measured rotor position responses and the associated control efforts due to a periodic step-command change (2n rad) at the nominal inertia condition of the sliding-mode controller (f = 20) and the FNN sliding-mode controller using the smooth control law are shown in Figs. and the control effort of the FNN sliding-mode controller is smaller than that of the sliding-mode controller due to the smaller real-time estimated value of the lumped uncertainty. 21a and b are the results of the FNN slidingmode controller. The interrupt service routine ISR2 with lms sampling rate is used for the encoder interface.20 b E. 2n rad 0 rad nominal value. one is the nominal inertia condition.23 E~primmtul results of command trucking at the condition ojinerticr 305 .xprinmtul results of command trucking at rwminul inertiu condi- I Fig. Next. the online learning algorithm is implemented to update the parameters of the network. a limiter is added to limit the control effort in the experimentation. Moreover.

L. J. Electron. . K. .L. . 6..24 Experimental results o f command trackmg at the condition of krtia Time scale: lddiv a (i) Command. Electron.: ‘Adaptive fuvy sliding-mode control for PM synchronous servo motor drives’.. 1994) 12 YAGER. . New Jersey. Power Appl.pp.: ‘Control dynamics of speed drive systems using sliding mode controllers with integral compensation’.pp.favourable load regulation responses are obtained for both types of controllers.. IEE Proc.: ‘Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller-Part I and Part 11’.Y. From Table 1.S. a sliding mode and an FNN sliding-mode controller based on an integral-operation switching surface 306 1 ITKIS. the position responses in command tracking and load regulation are robust for both the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers.K. . 23u. 1990. pp.. the FNN sliding-mode controller is more suitable for the position control system. and RENFREW. 1990. Therefore. R.. 1976) 2 UTKTN.H.. 31.C. 31. 236.C. have been adopted to control the position of a computercontrolled indirect field-oriented induction servo motor drive. 27-34 8 KARAKASOGLU.: ‘A comparative study of Luenberger observer and adaptive observer-based variable structure speed control system using a self-controlled synchronous motor’. and WU. and CHIU.pp. Owing to the sliding mode mechanism. Power Electron. B. Neural Netw.IEEE Trans. P..... 1993. B. small control effort is resulted and the chattering phenomenon is not existed in the FNN sliding-mode control system. K.... 1495-1507 9 LIN. Ind. May 1999 . 4 2 7 IEE Proc. 140. K.. No.T.. Appl.pp. 8 References a b Fig. However. . 3. IEE Proc... . 146.: ‘Identification and control of dynamical systems using neural networks’. Controller Sliding mode controller Robust characteristics good good Control effort large small Chattering phenomenon exists does not exist FNN sliding mode controller b Fig. Now. the rotor inertia is varied.P. . pp. (ii) rotor position a Sliding mode controller using smooth control law b FNN sliding mode controller using smooth control law 7 Conclusions In this study. and SEN. 127-132 4 HO. 1990.: ‘Design and implementation of microprocessor based sliding mode controller for brushless servo motor’.. .. 883-892 5 KARUNADASA. (iii) proposing an FNN sliding-mode controller using smcoth control law to reduce the control effort and chattering phenomenon with robust control characteristics.5ddiv (i) Command.. Ind.R.S. 1994) 13 NARENDRA. the resulted control effort and chattering phenomenon of the FNN slidingmode controller are smaller than those of the sliding-mode controller owing to the smaller estimated value of the lumped uncertainty. D. pp.. 317-325 7 CHERN.