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PART I OPERATION
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION: Page No
1.1. History 07
1.2. Facilities in COREX Process 10
1.3. Equipment 09
1.4. Process Description 10
1.5. Reduction Shaft 10
1.6. Melter Gasifier 12
1.7. Process Control 16
1.8. Raw Materials 17
1.9. Blast Furnace 18
1.10. Comparison Blast Furnace & COREX 19
2. RAW MATERIALS FOR Corex:
2.1. Introduction 21
2.2. The Basic Raw Material Required for Corex
Operation 21
2.3. Specification for Raw Materials 22
2.4. Raw Materials used in different COREX Units 24
2.5. Overview and Operation Management of COREX Material Handling
Section 28
3. COAL DRYING PLANT:
3.1. Introduction 33
3.2. Coal Drying Plant Equipment 33
3.3. System Flow 34
3.4. Operating Instructions 35
4. SKIP CHARGING:
4.1. General 38
4.2. Skip Diagram 38
4.3. Skip Operation 40
5. LOCK HOPPER SYSTEM:
5.1. General 42
5.2. Operation Principle 42
5.3. START & STOP Sequence 45
6. GENERAL CONCEPT OF PROCESS CONTROL:
6.1. COREX Operation Control 47
6.2. Melting Rate (MR) 49
6.3. Melting Rate Vs. Oxygen Consumption 50
6.4. Dome Temperature Control 51
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6.5. Plant Pressure and tuyere Velocity 53
6.6. Char Bed Level Control 56
6.7. Reduction Shaft Operation 62
6.8. Hot Metal Temperature Control 65
6.9. Melting Rate and Oxygen Flow to Tuyere 66
6.10. Quality Control of Hot Metal 68
7. GAS SYSTEM:
7.1. Dust Recycling System 71
7.2. Gas Cleaning System 75
7.3. Cooling Gas system 76
7.4. Cooling Gas Compressor 77
8. PLANT START AND STOP PROCEDURES:
8.1. Plant START 80
8.2. Plant STOP 93
9. REFRACTORY FOR COREX:
9.1. Melter Gasifier 97
9.2. Cast House 105
10. SUPPORTING SYSTEM FAILURES:
10.1. Power Failure 111
10.2. O2 & N2 Failure 113
10.3. Operations According to O2 & N2 Failures 112
10.4. Oxygen & Nitrogen Requirement 113
11. REDUCTION SHAFT EMPTYING:
11.1. STOP Procedure 115
11.2. START Procedure 118
12. IRREGULARITIES IN COREX PROCESS:
12.1. Shaft Hanging 120
12.2. Slipping 121
12.3. Channeling 121
12.4. Chilled Hearth 121
12.5. Generator Gas Duct (GGD) Jamming 121
12.6. Red Spot on MG Shell 123
12.7. Tuyere Burning 124
12.8. Water Level Abnormalities in the Scrubbers 124
12.9. Jamming of DRS 125
12.10. DRI Screw Stoppage 127



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13. CAST HOUSE:
13.1. Introduction 129
13.2. COREX Cast House Practice 132
13.3. Cast House Runner Refractory 134
13.4. Preparation before Tap Opening 135
13.5. Tap Opening & Closing Procedure 136
13.6. Abnormalities & Remedies 139
14. WATER SYSTEM:
14.1. Introduction & Close water system 141
14.2. Gland Water & Miscellaneous Water 148
14.3. Process Water System 153
15. RECENT MODIFICATIONS IN Corex: 159
16. HEAT UP, START UP & COMMISSIONING OF COREX:
16.1. Heat Up Flaps & Bottom Air Pipe Arrangement for Heat Up &
Start Up 164
16.2. Heat Up & Start Up Procedure 164
16.3. Salient Features of Heat Up 165
16.4. Emergency Plan for Disturbances During Start Up of the COREX
Plant 165
16.5. Reference Table for Heat Up Activity 170
16.6. Table for O2 Start (Start up Activity) 179
16.7. Typical Heat Up Curve 185
17. MELTER GASSIFIER GUNNING 188


PART II MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE
CONTENTS
1. Coal screw Conveyor 205
2. DRI Screw Conveyor 211
3. Charging System Ore & Coal 213
4. Dust Recycling System 215
5. Scrubber System 220
6. Staves 226
7. Cooling Gas Compressor 231
8. Hydraulic system 232
9. Coal drier 233
10. Skip Charging 235


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PART III ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION
CONTENTS

1. The Details Of The Field Instrumentation 238
2. Typical Power Distribution Scheme For Corex 245
3. Emergency Scheme 252
4. Checking Standards of Electrical Equipment 255
5. Trouble Experience of Some Electrical Equipment 260
6. Safety 263
a. Human Resistance & Effect of Current 264
on Man
b. Electrical Hazards & Consequences 267
c. Dos & Donts 267
7. Corex Documentation Instructions 268
8. Common Electrical / Instrumentation Abbreviations Used In
Industries 286




PART IV SAFETY
CONTENTS
1. Introduction 292
2. Hazardous substances 294
3. Prohibited & Restricted Areas 298
4. Description of Potential Hazards 301










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ABBREVIATIONS:
AI :Abrasion Index
BD : Bulk Density
BF : Blast Furnace
BS : Baumco Scrubber
CBS : Coal Blending Station
CCR : Central Control Room
CCS : Cold Compressive Strength
CDP : Coal Drying Plant
CG : Cooling Gas
CGC : Cooling Gas Compressor
CGPS : Cooling Gas Packing Scrubber
CGVS : Cooling Gas Venturi Scrubber
CH : Cast House
CR : Coke Rate
CRI : Coke Reactivity Index
CRT : Cathode Ray Tube
CSR : Coke Strength after Reaction
DB : Dust Burner
DCS : Distributed Control System
DI : Disintegration Index
DRI : Directly reduced iron
DRS : Dust Recycling System
EGVS : Excess Gas Venturi Scrubber
FC : Fixed Carbon
FRC : Flow Regulator and Controller
FSI : Free Swelling Index
GGD : Generator Gas Duct
GV : Goggle Valve
HBI : Hot Briquetted Iron
HE : Heat Exchanger
HGC : Hot Gas Cyclone
HIC : Hand Initiated Indicator and Controller
HM : Hot Metal
HMI : Human Machine Interface
HP : High Pressure
KGV : Knife Edge Gate Valve
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LCC : Low Cement Castables
LDB : Lower Dust Bin
LHF : Ladle Heating Furnace
LP : Low Pressure
LRC : Level Regulator and Controller
LRO : Level Recorder Operator
LRS : Ladle Repair Shop
MCW : Machine Cooling Water
MG : Melter Gasifier
NG : Natural Gas
PCM : Pig Casting Machine
PDC : Pressure Differential Controller
PRC : Pressure Regulator and Controller
RM : Raw Material
RMHS : Raw Material Handling Station
RPM : Revolutions Per Minute
RS : Reduction Shaft
SGP : Slag Granulation Plant
SHV : Shut off Valve (manual operated)
SIC : Silicon Carbide
SIN : Silicon Nitride
SOV : Solenoid Operated Valve
SR : Smelting Reduction
TDC : Temperature Differential and Controller
TG : Top Gas
TGPS : Top Gas Packing Scrubber
TI : Tumbler Index
TIO : Temperature Indicator Operator
TPH : Tones Per Hour
TRC : Temperature Regulator Controller
ULCC : Ultra Low Cement Castables
UPS : Uninterrupted Power Supply
VM : Volatile Matter
WTP : Water Treatment Plant
P : Differential Pressure
T : Differential Temperature
SP : Set Point



