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2009, Page 1121-1128

Decision making system for the collision avoidance of marine vessel navigation based on COLREGs rules and regulations.

L. P. PERERA

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal

J. P. CARVALHO

INESC-ID, Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal

C. GUEDES SOARES

Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal ABSTRACT: A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of the target vessel with respect to the vessel domain of the own vessel has been analyzed and fuzzy membership functions have been derived in this study. Fuzzy rule based (IF-THEN) decision making system has been formulated, implemented and results are summarized. Further, decisions on the DM system are formulated in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules and regulations (COLREGs) of ocean navigation to avoid conflict situations. 1 INTRODUCTION Conventional marine vessel navigational systems consist of human guidance, hence 75-96% of marine accidents and causalities are affected by some types of human errors (Rothblum et al. 2006, Antão and Guedes Soares 2008). Therefore implementation of an intelligent DM system during the ocean navigation is a mandatory requirement to achieve higher maritime safety standards. This reality has been characterized as e-Navigation (eNAV 2008). Furthermore, to have Autonomous Guidance and Navigation capabilities in ocean navigation, such as the system described in Moreira et al (2007), it is necessary to have a decision making system onboard vessels to avoid collision situations. This application area is bound to become more important in the future ocean navigation (Fossen, 1999) due to its cost reduction and requirements of maritime safety. This paper focuses on a fuzzy logic based Decision Making (DM) system to implement on vessel navigation to improve safety of the vessel by avoiding the collision situations. The rules and regulations with respect to the collision avoidance conditions, i.e., Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs) (IMO 1972), were formulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that represents the importance of regulated prevention of the collisions in ocean navigation. Decision making process and strategies in interaction situations with respect to the collision avoidance conditions were presented by Chauvin et al. (2008). The analysis of quantitative data describing the maneuvers undertaken by ferries and cargo-ships and the behavior of the 'give way' and 'stand on' vessels with respect to the verbal reports on-board recorded in a car-ferry in the Dover Strait were also presented in the same work. The two main terminologies that were used in recent literature with respect the collision avoidance conditions could be presented as “Own vessel” (the vessel with the DM system) and “Target vessel” (the vessel that need to be avoided). Similar definitions have been considered during the formulation of collision situations in this study. The detection of a target vessel location and velocity are two important factors in the decision making process of the collision avoidance. The combination of radar and infrared imaging to detect the other vessel conditions

were proposed by Sato et al. (1998) as a part of the collision avoidance system. The method of measuring course of the target vessel and the evaluation of the risk of the collision situations by image processing are further proposed as improvements of collision avoidance conditions in the same work. The defined region of vessel domain that was bounded for dynamics of the marine vessel is an important factor to define the collision conditions. The vessel domain, in a collision situation, that depends on parameters of the vessel size, vessel course and heading angles of the encountered vessels has been proposed by Pietrzykowski et. al (2006) and fuzzy logic based domain determination system has been considered. Similarly neuralclassifiers have been proposed by Lisowski et. al (2000), as an element that is supporting the navigator in the process of determining the ship's domain where the area around the vessel should be free from stationary or moving navigational obstacles. The calculations based on the kinematics of twoship collision encounters conjunction with the equations of motion were presented by Kwik (1989). The analysis of a collision avoidance situation was illustrated with respect to the vessel velocity, turning rate and direction, and the desired passing distance in the same work. The collision avoidance conditions among ships, shore installations and other obstacles were considered by Yavin et al. (1995). In addition a case study of a ship moving from one point to another in a narrow zigzag channel was considered and a computational loop command strategy for the rudder control system associated with the numerical differential equation solver was proposed in the same study. Ship trajectories are normally simulated by mathematical models based on maneuvering theory (e.g. Sutulo et al, 2002) although approaches based on neural networks have also been proposed (Moreira, and Guedes Soares, 2003). Modeling of ship trajectory in collision situation by an evolutionary algorithm was presented by Smierzchalski et. al (2000) and comparison of computational time for trajectory generation with respect to the other maneuvering algorithms were also illustrated. Static and dynamic constrains were considered for the optimization process of the safe trajectory in the same work. 2 COLREGs RULES AND REGULATIONS It is observed that the COLREGs rules and regulations with respect to collision situations in