-Control Theory Appl. Moreover. IEEE Trans. A. (ii) rotor position b Control effort variation: FNN sliding mode controller using mooth control law The major contributions of thls study are: (i) extending the sliding-mode controller with an integraloperation switchmg surface to the position control of the induction servo motor drive. robust control characteristics with small control effort and much reduced chattering phenomenon can be obtained from thi FNN sliding-mode controller using the smooth control law. .E. 63-72 I O LEE. New York.C. and SEN. IEE Proc.X. Automatica. 1998. Englewood Cliffs. . . M.-Electr.Y. A..I.J. and KIM. Ind. 21..C. pp.40. Cybern. pp. P. ZEEE Trans.: ‘A recurrent neural network-based adaptive variable structure model-following control of robotic manipulators’.. Man. pp... The measured responses of a periodic step-command change and the step-load disturbance for both types of controllers using the smooth control law are shown in Figs.Y. 24u. robust control performance can be obtained by both the sliding mode and FNN sliding-mode controllers. S.25 Experimental results o f step-load disturbance ( I Nm) at the condition o f inertia variation Time d e : 0.L.20. F.: ‘Chattering reduction i control of induction motor using the sliding mode’.: ‘Adaptive fuzzy systems and control: design and stability analysis’ (Prentice-Hall. IEEE Trans. (ii) successfully using a sign function to derive the varied learning rates of the FNN based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function. IEEE Trans.: ‘Design of brushless DC position servo systems using integral variable structure approach’. 1991.: ‘Control systems of variable structure’ (John Wiley & Sons. 404436 11 WANG. 1991. 138. IEEE Truns. and PARTHASARATHY. U. 1995.. V.P. Syst.C. a ... 1991.. The comparison of the control characteristics of the shuing mode and FNN sliding mode controllers are summarised in Table 1.K. . . 145. and FILEV. 1993. 246. . From the simulated and experimental results.: ‘Sliding mode control design principles and applications to electric drives’. and SUNDARESHAN. 345-363 n the position 6 PARK. New York. Vol.: ‘Essentials of fuzzy modeling and control’ (John Wiley & Sons. 1. 2% and 25b. Table 1: Comparison of sliding mode and FNN sliding mode controllers . 22-36 3 NANDAM. M. .... . P.. C.

where P. 39. a maxNllP.. is chosen as q.~.. [IW& (2/qjmin)]-2. then where Amq represents a mean change of the Gaussian function in membership layer. D. 306319 16 HORIKAWA. pp. This completes the proof of the theorem. K.. let Po max be defined as Po. 1995.: ‘On fuzzy modeling using fuzzy neural networks with the backpropagation algorithm’. IEE Proc-Control Theory Appl. Poiver Electron.(N)II in eqn. R.v73:T(~)%(N)I II Ile(Wll 1 1 1 . Proc.4/dwk.(N>II.T.in which R. Because the Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function. G.. The output error between the position command and the actual plant will W.3.. SANTHARAM. Therefore. = l/(Pmmx)2 = 1/R. and LIN. Prooj. and UNNIKRISHNAN. and qa are chosen as q. and TENG.14 FUKUDA.V ( N ) 1 = .v.. and UCHIKAWA. Lemma 2: Let q(z) = z2 exp(-z2). F... Then Ip(z)/ < 1. where PAN) =dy.PwT(N>Pl..: ‘Vector control and dynamics of AC drives’ (Oxford University Press. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 43 is less than 1. Power Appl. 1996.S.x be defined as P .v w E ( ~ .e 2 ( N ) A V ( N ) = V ( N + 1) . Then the convergence are guaranteed if q.S.: ‘Robust speed-controlled induction-motor drive using EKF and RLS estimators’. pp. 1996) 23 NOVOTW.mq)/qj] exp{-E(x? rng)/qj]l2}( < 1.J. IEEE.The Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function.zu)2= URu.zaJ2 = I/Ru. Y. 1992. T.C.. and LIPO. C.A.J. and SHIBATA. 