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PART I COREX OPERATION

INTRODUCTION

COREX IRON MAKING:

Liquid hot metal, either for production of steel or pig iron for foundry, has
been traditionally produced in the blast furnace using metallurgical coke
(produced from coking coal), as reductant and energy supplier. This calls
for a need of an alternative iron making technology for conserving the
depleting reserves of good quality coking coal, making use of non-coking
coal reserves, exploiting large price differential of imported metallurgical
coal and non-coking coal. In recent years, Smelting Reduction (SR)
processes have been under development throughout the world. The basic
principle of an SR process is to smelt the pre-reduced iron ore/sinter/pellets
with non-coking coal and Oxygen in a reactor called Melter-Gasifier.
Compared to the conventional Blast furnace process; SR process have many
advantages with respect to raw materials, energy cost, investment cost,
economy of scale and environmental pollution. COREX process is one of
the commercially and technologically proven alternate routes of Iron
making. The COREX technology is based on the physical separation of
reduction and melting process, which are carried out in two separate
reactors. In the Melter Gasifier (MG), reduction gas is generated and liquid
hot metal is produced. The Reduction Shaft (RS), which is located above
the Melter Gasifier, is designed for the reduction of iron oxides by the gas
generated at Melter Gasifier.

Smelting Reduction is an emerging technology for making liquid iron using
non-coking coal. Till today various smelting reduction processes like
COREX, ROMELT, HISMELT, AUSMELT, DIOS etc. have been
developed of which COREX is the first and so far only commercially
established smelting reduction process, which is developed by Voest Alpine
Industrianlagenbau (VAI), Austria. The stable and highly successful
operation of four COREX plants (One at POSCO in Korea, Two at JVSL in
India, One at SALDANHA in South Africa) confirms that COREX process
is a proven and viable alternative to conventional blast furnace technology
more so in an area where power is a crisis.

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INTRODUCTION:
COREX is one of the commercially and technologically proven alternate
routes of Iron making. While even todays worlds most of the hot metal or
liquid iron is produced through the giant Blast Furnace route, very small
fraction of iron is produced through the alternate routes. COREX process
gives advantage of power generation and makes integrated steel complex
totally independent of petro-based products due to availability of COREX
gas as fuel.

1.1. HISTORY:


1.2. FACILITIES IN COREX PROCESS:
These are some of the strength of COREX technology over other Iron
making process:
A. It is a two-stage process, Reduction and Smelting. It is a clean iron
making technology, which is flexible in terms of operation and usage of
raw materials of less stringent quality.

B. Various fines such as iron bearing fines, limestone & dolomite fines
can be directly used into the furnace. About 10-15% of the total iron,
bearing material can be replaced with direct use of Iron bearing fines.

C. The gas coming out, as by-product is a clean gas having very high
calorific value i.e. ~ 2000 Kcal/Nm.
3
, which can also be used in many
areas like:
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Power generation
Production of DRI
Production of fertilizer
Hot strip mill reheating furnace.
Fuel gas within the Iron and Steel complex like lime calcinations, pellet
plant, sinter making etc.


Advantages of COREX Process:
Easy and fast correction of hot metal and slag chemistry within 2-3 hrs as
the process is divided into two stages.

Excellent quality hot metal. High hot metal temperature (1480 1520
o
C)
offer great advantage in the subsequent process of steel making.

Easy stop and restart of the furnace. After restart, furnace can attain its
rated capacity within a short duration i.e. 2 - 3 hrs without affecting the
quality of hot metal.

It is the only commercially established alternative route of iron making
with efficiency very much comparable to the conventional route.

Environment friendly process, as this technology, does not require setting
up the Coke oven and Sinter plant. The emissions from COREX contain
insignificant amount of NOx, SOx, dust, phenols, sulphides, ammonia
etc. The million worth of saved carbon over the years can also be sold as
a part of carbon trading.

1.3. EQUIPMENT
MAJOR
REACTORS:
AXILLARIES

1. Reduction Shaft [RS]
2. Melter Gasifier[MG]

1. Coal blending station [CBS]
2. Coal drying plant [CDP]
3. Raw material stock house [RMHS]
4. Gas cleaning system
5. Water Cleaning system
6. Cast house[C/H]
7. Pig casting machine [PCM]
8. Cooling gas and air compressors
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1.4. PROCESS DESCRIPTION
COREX unit consists of two reactors, the Reduction Shaft and the Melter
Gasifier. Figure.1 shows the COREX process schematically. The Reduction
Shaft is placed above the Melter Gasifier for easy descend of material by
gravity. The functions of Reduction Shaft and the Melter Gasifier are
explained in the following chapter.
Figure.1: Flow sheet of COREX

process


1.5. REDUCTON SHAFT
Iron ore, pellets and additives (i.e. limestone and dolomite) are continuously
charged into the reduction shaft via lock hopper system located at the top of
the shaft. The burden descends through the shaft by gravity. The reduction
gas is injected through the bustle located about 5 meters above the bottom of
the shaft at 830
o
C and over 3 bar gauge pressure. The gas moves in the
counter current direction to the top of the shaft and exit from the shaft is
termed as top gas. The top gas temperature is around 300
o
C. Some amount
of Coke is also added to the shaft to avoid clustering of the burden inside the
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shaft due to sticking of ore/pellets and to maintain adequate permeability in
the burden.
Following are the primary reactions taking place inside the shaft:
1) Reduction of Iron Oxide by CO & H
2
and transformation of Iron
Oxide to metallic iron:
Fe
2
O
3
Fe
3
O
4
FeO Fe
2) Calcination of limestone and dolomite:
CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2
(endothermic)
CaMg (CO
3
)
2
CaO.MgO + 2CO
2
(endothermic)
3) Carbon deposition reaction and formation of Fe
3
C
2 CO CO
2
+ C (exothermic)
3 Fe + 2CO Fe
3
C + CO
2
(exothermic)

After a residence time of about 6 hour, inside the shaft, the iron bearing
material gets reduced and achieves the metallization to the extent of about
80-90%, and is termed as DRI. Subsequently, six discharge screws convey
the DRI from the reduction shaft to the Melter Gasifier.