ocean navigation were ignored by most of the recent literature. The negligence of the IMO rules may lead to conflicts during collision situations. Therefore the methods ignoring COLREGs rules and regulations should not be implemented. On the other hand there are practical issues in the implementation of the COLREGs rules and regulations during the ocean navigation. As an example, there will be implementation issues of "give way” and “stand on" vessels of the COLREGs rules during the vessel navigation in a situation where the moving vessel or moving obstacle with very low or very high speeds with respect to the own vessel. Hence smart DM system must be implemented to be consistent with the COLREGs rules and regulations and also to eliminate previously mentioned implementation conflicts. Similarly considerable amount of recent research has been focused on design and implementation of optimization algorithms to find the safest path to avoid collision situations. It is observed that some optimization algorithms always find the safest path behind the target vessel which may lead to a conflict with the COLREGs rules and regulations. Similarly some algorithms are enforcing the own vessel to navigate away from the target vessel or obstacle by repulsive forces from the vessel or the obstacle during the collision situations. This concept may lead to a conflict situation when the moving vessel with very low speed or very high speed with respect to the own vessel. In addition, complex orientation of obstacles may lead to unavoidable collision situations. Further, the concepts of "give way” and “stand on" vessels that were derived on the COLREGs rules and regulations during the vessel navigation will not be honored in by the repulsive forces based algorithms. Hence optimizations algorithms integrated with a smarter DM system should be considered to overcome the above problems. The consideration of course changes and/or speed changes of vessels in ocean navigation must be formulated in order to avoid critical collision situations. However some of the recent collision avoidance applications have been focused on specific controllability of either course change or speed change. According to the COLREGs rule 8(b). “Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vessel observing visually or by radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or speed should be avoided”. Hence integrated controls of course changes as well as speed changes should be implemented

during the vessel navigation to avoid collision situations. Similarly special measures should be considered during integrations of course and speed controls due to the fact that the vessels may not response to required changes in course or speed. 3 COLLISION SITUATION Two vessels in a collision situation are presented in Figure 1 and the following description has been illustrated with respect to the collision conditions. The own vessel that has implemented the DM system is located at the point O (Xo, Yo), and the target vessel, the vessel need to be avoided is located at the point A (Xa, Ya). The own and target vessels velocities of Vo, Va and course of ψo, ψa respectively are also presented in the same figure. The relative velocity of the target vessel with respect to the own vessel was defined as Va,o and relative speed |Va,o| → Va,o and course of ψa,o could be calculated from Va,o = Va - Vo (1)

Figure 2. Vessel relative collision situation.

These regions have been separated by the discontinue lines that are coincided with the fuzzy regions as formulated in the fuzzy membership function in Figure 4. It is assumed that any target vessels should be located within these eight regions and the decisions were formulated accordance to each region. The gray circular region represents the vessel domain with the radius of Rvd ( Figure 1). The white circular region represents the critical collision risk region due to the target vessel orientation. As presented in Figure 2, the target vessel position at the region II has been divided into eight divisions of target vessel orientations with respect to the relative course regions: II-a, II-b, II-c, II-d, II-e, II-f, II-g and II-h. These divisions have been separated by the discontinue lines that are coincided with the fuzzy collision risk regions presented later.

Figure 1. Vessel collision situation.

4 COLLISION AVOIDANCE METHODOLOGY 4.1 Identification of Obstacles The stationary and moving obstacles in the ocean navigation can be identified by several instruments and systems: Eye / camera, radar / Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA), and Automatic Identification System (AIS). ARPA provides accurate information of range and bearing of nearby obstacles and AIS is capable of giving all the information on vessel structural data, position, course, and speed (Hasegawa 2009). The collection of radar data has been considered as the method of identifying stationary and moving obstacles during this study.

In addition the relative distance and angle of the target vessel with respect to the own vessel are derived as the |AO| and θo respectively. All angles have been measured with respect to the positive Yaxis as presented in Figure 1 and 2. The curve AB represents the relative path of the target vessel with respect to the own vessel and the collision encounter angle is presented by θa,o. The vessel relative collision situation that is similar to a Radar plot is presented in Figure 2. As presented in the figure the collision regions with respect to the own vessel have been divided into eight regions: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.