291-312 18 JANG.73.. S.: ‘Control of electrical drives’ (Springer-Verlag..: ‘Fuzzy neural networks for no&ear systems modelling’. pp. Since 9 Appendix Theorem I: Let qlvbe the learning-rate parameter of the connecting weights of the FNN and let P. Then /q(z)/< 1. 295-320 21 SHYU.: ‘A model reference control structure using a fuzzy neural network’.C. Lemma 1: Let p(z) = z exp(-z2).J. 47 is less than 1./amq. 1994. = function for the FNN. pp. is the number of rules in the FNN.. The output error between the position command and the actual plant will converge to zero as t -+ W . and SUN. 40 and 41 is guaranteed. pp. 1992. the Lyapunov stability of V > 0 and AV < 0 is guaranteed.P.: ‘A new switching surface slidingmode speed control for induction motor drive systems’.(( is the Euclidean norm in !Rn. 11... a discrete-type Lyapunov function is selected as 1 (40) 2 The change in the Lyapunov function is obtained by V ( N )= .vw E I W P w (NI I1 (43) If qlYis chosen as qlb= l/(Pl. Neurocomputing. 142. M . IEEE Trans. P. Therefore.(N)l..: ‘Theory and applications of neural networks for industrial control systems’.. T. pp. 3 mux~lP.. 1995. I998.J. Neural Netw.(N) = dy.: Memory neuron networks for identification and control of dynamical systems’.) p w ( N ) lII L Il4W II ( 1 1 . pp. 1996) 24 LIN. ~x be defined as P. The Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function. 3 7 8 4 5 19 ZHANG J. Since ay4 = Pw(N) =2 8Yj” = wto sgn(net:) amij a40 sgn(nett) (38) Thus llPw(N)II < JRU (39) Then. ZEEE Trans. Then the convergence is guaranteed if qw is chosen as q.(N) = ay. = qa = 1/&[I w & waxlC2/0~ Proofl According to lemma 1. 472-491 15 SASTRY./dqj. H.. IEEE Truns.the term 111 q. Belin. the term 1 1 1 . 1 1 is the Euclidean norm in W. T. let P.(N)IIin eqn. Ind.. Electron.J. 66&667 22 LEONHARD. IEE Proc-Electr. IEE Proc -Electr Power Appl Val 146.W. T.PmT(N)P.83.. IEEE Trans.. the Lyapunov stability of V > 0 and AV < 0 by eqns. 1996. I[(x? . pp.20. 186192 In order to prove theorem 2. M C I1999 ~ ll4N + 1)II = I l e ( W I [1 . V z E 8. then ll4N + 1 1 1 1 = I l e ( N ) [I . K. = muxdlPAN)II. and SHIEH. and 11.K.. 551-556 20 WAI.[e2(N 1) .: ‘A fuzzy neural network controller with adaptive learning rates for nonlinear slider-crank mechanism’. converge to zero as t - 307 . C.where P..” = l/(P.R.e 2 ( N ) ] 2 The error difference can be represented by (44) Thus. 143. New York. W. Because the Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function. 801406 17 CHEN.: ‘Neural-fuzzy modeling and control’.vmpmT(N)Pm(N)II (47) If q. ((. pp. and MORRIS. T. F. 1995.. Theorem 2: Let qmand qo be the learning-rate parameters of the mean and the standard deviation of the Gaussian .q. 5. Neural Netw. FURUHASHI. Y. (41) + The error difference can also be represented by where Awk2 represents a weight change in output layer. the following lemmas [I71 will be used. V z E 8. No 3. A.

40 and 41 is guaranteed. This completes the proof of the theorem. Ile(” 5 308 kEE Proc-Electr.q$S.ux)2 = l/R.)/ crJ2>\c 1.3]-2.Agij I - 1 1 (50) where ACT.m. Vol.%P.. . 146. No. Since (48) Thus. . Therefore.2 (a/% m T d The error difference can also be represented by JR.rn. the Lyapunov stability of V > 0 and AV < 0 by eqns.According to lemma 2.T(N)P#T)II in eqn. The output error between the position command and the actual plant will converge to zero as t 4.[Iwk4. then Ile(N + 1 1 1 1 = e ( N ) [I .T(N)Pu(N)l I1 I 1 1 1. I (49) e(N+1) = e ( N ) + A e ( N )= e ( N ) + . May 1999 . I[(xf . represents a standard deviation change of the Gaussian function in membershp layer.% ~ . Because the Jacobian of the plant is replaced by its sign function. T ( N ) P u ( ~ ) ( I (51) If qo is chosen as qo = l/(P0 .)/o.(LyI (2/q. Power Appl. 51 is less than 1. lIP. 3.I2exp{-[(x? . the term 1 1 1 .(N) II < I W L ma.