The Reduction Gas is nearly fully de-sulphurized in the shaft due to the
presence of the burnt lime and dolomite according to the following
reactions.
CaO + H2S CaS + H2O
MgO + H2S MgS + H2O

A low content of the Hydrogen Sulphide in the top gas is important with
respect to the further usage of the COREX gas.

The metallization degree of the DRI and the Calcinations of the additives are
strongly dependent on the following parameters.
Amount and quality of the reduction gas flow.
Temperature of the reduction gas.
Reducibility of the iron carrier.
Grain size of the solids charged.
Reduction gas distribution in the shaft.
Retention time in the shaft.
Plant Pressure and Pressure drop in the shaft.

The specific reduction gas flow is maintained at about 1000 1200 Nm
3
/ton
of iron carrier charged to the shaft.
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1.6. MELTER GASIFIER
The Melter Gasifier can largely be divided into three reaction zones as
following.
Gaseous free board zone (Upper part or dome)
Char bed (Middle part above Oxygen tuyeres)
Hearth zone (Lower part below Oxygen tuyeres)

Due to continuous gas flow through the char bed, there also exists a semi-
fluidized bed in the transition area between the char bed and the free board
zone.

The hot DRI at around 750-800
o
C along with the calcined limestone,
dolomite is continuously fed inside the Melter Gasifier through DRI down
pipes. The DRI charging pipes are uniformly distributed along the
circumference near the top of the Melter Gasifier so as to ensure proper
distribution of material over the char bed. Additionally non-coking coal,
quartzite and required quantity of coke are continuously charged by means
of lock hopper system and coal screws. Like reduction shaft the Melter
Gasifier also operates at an elevated pressure in excess of 3-bar gauge.

Oxygen plays a vital role in COREX process for generation of heat and
reduction gases. It is injected through the tuyeres, which reacts with carbon
present in the char & will generate CO, H2 and Heat. This hot gas ascends
upward through the char bed. The sensible heat of the hot gases is
transferred to the char bed, which is utilized for melting iron and slag and
other metallurgical reactions. The hot metal and slag are collected in the
hearth.

The efficiency of the furnace depends largely on the distribution of this gas
in the char bed and utilization of the sensible heat of the gas. The dome
temperature is maintained between 1030 and 1070
o
C which assures cracking
of all the volatile matter released from the coal. The gas generated inside the
Melter Gasifier contains fine dust particles, which are separated in hot gas
cyclones.

The dust collected in the cyclones is recycled back to the Melter Gasifier
through the dust burners, where the dust is burnt with additional Oxygen
injected through the burners. There is four such dust burners located around
the circumference of the Melter Gasifier above the char bed.
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The gas generated inside the Melter Gasifier is cooled to the reduction gas
temperature (~830
o
C) through the addition of cooling gas. A major part of
this gas is subsequently fed to the reduction shaft. The excess gas is used to
control the plant pressure. This excess gas and the reduction shaft top gas
are mixed prior to the take over point. Thereafter this gas is termed as
COREX EXPORT GAS.

Following are the reactions taking place inside the Melter Gasifier.

Drying of coal (100
o
C).
Devolatlisation of coal (200 to 950
o
C) and liberation of methane and
higher hydrocarbons.
Decomposition of volatile matter.

Due to the higher temperature prevailing in the Melter Gasifier free board
zone, the hydrocarbons are cracked into hydrogen and elementary carbon.

C
n
H
m
= nC + (m/2) H
2

It is desirable that all higher hydrocarbons are cracked in the free board zone
so as to assure generation of a good quality reduction gas. Maintaining a
dome temperature between 1030 and 1070
o
C confirms the same.

Further reactions in the freeboard zone are outlined as the following.

CO
2
+ C 2 CO Boudouard reaction

H
2
O + C CO + H
2
Water gas reaction

CO + H
2
O CO
2
+ H
2
Shift reaction

Decomposition of unburnt limestone and dolomite.
Residual reduction of iron oxide.
Direct reduction of FeO in the DRI takes place by carbon in the char bed.
Burning of coal char by oxygen.


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Burning of the coal char takes place near the tuyeres. The maximum
temperature inside the Melter Gasifier exists in front of the tuyeres. The
following carbon gasification reaction takes place in the tuyeres area.
2C + O2 2CO

2CO + O2

2CO2

C + CO2 2CO

Later, Melting and formation of hot metal and slag.

The typical analysis of COREX

hot metal and other by-products is shown in
Table 1.


Table. 1: Typical Analysis of COREX Hot Metal & Other Byproducts

The typical analysis of the various gases produced in COREX is shown in
Table 2. In order to achieve higher degree of metallization and sufficient
carbonization of the DRI, the contents of CO
2
and H
2
O in the reduction gas
should be below 5%.

Table. 2: Typical Analysis of COREX GASES



ANALYSI
S (%)

C


Si


S


P


Ti


CaO


MgO


SiO
2



Al
2
O
3



FeO


Fe
2
O
3



TiO
2


HOT
METAL

4.5

0.6

0.04

0.15

0.06


SLAG

0.80

0.26

34.5

13.0

31.7

17.0

0.50


SLUDGE

35.6

0.81

0.25

7.94

3.20

9.18

4.38
30.6
1

0.29
ANALYSIS TOP GAS REDUCTION
GAS
EXPORT GAS
CO % 43 - 46 65 - 70 45 - 47
H
2
% 18 -20 20 - 25 19 - 21
CO
2
% 30 35 3 - 8 30 33
CH
4
% 1 - 2 1 - 2 1 - 2
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THE EFFICIENCY OF THE COREX PRIMARILY DEPENDS
ON THE FOLLOWING:
Size and chemical analysis of the raw materials; specially the coal.
Reduction gas quality & shaft condition for good metallization of
the DRI.
Optimum distribution of oxygen between the tuyeres, dust burners
and top O2 lance.
Permeability of the char bed.
System pressure.
Melting rate.


COREX export gas is suitable for a wide range of applications as
stated earlier.