4.2 Collection of Navigational Information The navigational information could be categorized into three sections: static information, dynamic information and voyage related information. Collection of navigational information is an important part of the decision making process of the collision avoidance in ocean applications. However it has not been emphasized on the navigational information of the target vessels at this stage of the study. 4.3 Analysis of Navigational Information The collected target vessel information should be considered for further analysis of navigational information. Three distinct situations that are involving risk of collision with respect to the ocean navigation have been recognized by the recent literature (Smeaton, et. al 1987), overtaking, head-on and crossing, and same situations have been highlighted in this study. However in ocean navigation, complex collision situations involving combinations of the above situations could occur and identification of each situation with respect to the each collision conditions will be helpful for the overall decisions on vessel navigation. 4.4 Assessments on the Collision Risk The analysis of navigational information will be able to predict the collision risk assessments. Therefore the assessment of the collision risk should be continuous in the navigational system for safety of the own vessel. As presented in recent literature, the mathematical analysis of collision risk detection could be divided into two categories: 2D methods and 3D methods. Both methods consist of locations of each vessel in 2D coordinate system and the 3D method consists of an addition time axis. However analysis of 2D method in real-time is proposed in this study to capture the time axis effects. The summarized collision risk assessments including the fuzzy linguistic variables are presented in the Table 1. The first column represents the collision regions with respect to the own vessel and the second column represents the divisions of the target vessel orientations. Furthermore the third column represents the risk assessment with respect to each collision region and that have been divided into three sections: Low risk (Low), Medium Risk (Mid.) and High risk (High). The respective COLREGs rules and regulations are presented in the fourth column. Target vessel relative speed conditions are presented in the fifth column. Finally the decisions that need to be taken to avoid the collision situations with respect to the COLREGs

Table 1. Collision Risk Assessment and Decisions Reg. Division Risk Rule Condition I d Mid. 13 NA e High 14 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 f Mid. NA II e Mid 15 NA f High 16 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 g Mid. 17 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 III f Mid. 15 NA g High 16 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 h Mid. 17 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 IV a Mid. 17 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 g Mid. 15 NA h High 16 Va,o << 0 Va,o ≈ 0 Va,o >> 0 V a High 14 NA* b Mid. NA* h Mid. 13 NA* VI a Mid. 15 NA* b High 16 NA* c Mid. 17 NA* VII b Mid. 15 NA* c High 16 NA* d Mid. 17 NA* VIII c Mid. 15 NA* d High 16 NA* e Mid. 17 NA*

Decision NA δψ > 0 δψ > 0 δψ > 0 NA NA NA δψ > 0 δψ > 0 NA δψ > 0 δψ > 0 NA NA δVo<< 0 δVo<< 0 NA δVo < 0 δVo < 0 NA δVo < 0 δVo < 0 NA NA δVo<< 0 δVo<< 0 NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA* NA*

*** Target vessel should take actions to avoid the collision situations.
**

NA : Not Applicable

rules and regulations are presented in the last column. With respect to the COLREGs rules and regulations the vessel coming from the starboard side has the priority for the navigation. Hence, as noted from the table, the collision avoidance appropriate actions from own vessel have been limited for the regions of I, II, III and IV. As presented in Table 1, δψ > 0 represents the decision to increase of own vessel course to the starboard side, and δVo < 0 and δVo << 0 represent decrease of own vessel different speed levels respectively. 4.5 Decisions on Navigation The decisions of collision avoidance in ocean navigation should be based on several factors: Speed and Course of each vessel, distance between two

vessels, Distance of the Closest Point of Approach (DCPA) RDCPA (see Figure 1), time to DCPA, neighboring vessels and other environmental conditions. The initial decisions of collision avoidance can be categorized into three stages for each vessel. − When both vessels are at non collision risk range, both vessels have the options to take appropriate actions to avoid collision situation. − When both vessels are at collision risk range, 'give way' vessel should be taken appropriate actions to achieve safe passing distance accordance with the COLREGs rules and regulations and 'stand on' vessel should keep the course and speed. − When both vessels are at critical collision risk range, 'give way' vessel should not be taken appropriate actions to achieve safe passing distance accordance with the COLREGs rules, then 'stand on' vessel should be taken appropriate actions to avoid the collision situation. In this study it is assumed that both vessel take appropriate actions to avoid the collision situations to with the respect to the COLREGs rules and regulations. 4.6 Implementation of Decisions on Navigation As the final step, it is assumed that the decisions on vessel navigation will be formulated with respect to the collision risk assessments. The actions were taken by own vessel are proportional to target vessel behavior as well as the COLREGs rules and regulations. The expected own vessel and target actions of collision avoidance situations could be divided into two categories. − Own vessel course change and/or speed change. − Target vessel course change and/or speed change 5 FUZZIFICATION & DEFUZZIFICATION The Fuzzy-logic based DM system, which is formulated for human type thinking, has created a human friendly environment to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels. Furthermore, a proper formulated fuzzy logic based DM system has an advantage of simulating the actions of an experienced helmsman in ocean navigation. 5.1 Fuzzy sets and membership functions Fussy sets are described by the membership functions that are mappings from one given universe of discourse to a unit interval. It is conceptually and formally different from the fundamental concept of the probability (Pedrycz et. al 2007). Three fuzzy input membership functions have been considered

during this study: Collision Regions µA (Figure 3), Relative Speed µVa,o (Figure 4) and Relative Course µψa,o (Figure 5). Similarly two fuzzy output membership functions have been considered: Speed Change µδVo (Figure 6) and Course Change µδψo (Figure 7).

