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ECOSYSTEMS

Ecosystem: A community of living organisms (plants, animals, microbes) it! t!e non living components of t!eir environment ( ater, air""")" Population: All t!e organisms of t!e same group of species !ic! in!abit in t!e same area" Species: One of t!e basic units of biological classification" #s t!e largest group of organism capable of interbree$ing an$ pro$ucing fertile offspring" E%ample& 'uman" Biocenosis: An association of $ifferent organisms forming a closely integrate$ community" Biotope: #norganic part of t!e ecosystem, t!e p!ysical environment" Biosphere: (ife )one of t!e Eart! !ic! inclu$es all living organisms an$ all organic matter" Ecosphere: All ecosystems on Eart!" Geosphere: Collective name for t!e lit!osp!ere, !y$rosp!ere, atmosp!ere Biome: A large scale ecosystems of t!e *orl$" Biotic factor: (iving t!ing t!at s!ape an$ affects anot!er organism" E%ample& #nsect " Abiotic factor: +on living t!ing& c!emical an$ p!ysical factors in t!e environment" E%ample& Sunlig!t" Biotic relationship: ,elations!ip bet een organisms of an ecosystem" (-re$ation, competition""") Intraespecific relationship: #nteraction among organisms of t!e same species" E%ample& *!en a !ear$ of cattle are gra)ing toget!er, all t!e in$ivi$uals in t!at !er$ competing for t!e same foo$, ater""" .regarious, Colonial, Social, /amilial" Interespecific relationship: #nteraction among organisms of $ifferent species" E%ample& Mutualism, commensalism, in0uilinism, parasitism an$ $epre$ation"

Competitive relationship: Type of relations!ip !ic! $evelops !en more t!an one organism in an environment re0uires t!e same t!ing in or$er to survive" Interespecific competition: Competition in !ic! in$ivi$uals of $ifferent species compete for t!e same resource in an ecosystem" Intraespecific competition: #nteraction in population ecology members of t!e same species !ic! compete for limite$ resources" Cooperative relationship: ,elations!ip !ere living t!ings !elp t!emselves" E%ample& Mutualism, symbiosis, gregarious association" Family association: .roup of relate$ in$ivi$uals !ic! live toget!er to procreate an$ protect t!e young" Gregarious association: .roup of in$ivi$uals, !ic! live toget!er for some time to provo1e mutual !elp" E%ample& Migrating bir$" Social: .roups of in$ivi$uals organise$ in a !ierarc!y or1 $istribute$ it!in t!e group" E%ample& Ants" Predation: #nterespecific relations!ip in !ic! a living being eats ot!er living being" Parasitism: ,elations!ip in !ic! one species lives at t!e e%pense of anot!er species" E%ample& coc!ineals fee$ on !ost cacti" Commensalism: ,elations!ip bet een t o living organisms !ere one is benefite$, but t!e ot!er isn2t affecte$" E%ample& /lies fee$ on mammal e%crement" utualism: ,elations!ip bet een t o or more in$ivi$uals for mutual benefit" E%ample& 3ees pollinate flo ers" Symbiosis: #nteraction bet een t o or more $ifferent biological species for mutual benefit" E%ample& (ic!ens" Predator: A living being !ic! eats ot!er living being" E%ample& lion" Prey& /oo$ of $epre$ator" !ost: (iving being in !ic! a parasite lives" !abitat: p!ysical place !ere a species lives" Ecological niche: T!e ay a species relates to t!e biotic an$ abiotic factors in an ecosystem" Environment: All aroun$ a living being" "ptimum range: 4alue of an abiotic factor in !ic! a population lives better"