Tapping of hot metal and slag takes place approximately 8 to 10 times
per day with a tapping capacity of approximately 300 thm/tap. A
pneumatic drilling machine opens the tap hole. For closing of the tap
hole hydraulically operated clay gun is provided. On opening the tap
hole, hot metal and slag discharges into the main iron trough, where slag
is separated from hot metal by means of a skimmer arrangement.

Hot metal flows from the main iron trough through the iron runner and a
tilting runner into open top ladles positioned on ladle transfer cars below
the cast house platform at zero meter level. The slag proceeds from the
main iron trough through a runner system to slag granulation plant or slag
dry pits (in case the slag granulation plant is not available). To operate
the tap hole opening and closing machines a central hydraulic system is
installed. Clay gun is filled with special refractory plastic mass to plug
the hole after calculated amount of metal and slag is taken out. After a
gap of one and half hour, the tap hole is again drilled to open the next
tapping.







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1.7. PROCESS CONTROL
Raw material quality charged to the furnace is controlled at the screening
station to ensure required size as a first stage of control.

Sample checking for input raw materials as per quality plan.

Weigh bins/feeders are connected to DCS located in control room to
weigh raw materials accurately charged to the furnace. The load cells of
the weigh feeders are calibrated as per the frequency in the calibration
plan.

Coal and Oxide feed rate varied to control the process parameters and
hot metal quality.

Controlled oxygen flow to the tuyeres and dust burner. Plant pressure
control.

Thermocouples for In-burden Temperature measurement inside the
reduction shaft.

Delta-p inside the reduction shaft to ensure proper permeability of the
burden.

Reduction gas temperature going into the reduction shaft.

Controlling of specific top gas to ensure proper metallization of the
burden.

Dome temperatures inside the Melter Gasifier to control the
composition of the generated gas. Control of Char bed level to ensure
proper hot metal & slag quality.

Adjustment of slag quantity and basicity B2 (CaO/SiO2) to control the
Slag Alumina, Viscosity and Sulphur distribution. Maintaining proper
tap-to-tap time for ensuring proper drainage of the hearth.

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1.8. RAW MATERIALS:
Table. 3: Physico Chemical properties of Iron bearing materials
PARAMETER ANALYSIS
Chemical Analysis:
Fe - Total 64 -65 %
SiO
2
+ Al
2
O
3
< 5.4
Al
2
O
3
< 5.2
P < 0.10 %
S < 0.03 %
Cold Tumbling Test:
Tumbler index (+6.3 mm) > 95 %
Abrasion Index (-0.5 mm) < 5 %
Static Reduction Test [Under load]:
Reducibility (dR/dt)
40
> 0.4 % O2/min
Metallization Degree > 90 %
Disintegration Index (-6.3 mm) Pellets < 10 %, Ore < 20 %
Abrasion Index (-0.5 mm) Pellets < 3 %, Ore < 5 %

Table. 4: Physico-chemical properties of COREX coal
Parameter Analysis
Chemical Analysis:
Fixed carbon % > 58 %
Volatile matter % 26-32
Ash % < 12 %
Sulphur % < 0.60
Phosphorous < 0.06
Chlorine < 0.04
Calorific value Kcal/Kg > 7000
Ash analysis:
SiO2 < 60
Al2O3 < 30
Na2O + K2O < 1.5
Thermal Stability:
+ 10 mm % > 80
- 2 mm % < 3
CRI % < 35
CSR % > 40

Free Swelling Index 1 -3
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Table. 5: Typical analysis of Additives
ANALYSIS LIMESTONE DOLOMITE QUARTZ
CaO % 46.79 27.98 0.14
MgO % 3.83 19.84 -
SiO2 % 5.20 6.81 97.88
Al2O3 % 1.16 0.53 0.90
Fe2O3 % 0.96 0.49 0.62
P2O5 % 0.04 0.01 0.01
SO3 % 0.01 0.01 0.01


1.9. BLAST FURNACE:
Blast furnace is the oldest technology for producing hot metal in a single
reactor by reducing iron ore (oxides) using coke as a reductant and addition
of fluxing agent to separate out gangue in the form of liquid slag.

As mentioned earlier a lion share of hot metal is produced through Blast
furnace route, which is as old as 400 years, and many a development has
taken place in design and operating practices over the years. Many
modernization like high hot blast temperature operation, pulverized coal
injection through tuyeres, oxygen enrichment of blast, high top pressure
operation, more use of prepared burden (sinter& pellet) better distribution of
burden has made it possible to reduce coke rate drastically. But even then,
the dependence of coke remains there. To make coke, more than 80 %
metallurgical coal needs to be used which is costly and getting depleted
gradually. Again Blast Furnace route demands prepared burden mostly
sinter which is like a coke making in Coke Oven. A process like Smelting
Reduction technology can minimize this. where dependence of Coke Oven is
minimized as mainly non-coking coal is used as main reductant.

Moreover, as on today, only COREX process is a commercially proven
alternate iron making technology.






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1.10. COMPARISON BLAST FURNACE & COREX:
BLAST FURNACE COREX
Blast furnace is single tall process
vessel where from top to bottom the
following sequential activities take
place. Elimination of both
combined and un-combined water
from the raw materials, calcinations
of fluxes, formation of sponge iron,
sub sequentially melting of iron and
gangue material forming liquid slag
and finally accumulation of liquid
slag and metal in the hearth for
intermittent tapping of liquids.
COREX is two stage reacting
vessel. Upper one is called as
reduction shaft where solid stage
metallization takes place with the
reaction of reducing gas generated
in lower vessel called Melter
Gasifier. Sponge iron (DRI) & coal
is fed to Melter Gasifier from top
and oxygen is blown through the
tuyeres. Burning of carbon with
oxygen generates the heat required
for melting of the sponge iron and
slag. Additionally the gas
generated during combustion of
carbon is utilized for reduction
purposes in the reduction shaft.
Uses Hot blast (pre heated air) at
tuyeres.
Uses 99.9% pure oxygen at
tuyeres.
Uses Coke as primary reductant and
gas generation source with hot
blast.
Non-Coking coal is used as
reductant and the source of gas
along with oxygen.
Iron bearing material is used in the
form of Sinters normally, in
addition of some % of lump ore.
Presently some %age of pellet has
also been introduced into the
burden.
Pellets, Sinters, Lump ores can be
used as source of iron bearing
material. However, use of sinter in
COREX does not provide any
additional benefit.
Because of coke oven and sinter
plant requirement BF route is not
environmental friendly when
compared to COREX.
Highly environmental friendly due
to absence of coke oven and sinter
plants. The pellet used as feed
material COREX is environmental
friendly Process.