Figure 3. Collision Regions Fuzzy Membership Function.

Figure 4. Rel. Speed Fuzzy Membership Function.

Figure 5. Rel. Course Fuzzy Membership Function.

Figure 6. Speed change Fuzzy Membership Function.

Figure 7. Course Angle change Fuzzy Membership Function.

The Core of the fuzzy set A is defined as the set of all elements of the universe that are typical to A that are associated with the membership value of 1, that could be written as Core ( A) = {x ∈ X | A( x ) = 1} (2) where x is a generalized variable. The Support of the fuzzy set is defined as the set of all elements of X that have non-zero membership degree in A, that could be written as Supp ( A) = {x ∈ X | A( x ) ≥ 1} (3) The Core and Supp values for the three input and two output fuzzy membership functions was

formulated using the given variables in the respective Figures 3 to 7. Mamdani type IF <Antecedent > THEN <Consequent> rules based system has been considered and inference via Min/Max norm has been proposed. Finally the defuzzification has been calculated by the center of gravity method. 5.2 Fuzzy inference system The block diagram for fuzzy inference system with integration of the instruments as well as the data acquisition system is presented in Figure 8.

6 COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS The implementation of the DM system has been formulated by using the software MATLAB. MATLAB supports for the fuzzy logic schemes of Mamdani and Sugeno Types (Sivanandam et. al 2007). However this work has been implemented on the GUI for fitting Mamdani based Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The Mamdani type fuzzy logic inference system consists of utilizing membership functions for both inputs and outputs. As previously mentioned If-Then rules are formed by applying fuzzy operations into these membership functions for given inputs: Collision regions, Relative Speed, and Relative Course (see Figures 3 to 5). The resulting output membership functions, vessel speed change and course change (see Figures 6 & 7) have been calculated by the Fuzzy min-max configurations. The MATLAB simulation results with respect to the above formulation have been presented in Figures from 9 to 15. These figures contain the start and end positions of the both vessels with respect to the equal time intervals. In addition navigational trajectories for both vessels are also presented in the same figures. The simulations of two vessels crossing situation with respect to different speeds and course conditions in the Cartesian coordinate space have been presented in Figures 9, 10 and 11. As presented in Figure 9, for the speed condition of Vo ≈ Va, the DM system made the proper decision and turned the own vessel into the starboard side. However the speed conditions of Vo >> Va and Vo << Va , in Figures 10 and 11, the DM system did not make any decisions as formulated in the design phase. This is one of the advantages in the fuzzy logic based DM system that has not been addressed by recent research on collision avoidance. The avoidance of collisions with respect to overtake and heading situations are presented in Figures 12 and 13 respectively. Further angular heading and angular overtake situations are presented in Figures 14 and 15. The majority of the collision situations have been avoided by changing the course angle of the own vessel as preferred by the navigators. In an angular overtake situation (in Figure 15), the initial speeds of both vessels are equal and the final speed of the own vessel has been reduced by the DM system to avoid the collision situation. This is one of the special situations where the speed change has been considered and the course changes could not be implemented to avoid collisions.

Figure 8. Rel. Block diagram for fuzzy inference system

The initial step of the fuzzy inference system consists of collection of the target vessel position and velocity data. The next step is the calculations of the relative positions, speed and course which have previously been formulated. Then, the data is fuzzified by membership functions in the Figures 3 to 5. The fuzzy rules were developed respecting the COLREGs rules and regulations in Table 1. The output of the rules based system could be categorized as the collision risk assessment and the fuzzy decisions. Finally the fuzzy decision will be defuzzified (see Figure 6 and 7) to obtain the control actions and that will be executed on own vessel navigation.

