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China Biography

Directions: While reading about the historical figures of China, complete the simple outline below. One example has been done for you.

Qin Shihuandgdi

I.

Early Years A. He was born Prince Zheng of the royal family of the state of Qin (c. 259 B.C.E.). B. He became the king at 13 years old, ten years after 256 B.C.E.

II.

Significant Events A. As king/emperor, he standardized the laws from place to place. (standardizing cultural practice) He simplified the writing system. B. To end opposition, he killed many Confucians scholars, and burned Confucian books, even making his son a victim of the campaign to end opposition.

III.

Personal Attributes (characteristics) A. He was a harsh ruler, who hated Confucian scholars, and killed many of the scholars to end opposition. B. He was an ambitious man in making his empire larger through war.

IV.

Contributions A. Built the Great Wall of China in the North B. Gave the world the terra-cotta army to see after his death in his tomb

V.

My Impressions

A. I thought it was unfair that even Qins son had to suffer punishment just because Qin wanted to end opposition B. I thought it amazing that he was buried in a complex tomb filled with everything needed in the afterlife made out of terra-cotta.

King Wu and the Zhou Dynasty

I. Early Years A. First ruler of Zhou Dynasty, established feudalism B. Created stability with feudalism in empire C. Considered a just and able ruler. II. Significant Events A. Established feudalism, where the king owns all the land. B. Rebellion happened and after the rebellion, a new dynasty (Zhou) was established in China (1045 B.C.E.) III. Personal Attributes (characteristics) A. King Wu was considered a just and able ruler. B. He was the first ruler of the Zhou dynasty IV. Contributions A. Established feudalism B. Also established Mandate of Heaven C. Feudalism fell, and wars started among states. (called Warring States period) V. My Impressions A. I think that The Zhou Dynastys falling couldve been prevented with better government and stabilization B. I think that the Zhou made up Mandate of Heaven just so they could rule China.

Confucius

I. A. B. C. II. A. B. C.

Early Years Born in small state of Lu in 551 B.C.E. Deeply respected Chinese traditions such as reverence to ancestors. Between 722 481 B.C.E., his state was invaded many times by lords who wanted power. Significant Events Created Confucianism Taught wisely and thoughtfully. Helped restore peace and order in future dynasties with his teachings.

III. Personal Attributes (characteristic) A. Reverent, wise B. Thoughtful, respectful, traditional IV. Contributions A. Influenced how the Han dynasty hired civil servants (servants who worked for the government) B. Restored peace and order to the government. C. V. My Impressions A. Confucius was wise and trusting, and his teachings are easy to understand. B. Taught 5 basic relationships in life (ruler and subject, husband and wife, father and son, older sibling and younger sibling, friend and friend are 5 basic relationships in life).

Laozi

I. Early Years A. Worked as an advisor in the Zhou court for many years B. Believed to be a legend, or a real man who lived in the late 500s B.C.E. II. Significant Events A. Retired at 90 years old, he tired of government work and wanted to leave in China B. As we was leaving China, a guard asked him to write down his thoughts, which he titled: The Dao De Jing III. Personal Attributes (characteristic) A. Wise and simple B. Natural, caring IV. Contributions A. Wrote the Dao De Jing (The Classic of the Way and Its Power.) B. Taught future rulers to rule less harshly on their subjects. V. My Impressions A. I think that Daoism portrays that you need to live a simple life in nature/harmony B. Daoism influenced Chinese thought and writing, art, especially with yin and yang, which is very cool. C. I am happy that the guard recognized Laozi, so that the Dao De Jing could be created

Hanfeizi

I.

Early Years A. Lived from 280-233 BCE. B. Was a Prince of a royal family on the state of Han C. Wrote Hanfeizi, teachings about Legalism D. Was very concerned about creating peace and order within the society, but didnt think it was proper behavior that was the answer to peace and order and stability. Significant Events A. Didnt think that it was enough for only rulers to set good examples as in Confucianism B. Wrote Hanfeizi, which has teaching about legalism in it. Personal Attributes (characteristics) A. Harsh, thought that all people were naturally selfish. B. Thought that people should be punished for doing poorly on their jobs, and should be very harshly punished for criticizing the government. Contributions A. Founded Legalism and B. Wrote the book on Hanfeizi My Impressions A. Hanfeizi was very harsh minded B. He taught harsh and just teachings in Legalism

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Write a question: Use your question helpers. Write a question about one of the figures you have read about and write it below. Explain how Confucianism contributed to the Han dynasty in detailed answer.