Coke is costlier and the world
reserve of coking coal is depleting
very fast.
Non-coking coal is cheaper and
reserve is plenty.


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Process is less flexible and needs
more Response time for the
changes.
Highly flexible and very lesser
time for correcting the hot metal
and slag chemistry.
Low calorific value off gas is
generated (about 800-1000
Kcal/Nm3), which cannot be used
unless, enriched with higher
calorific value fuel.
Medium calorific value off gas is
generated (about 2000 Kcal/Nm3),
which can be used for power
generation, fuel gas for internal
purpose, DRI plant, fertilizer
manufacturing process etc.
BF cannot be operated with any
fines (Undersized raw material).
Significant amount of various fines
can be fed to COREX, which
provides a cost saving and
pollution control as well.


SIMILARITIES BETWEEN BLAST FURNACE AND COREX
PROCESS:
1) Both the process is used for the production of hot metal (liquid pig iron).

2) Except fuel and oxygen, similar raw materials could be used in both the
processes.

3) Overall reactions taking place in both the routes are quite similar, except
those of Coal Devolatlisation and cracking etc.

4) The function of the hearth and concept of tapping of hot metal and slag,
cast house design, slag & hot metal handling practices are identical in
both Blast furnace and COREX.

5) Hot metal composition is same in both processes. However, COREX HM
temperature is relatively higher and Sulphur in the HM is lower
compared to BF.








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2. RAW MATERIALS FOR COREX



2.1. INTRODUCTION:

The production for Hot Metal is the basis for steel making and is
traditionally performed via the route of Coke Oven Plant and Blast Furnace.
An economically operated Blast Furnace requires typically Sinter as an Iron
Carrier and a basic amount of Coke.

The COREX process provides an alternative production route for the Hot
Metal with reasonable advantages compared to the Blast Furnace. Besides
the economical impact due to the possible use of a wide variety of raw
materials and the environmental benefit, the process flexibility offers an
enormous advantage in operating a metallurgical process.

2.2. BASIC RAW MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR COREX
OPERATION:
The basic raw material required for COREX operation are classified under
the following major heads.

a. Ferrous Material (Iron Bearing):
Lump Ore
Pellets

b. Carbonaceous Material:
Coal
Coke

c. Additives:
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartz




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2.3. SPECIFICATIONS FOR RAW MATERIALS:
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION FERROUS MATERIAL:
Tolerable Preferred
Pellets
Fe
tot

Grain Size

60 % min
6 20 mm

65 % min
8 16 mm
Lump Ore
Fe
tot

Grain Size


60 % min
6 32 mm

65 % min
10 30 mm

SPECIAL CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF FERROUS
MATERIALS:
Criteria Guidelines Remarks

Chemical Analysis

SiO
2
+ Al
2
O
3


S



6 % (max.)

0.01 % (max.)



Slag Operation

Sulfur in Slag

Static Reduction
Test

Reducibility

Metallisation

DI
-6.3


AI
-0.5





0.35 % O/min
(min.)

87 % (min.)

15 25 % (max.)

5 8 % (max.)






End of test

Disintegration index after
drum

Abrasion Index after drum


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CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF COREX COALS:
Coals for
Blending

Coal or Coal Blends
Tolerable Preferred
Moisture
Before Dryer
After Dryer

Max. 12 %

Max. 12 %
Max. 5 %

< 8 %
< 5 %
Proximate
Analysis(Dry)
Fixed Carbon
Volatiles
Ash
Fixed Carbon/Ash



Min. 50 %
Max. 30 %
Max. 15 %
Min. 2.7


Min. 55 %
Max. 30 %
Max. 12 %
Min. 3


55 - 60 %
25 - 27 %
5 - 10 %
> 5
Sulfur (Dry) ----- ------- < 0.5
Grain


0 50 mm 0 50 mm
>50% (+) 15
mm
<10% (-) 2
mm
< 5% (-) 1
mm
8 40 mm
D50 : 20 30 mm
< 5% (-) 8 mm


SPECIAL CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF COREX COALS:
Criteria Guidline Values Remarks
Chlorine
Swelling Index
Max. 0.04 %
Upto 6
Corrosion
Thermo Mechanical
Stability
+ 10 mm
- 02 mm
+ 10 mm
- 02 mm

Min. 70 %
Max. 05 %

Min. 25 %
Max. 22 %

After pyrolysis


After drum test 600 rev
Reactivity of Char
RI
RSI>5

Max. 50 %
Min. 40 %

CO2, 1100C, 60 min
+ 5mm after drum
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Mechanical Strength of
Coal
+ 10 mm
- 02 mm

Min. 70 %
Max. 16 %


After Micum drum 100
rev.
2.4. RAW MATERIALS USED IN DIFFERENT COREX UNITS:
COALS USED IN POSCO STEEL:
Australia
South
Africa





Mount
Throley
South
Black
water
Coalex Bays
Water
Ensham United Optimum
Ash
(Dry)
(%) 16 9 14 7 8 12 11
Volatiles
(Dry)
(%) 31 26 30 38 27 33 32
C
fix

(Dry)
(%) 53 65 56 55 65 55 57
S
Total
(%) 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.7

COALS USED IN SALDANHA STEEL:
South Africa



Grootegeluk Van
Dijksdrift
Delmas Optimum
Ash (Dry) (%) 12 14 17 12
Volatiles (Dry) (%) 25 25 26 32
C
fix
(Dry) (%) 63 61 57 56
S
Total
(%) 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.7

COALS USED IN JINDAL STEEL:


South Africa Australia China

D
o
u
g
l
a
s

O
p
t
i
m
u
m

G
r
o
o
t
e
g
e
l
u
k

G
u
n
n
e
d
a
h

S
B
W

S
h
e
l
l

E
n
s
h
a
m

M
e
t
r
o
p
o
l
i
t
a
n

C
e
n
t
e
n
n
i
a
l

I
l
l
a
w
a
r
a

D
a
t
o
n
g

S
h
a
n
x
i

Ash (Dry) (%) 14 12 12 11 10 12 9 11 13 10 9 9
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Volatiles (Dry) (%) 28 32 27 33 26 33 29 20 27 22 31 30
C
fix
(Dry) (%) 58 56 61 56 64 55 62 69 60 68 60 61
S
total
(%) 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.9



ORES/PELLETS USED IN POSCO:
Chile Brazil Sweden Behrain Australia
South
Africa
India