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Figure 9. Crossing situation with High Collision Risk

Figure 12. Overtake situation with High Collision Risk

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Figure 10. Crossing situation with No Collision Risk

Figure 13. Heading situation with High Collision Risk

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Figure 11. Crossing situation with No Collision Risk

Figure 14. Ang. heading situation with High Collision Risk

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Figure 15. Ang. overtake situation with High Collision Risk

7 CONCLUSION This paper introduces a new DM system for ocean navigation based on the fuzzy logic and human expert knowledge. Although successful computational results were obtained, it is assumed that more complex collision situations can possibly occur and unexpected actions of target vessels could be experienced; hence higher capabilities should be formulated into the DM system to overcome similar situations. As mentioned before, the own vessel collision avoidance actions have been limited for the Regions of I, II, III and IV to eliminate the navigational conflicts. However critical collision situations with respect to the other regions should considered and further study should be formulated. 8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research of the first author has been supported by a Research Fellowship of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) under contract SFRH/BD/46270/2008. This work is done within the project of “Methodology for ships manoeuvrability tests with self-propelled models”, which is being funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under contract PTDC/TRA/74332/2006. REFERENCES

Antão, P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2008; Causal Factors in Accidents of High Speed Craft and Conventional Ocean Going Vessels. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 93:1292-1304. Berthold M. R., 2005, “Tutorial: Fuzzy Logic”. Lecture notes on Advanced course on knowledge discovery, June, Ljubljana. Chauvin, C., and Lardjane, S., 2008. “Decision making and strategies in an interaction situation: Collision avoidance at sea”. Transportation Research , January , pp. 259-262. eNAV. 2008, enavigation, http://www.enavigation.org.

Fossen, T. I., ed., 1999. “Recent development in Ship Control Systems Design”. World Super Yachat Review. Sterling Publication Limited, London. Hasegawa K., 2009, “Advanced marine traffic automation and management system for congested water and coastal areas”, Proceedings of International Conference in Ocean Engineering, ICOE 2009, February, Chennai, India. IMO, 1972. “Convention on the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGs) ”. http://www.imo.org. Imazu, H., 2006. “Advanced topics for marine technology and logistics”. Lecture Notes on Ship collision and integrated information system. Kwik, K. H., 1989. “Calculations of ship collision avoidance manoeuvres : A simplified approach”. Ocean Engineering, 16(5/6), pp. 475-491. Lisowski, J., Rak, A., and Czechowicz, W., 2000. “Neural network classifiers for ship domain assessments”. Mathematics and Computers in Simulations, 51, 399-406. Moreira, L. and Guedes Soares, C. 2003, Dynamic Model of Manoeuvrability using Recursive Neural Networks, Ocean Engineering, 30, pp. 1669-1697. Moreira, L.; Fossen, T. I., and Guedes Soares, C. 2007, Path Following Control System for a Tanker Ship Model, Ocean Engineering. 34, pp. 2074-2085. Pedrycz W. and Gomide F., 2007, “Fuzzy Systems Engineering, Toward Human-Centric Computing”. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Pietrzykowski, Z., and Uriasz, J., 2006. “Ship domain in navigational situation assessment in an open sea area”. 5th International Euro Conference on Computer Applications and Information Technology in the Maritime Industries. Rothblum, A. M., Wheal, D., Withington, S., Shappell, S. A., Wiegmann, D. A., Boehm,W., and Chaderjian, M., 2002. “Key to successful incident inquiry”. In 2nd International Workshop on Human Factors in Offshore Operations, HFW2002. Sato, Y., and Ishii, H., 1998. “Study of a collision avoidance system for ships”. Control Engineering Practice, 6, pp. 1141-1149. Sivanandam S.N., Sumathi S. and Deepa S.N., 2007, “Introduction to Fuzzy Logic using MATLAB”. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, New York. Smeaton, G. P., and Coenen, F. P., 1987. “Developing an intelligent marine navigation system”. Computing & Control Engineering Journal, March, pp. 95–103. Smierzchalski, R., and Michalewicz, Z., 2000. “Modeling of ship trajectory in collision situations by an evolutionary algorithm”. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 4(3), pp. 227-241. Sutulo, S.; Moreira, L., and Guedes Soares, C. 2002, Mathematical Models for Ship Path Prediction in Manoeuvring Simulation Systems, Ocean Engineering, 29(1), pp. 1-19. Yavin, Y., Frangos, C., Zilman, G., and Miloh, T., 1995. “Computation of feasible command strategies for the navigation of a ship in a narrow zigzag channel”. Computers Math. Applic., 30(10), pp. 79-101.

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A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of ...

A fuzzy-logic based decision making (DM) system to facilitate the collision avoidance capabilities for marine vessels during ocean navigation is presented in this paper. The collision avoidance of the target vessel with respect to the vessel domain of the own vessel as been analyzed and fuzzy membership functions have been derived in this study. Fuzzy rule based (IF-THEN) decision making system has been formulated, implemented and results are summarized. Further, decisions on the DM system are formulated in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules and regulations (COLREGs) of ocean navigation to avoid conflict situations.

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