Adaptation: A$5ustment in an organism2s bo$y or be!aviour to its environment" E%ample& .ills" #rophic level: -osition occupie$ in a foo$ a c!ain" E%ample& pro$ucers, primary consumers" Producer 6 Autotroph: (iving being !ic! ma1es its o n organic matter from carbon $io%i$e an$ energy from t!e sun" E%ample& -lants, algae" Consumer: (iving t!ing !ic! cannot pro$uce its o n organic matter an$ fee$s on organic matter pro$uce$ by ot!er living beings" E%ample& cat" Primary consumer: (iving being !ic! fee$s on pro$ucers (plants) " E%ample& ,abbit" Secondary consumer: Carnivore !ic! fee$s on primary consumers" E%ample& fo%" #ertiary consumer: Carnivore !ic! fee$s on secon$ary consumers" E%ample& sna1e" Carnivore: (iving being !ic! fee$s on meat" E%ample& lion" "mnivore: (iving being !ic! fee$s on meat an$ plants" E%ample& por1" $etritivore: 'eterotrop! t!at obtains nutrients by consuming $etritus% $ecomposer: (iving being !ic! $iscomposes organic matter into inorganic matter" !eterotroph: (iving being !ic! fee$s on organic matter pro$uce$ by ot!er living being" E%ample& lion" Food Chain: 7iagram !ic! s!o s !o to t!e organisms are relate$ it! eac! ot!er by t!e foo$ t!ey eat" Food &eb: All t!e foo$ c!ains in an ecosystem% #rophic pyramid: .rap!ical representation $esigne$ to s!o t!e biomass pro$uctivity at eac! trop!ic level in a given ecosystem" atter: Somet!ing t!at occupies space an$ can be perceive$ by one or more senses% Energy: Capacity of a p!ysical system to perform or1" E%ample& Solar energy" Biomass: Mass of living biological% #errestrial ecosystem: Ecosystem $evelope$ in t!e lan$" E%ample& forest" Climate: Meteorological con$itions inclu$ing temperature, precipitation an$ in$ t!at prevail in a particular region" Cold 'one: 8one in t!e eart! !ere t!e temperature is col$"

#emperate 'one: -art of t!e eart! bet een t!e polar circles an$ tropics" (arm 'one: 8one in t!e eart! bet een t!e tropics" Polar desert& 8one in t!e up of t!e eart! !ere t!e temperature is col$" #undra: 8one in t!e eart! it! very col$ climate an$ scant precipitation" #aiga: 8one in t!e eart! it! abun$ant precipitation in t!e form of sno " $eciduous forest: Ecosystem in t!e temperate )one !ic! !as arm an$ col$ seasons it! abun$ant rainfall" editerranean forest: Ecosystem in t!e temperate )one !ic! !as arm, $ry, summers, mil$ inters an$ lo rainfall" Savannah: .rasslan$ ecosystem c!aracteri)e$ by trees" Prairie: Ecosystem consi$ere$ part of temperate grasslan$" Steppe: Ecoregion c!aracteri)e$ by grasslan$ plains it!out trees apart from t!ose near rivers an$ la1es" $esert: -lace it! a lot of san$ an$ very $ry climate" )ainforest: Ecosystem in t!e arm )one it! abun$ant rainfall an$ !ig!s temperatures" A*uatic ecosystem: Ecosystem $evelope$ in t!e sea+ rivers, la1es arine ecosystem: Ecosystem $evelope$ in oceans, salt9mars!, interti$al )ones an$ lagoons" Intertidal 'one: Area t!at is above ater at lo ti$e an$ un$er ater at !i$e ti$e" ,eritic 'one: -art of t!e ocean bet een t!e lo ti$e mar1 an$ t!e continental s!elf" "ceanic 'one: ,egion of open sea beyon$ t!e e$ge of continental s!elf an$ inclu$es :;< of t!e ocean completely open ater" Pelagic 'one: -art of t!e open sea !ic! is a long ay from t!e coast" Bathyal 'one: -art of t!e pelagic )one t!at e%ten$s from a $ept! of =>>> to ?>>> metres belo t!e ocean surface" $eep sea: (o est layer in t!e ocean it! little or no lig!t an$ !ere most of t!e organism relies for subsistence on falling organic matter pro$uce$ in t!e p!otic )one" Coral reef: @n$er ater structures ma$e from calcium carbonate secrete$ by corals"

Fresh&ater ecosystem: A0uatic ecosystem !ic! inclu$e rivers, la1es, streams, springs an$ etlan$s" T!ey can be $ivi$e$ in (entic ecosystems an$ (otic ecosystems" -entic ecosystem: /res! ater ecosystem foun$ in stan$ing or still ater suc! as pools, pon$s, la1es" -otic ecosystem: /res! ater ecosystem foun$ in running ater suc! as in a river, stream or spring" Pool: Small area of ater forme$ naturally" Pond: Small bo$y of still ater forme$ naturally by artificial means" -a.e: 3o$y of relatively still ater of consi$erable si)e, locali)e$ in a $epression, t!at is surroun$e$ by lan$ apart from a river or ot!er outlet t!at serves to fee$ or $rain t!e la1e" -agoon: Stretc! of salt ater separate$ from t!e sea by a lo san$ban1 of coral reef" )iver: /res! ater course !ic! flo s $o n from t!e mountain to t!e sea, ocean or la1e" Stream: S!ort river" Spring: +atural source of ater from t!e groun$" (etland: Transitional area bet een lan$ an$ ater" arsh: Ti$al etlan$ along t!e s!oreline !ere a0uatic grasses an$ se$ges gro "

/ashif Ahmed Ahmed 01 ES" B