Algarrobo
Pellets
CVRD
Pellets
LKAB
Pellets
GIIC
Pellets
Mt.
Newman
Lump
Ore
Sishen
Lump
Ore
IHG
Lump
Ore
Fe (%) 65.2 65.8 66.3 66.0 64.3 66.6 65.6
SiO2 (%) 2.1 2.5 2.0 1.9 3.0 3.1 2.1
Al2O3 (%) 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.5
CaO (%) 2.6 2.5 0.3 1.5 1.3 0.1 0.1
MgO (%) 0.4 0.1 1.6 0.6 0.1 0.1 00
K2O (%) <0.02 <0.02 0.04 0.02 <0.02 0.12 0.02
P2O5 (%) 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.12 <0.1 0.09
SO3 (%) 0.02 0.01 <0.01 0.01 <0.02 0.02 0.01


ORES/PELLETS USED IN SALDANHA:
Brazil South Africa



CVRD DR-Grade
Pellets
Sishen Lump Ore
Fe (%) 66.6 66.6
SiO2 (%) 1.9 3.1
Al2O3 (%) 0.9 1.0
CaO (%) 1.3 0.1
MgO (%) 0.5 0.1
K2O (%) <0.05 0.12
P2O5 (%) 0.07 <0.10
SO3 (%) 0.13 0.02
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ORES/PELLETS USED IN JINDAL:
INDIA Bahrain

J
V
S
L

P
e
l
l
e
t
s

K
u
d
r
e
m
u
k
h

P
e
l
l
e
t
s

M
a
n
d
o
v
i

P
e
l
l
e
t
s

E
s
s
a
r

P
e
l
l
e
t
s
Kariga
nur
Lump
Ore
N
M
D
C

L
u
m
p

O
r
e

V
M
P
L

L
u
m
p

O
r
e

G
I
I
C

P
e
l
l
e
t
s

Fe (%) 64.7 65.1 64.7 66.1 67.4 65.4 66.1 66.0
SiO2 (%) 3.2 4.1 3.1 2.6 0.8 1.3 1.6 1.9
Al2O3 (%) 2.0 0.5 1.9 1.4 0.6 2.2 1.7 0.6
CaO (%) 1.5 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.5
MgO (%) 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.6
K2O (%) 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02
P2O5 (%) 0.07 0.01 0.09 0.07 0.17 0.1 0.01 0.07
SO3 (%) 0.01 0.0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01


TYPICAL PHYSIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAW
MATERIALS FOR ESSAR:
Sl.N
o.
Constituen
ts (%)
I.O.Pellets Limesto
ne
Dolomit
e
Quartzit
e
Non-Coking
Coal
Coke
1 Fe > 65 0.43 0.34
2 SiO2 2.0 2.97 9.93 98.5
3 Al2O3 <1.5 0.55 0.30 0.51
4 CaO 1.0 48.86 26.62
5 MgO 0.8 3.82 19.73
6 P 0.05 0.03 0.01
7 S 0.05 0.05 0.02
8 Ash 10.32 12 max
9 LOI 42.47 41.68
10 V.M 28.2 1.0
11 F.C 61.48 87
12 Size 818 mm 830
mm
8-30
mm
8-20
mm
8-60 mm 8-30



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PROPOSED COAL FOR ESSAR:
JSW Steel has optimized its coal blend with South Black Water, Ensham and
Metropolitan in the proportion of 50%, 30% & 20 % on the basis of
availability and price. At Essar we have a provision of one more additional
Silo to give a fair trial.


ANNUAL RAW MATERIALS REQUIREMENT FOR COREX OF
ESSAR:

Sl.No. Raw Material Annual Requirement (TPA)
1 Iron Ore Pellets 2,600,000
2 Imported Non-Coking Coal 1,426,000
3 Imported Coke 226,000
4 Limestone/Dolomite 340,000
5 Quartzite 60,000























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2.5. OVREVIEW AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT OF COREX
MATERIAL HANDLING SECTION:




R
M
H
S

L
A
Y
O
U
T


M
A
T
E
R
I
A
L

F
L
O
W

S
H
E
E
T

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COAL BLENDING STATION:




COAL DRYING PLANT:


145 B01

191K01

146 C01
146 C11
Fuel Gas
NG Main
Pilot
NG
Compress
Air
144D 01
Off Gas
Pneumatic
line
146 W 01
02.147F 01
01.147F 01
145F 03
145F 01
143F 01
144W01 144W02 144W03 144W04
144B01
900 M3
144B02
900M3
144B03
900 M3
144B04
900 M3
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STOCK HOUSE:





S
T
O
C
K

H
O
U
S
E

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COREX STOCK HOUSE LAYOUT:












225
B03
250m

225
B02
250m3

225
B01
250m3
255
B02
265
B07

265 B01
260m3


235 B02
800m3


235 B01
8000m3

From
CDP
From
RMHS
TOP VIEW

225
B04
250m
255
B03
255
B04
255
B01
265
B06
265
B03
265
B02
265
B04
265
B05









225B04
250m3
225 B03
250m3
225 B02
250 m3
225 B01
250m3

265 B01
260m3

















225 W03
9.5 m3


225 W01
9.5 m3
225 W02
9.5 m3


From
RMHS
137F11
225 W04
9.5 m3






255 B02
150m3




235 B01
900m3

265B02 to 265B07
To Reduction Shaft
255 W01
5.0m3



255 B01
150m3


235
235
W02
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Theoretical Calculation for Consumption of Raw Materials:
Operating Condition for one COREX Module

Melting Rate (Full
Load) 106 TPH 870048 Tons/Year
Coke Rate 15 %
Furnace Availability 342 Days

RAW MATERIAL REQUIREMENT FOR MAKING OF ONE TON OF
HOT METAL:
Material Specification
Bulk
Density Quantity
(in T/M3) in Tons in M3
To Reduction
Shaft:

Pellet + Ore 65 % Fe 2.2 1.54 0.70

Dolomite + Lime
Stone
350
Kgs/THM 1.5 0.35 0.23

Coke to RS
100
Kgs/THM 0.65 0.1 0.15
Total 1.99 1.09

TO MELTER
GASIFIER:
Coal 0.85 0.95 1.12
Coke 0.65 0.05 0.08
Flux (Quartz) 1.7 0.025 0.01
Total 1.025 1.21








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3. COAL DRYING PLANT



3.1. INTRODUCTION:

In Coal Drying Plant, the moisture of Coal is reduced below 5 %. Wet coal
is fed to the Vibrating dryer and the hot gas is passed through the coal bed
from the bottom. The vibrating dryer is a perforated trough, which vibrates
with 4mm amplitude, and as a result the coal moves forward. Due to
passing of hot gas through the bed, the heat exchange takes place and the
moisture in the coal is driven out.

3.2. COAL DRYING PLANT EQUIPMENT:
This Coal Drying Plant consists of the following major equipment:
1) Wet Coal Bunkers
2) Belt Weigh Feeder
3) Coal Dryer
4) Hot Air Generator with burner assembly
5) Hot Gas Dedusting System
6) Dry Coal Transport System
7) Dedusting Dust Conveying System

Hot Gas Generator System comprises the following:
1) Combustion Chamber
2) Mixing Chamber
3) Flame Detector
4) Mixing Air Fan
5) Combustion Air Fan
6) Hot Gas Ducts


Hot Gas Dedusting System Comprises the following
1) Bag House
2) Off Gas Duct
3) Explosion Vent
4) Hot Gas Fan
5) Clean Gas Stack

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3.3. SYSTEM FLOW























Bag Filter
Dust
Silo
ID Fan
Pneumatic
Conveying line
Clean Air
Stack
Tanker
Explosion
Duct
Vent Filter
HOT GAS DEDUSTING
DP
m bar
Screw Conveyor
Rotary Air Valve
Feed Bin
Pressure
Vessel
Valves
Screw Conveyor
Rotary Air Valve
IGV
Purge Valve
Nitrogen
Mixing Air
Fan
Combustion Air Fan
Fuel Gas
LPG
Main
Perforated Plate Dryer
Hot
gas

Wet
Coal
Hot Gas Duct
Hot Gas
Chamber
HOT AIR
C
M
3
/h
M
3
/h
Off Gas
C
M
3
/h
Pilot
LPG
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3.4. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
DEDUSTING SYSTEM:
- Check pre-condition for the Dedusting Group Start-up
- Keep all the drive controls in Remote mode and set it to Auto
- Start the Dedusting Group in Auto Mode.

AFTER THE START CONDITION IS INITIATED:
- Pneumatic conveying sequence starts
- After a delay the Rotary Air Valves starts
- With some delay the Screw Conveyor Starts.
Perforated Plate Dryer
Hot gas
Dry Coal Conveyor Mod-01

Wet Coal Bunker
Hot Gas Duct
Rod Gate
Belt Weigh Feeder
Off Gas
Swivel Conveyor
VIBRATING DRYER
Hot Gas Chamber
Bunker
C
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- The Bag Filter cleaning sequence starts.
- Then the Hot Gas Fan Starts
- After the fan is run for 10 secs the inlet damper control is set to E1
mode with control loop of Dryer hood pressure set to 0.005 Bar.
BURNER GROUP:
- Check Pre-Condition for Burner Group Start-up.
- Keep all the drive controls in Remote mode and set it to AUTO.
- Ensure the level of Wet Coal Bunker to be at High Limit.
- Start the Burner Group in Auto Mode.
After the start condition is initiated
- The combustion air fan and the mixing air fan are started.
- A fuel gas is selected and other fuel gas lines are closed tightly.
- The purging mode is started when fuel gas is available and the air fans
are running and the burner is in a rest status.
- Combustion Air Flow is set to a set point of 2000m3/h and MAF
Damper is opened 30%.
- The purging mode is ON when both valves have almost reached the
set points.
- The purging time is 10 minutes.
- When this time is elapsed the purging mode is reset and the ignition
mode is started.
- Combustion Air Flow is then set to a set-point of 1000m3/h and MAF
Damper is closed.
- When these conditions are reached, the ignition valves are opened.
- With opened valves, the ignition transformer is energized.
- During the ignition supervision time (60 sec) if the pilot burner flame
detector is not healthy, the ignition mode is reset and after all valves
has reached their home position the Burner Group starts again with
the purging mode.
- When the ignition valves are open and the Flame detector is healthy
for at least 10 sec the ignition burner is confirmed to beON and then
bleed valves closes.
- After the valves are closed the Combustion Air Flow Controller is set
to a set point of 2000m3/h and MAF Damper to an output of 30%.
Also Fuel Gas (COREX Gas/CNG) valve is set to 25% dependent if
Export gas or CNG used.


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DRY COAL TRANSPORT:
Check pre-condition for the Dry Coal Transport Group Start-up. Keep all
the drive controls in Remote mode and set it to Auto. Start the Dry Coal
Transport Group in Auto Mode.

After the start condition is initiated.
- At first the Stock House Top conveyor 149F11 starts.
- Next to this, the conveyor 149F01 (and 149F02 in case module-01
group is started) starts along with fines conveyor 149F03.
- For the Dry Coal Bins 235B01 and 235B02 Diverter Gate position is
ensured.
- The Dry Coal Screen starts on receiving the run feedback of 149F01.
- Then after a delay of few seconds the conveyor 147F01 starts.

DRYER:
Check Pre-Condition for Dryer Group Start-up. Before start-up of Burner
Group itself, keep all the drive controls in Remote mode and set it to Auto
Start the Dryer Group in Auto Mode.

After the start condition is initiated:
- The Swivel conveyor starts (the position of swivel conveyor to be
predetermined to set the destination of Dry Coal).
- After a delay, the Vibrating Dryer Starts.
- Soon after that, the Belt Weigh Feeder starts with a set feeding rate of
10 TPH.
After achieving the desired parameter and stabilizing the system, the feed
rate to be increased to achieve the maximum output.












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4. SKIP CHARGING

4.1. INTRODUCTION:
The Skip System is used to hoist the raw material up to the top of the
COREX tower. The skip systems in principal consists of the skip bucket,
which is running up and down along the skip bridge and the winch system
with rope guidance as well as supervision system for the control of the skip
system.

The skip system has to control the speed at top and bottom very accurately
for safety. For this purpose, each end positions are provided with different
limit switches, which enable to control the speed of skip in steps. The winch
system of both skip hoists are provided with hydraulically operated disk
brakes for emergency purposes. The skip motor is controlled by means of
frequency converter.

4.2. SKIP DIAGRAM:






















FULL
FULL
EMPTY
LOCK HOPPER
FEEDING BIN
SKIP CHARGING BIN
SKIP
WINCH
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SPEED CONTROL DIAGRAM:


TECHNICAL DATA:

DESCIPTION OXIDE COAL
CAPACITY OF BUCKET 12 M3 12 M3
WEIGHT OF BUCKET
EMPTY
FULL

12.0 TONS
35.5 TONS

09.0 TONS
18.9 TONS
TRAVEL DISTANCE 110.8 Mtrs 99.3 Mtrs
BRIDGE INCLIBATION 55.0 57.7
CYCLES 8 Cycles/Hr 12 Cycles/Hr
SPEED 1.04 Mtrs/Sec 1.52 Mtrs/Sec
SPEED AT INSPECTION 0.1 Mtrs/Sec 0.1 Mtrs/Sec
CYCLE TIME 325 Secs 250.8 Secs
ROPE DIAMETER 48 mm 35 mm
GEAR RATIO 48.75 24.98
MOTOR SPEED 0 750 RPM 0 750 RPM
V2
V1
V3
V1
V1
V2
V3
V1
UP DOWN
S - 580
S - 510
S - 511
S - 512
S - 513
S - 514
S - 515
S - 517
S - 581
S - 516
EMERGENCY STOP
SAFETY STOP
DUMP POSITION
FILLING POSITION
SAFETY STOP
EMERGENCY STOP
V1 : 100 rpm

V2 : 200 rpm

V3 : 900 rpm
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DIA OF ROAD DRUM 1300 mm 1300 mm
ROPE FORCE 297.055 N 158.390 N



4.3. SKIP OPERATOIN:
PRECONDITIONS:
- The Skip bucket must be parked at the bottom positioned.
- All safety systems must indicate healthy conditions and satisfies the
interlock.
- Select the local switch to remote.
- The drive system (Frequency converter) must be operational and
ready without any fault indication.
- Lock Hopper feeding bin is in empty condition.

START:
- Select skip hydraulic pump in sequence and give Start command to
the group.
- Select electric motor in sequence.
- Select skip charging bin gate in Auto.
- Select skip group in Auto.
- Give Start command to the Skip Group.
- If the Oxide skip starts automatically, it first runs with empty bucket
when the feeding bin of lock hopper is empty. After this initial
operation the skip is now in auto mode ready for charging material
accordingly.

STOP:
- Give stop command: The command is complete when the Coal skip is
at bottom parking position.
- If Coal Skip trips, it can only be controlled by local operation from the
skip winch station.


START SKIP IN MANUAL (from LOCAL BOX)
This mode can be used when the skip is tripped due to any problem or the
test is needed after maintenance.
- Switch local switch to local from remote.
- Switch group switch to manual from Auto in CCR.
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- Push UP or DOWN button switch and adjust the speed by the
potentiometer at the Local Control Box.
- Stop the skip in any position by pushing STOP button.


If the skip control is interrupted and the skip bucket stops at other places
than at the bottom, it is necessary to bring the skip bucket down to bottom
parking position from the local control box. This ensures that the system is
investigated properly for eliminating the reason of fault.

SLACK ROPE:
This is the signal to detect the loosening of wire rope.

ROPE LENGTH:
Signal to detect the deviation of distance between the position of slow limit
switch and the input value of the cam switch.























LOCAL CONTROL PANEL
LOCAL - OFF - REMOTE

EMERGENCY
STOP
STOP
SAFETY
SLACK ROPE
ROPE LENGTH
STOP
SAFETY STOP
EMERGENCY
STOP
MOTOR AMPS SPEED MOTOR TEMP

DISTURB
UP
UP
OFF
STOP
DOWN
DOWN
EMERGENCY
STOP


SPEED
DOWN
C
%
%
SLOW
UP
UP
FAST
FAST
SLOW
SLOW
SLOW
DOWN
DOWN
FAST
SLOW
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5. LOCK HOPPER SYSTEM

5.1. GENERAL:
The COREX plant is equipped with two Lock Hopper Systems to charge the
Raw Material into the pressurized reactor vessels of the plant. One system is
used to charge Coal by means of the Lock Hoppers and coal screws into the
Melter Gassifier and the other one is used to charge Ore and Additives into
the Reduction Shaft through charging distributor.

In principle the Lock Hopper System comprises of the following items:
- Feeding Bin
- Upper Material Flap
- Upper Seal Flap
- Intermediate Bin
- Pressurizing Valves
- Depressurizing Valves
- Lower Material Flap
- Lower Seal Flap
- Coal / Oxide Charging Bin
- Charging Distributor (only for Oxide System)

5.2. OPERATION PRINCIPLE:
The system is generally operated in automatic mode. In this mode, the level
monitoring instruments of each bin is initiating the charging and discharging
of material in the bin and the low level in the Feeding Bin/Intermediate Bin
is calling the new batch, which is supplied by the skip charging system. The
other mode is on Manual basis, which means that the individual control of
flaps is performed on operators action from CCR.

Under normal circumstances the Lock Hopper system is operating on AUTO
mode and doesnt need any special supervision by the operator, since the
program will monitor any delay in the process steps and an alarm will be
generated if the sequence is interrupted.

As a precondition for the system the run feedback of the Lock Hopper
Hydraulic System is required. If the Lock Hopper hydraulic is not in
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operation, the AUTO signal will be switched to manual and an alarm is
generated.
In order to prevent the intrusion of Hot Gas from Melter Gassifier to the
Coal Charging system, Nitrogen is injected into the system to make a gas
seal.

The charging distributor is meant to set the profile of the burden in the
Reduction shaft to achieve uniform gas distribution for effective and
maximum reduction of the oxides. Operator can activate the charging
distributor only if the level of the shaft is below LOW-LOW and the
movement of that will be a very slow action, either inward or outward.
3.0 Input signals

The necessary input signals for the ore/ coal lock hopper program are:
- COREX emergency stop
- COREX process running
- If the emergency stop is active or the COREX process is not running
for any other reason the signal COREX PROCESS STOPPED is
generated.
- Lock hopper hydraulic runs
- Last vibro feeder ore/ coal batch runs
- First vibro feeder ore/ coal batch runs
- Ore/ coal transport system runs
- One vibro feeder ore/ coal batch runs
- Ore/ coal sequence open SOV3939/SOV3937 (Pre-pressurizing of
ore/ coal bin should not happen at the same time because of N2
shortage)
- Ore/ coal Skip System runs
- Ore/ coal discharge belt runs
- PIS3219 Low N
2
supply
- LSO7691/ LSO6691 Hz

Pressure, temperature, sequence:
- TRO2407 Lz, Hz (Top gas)
- TIS7491 Lz, Hz (Charging bin)
- PIS7391/ PIS6391 Lz, LLz, Hz;
- PDI7392/ PDI6392 Lz, LLz, Hz;
- PDI7393/ PDI6393 Lz, LLz, Hz;
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- C1_321S0/ C1_322S0_HOLD, START, RESET, MAN;

Level limits time delay:
- If SOV7993/ SOV6993 ONO and / LSO6693 is not Lz (downcharging 2
under program.) => LSO7694/ LSO6694 Hz is blocked => LSO7694/
LSO6694 Lz signal generated (otherwise LSO7694/ LSO6694 would be
influenced by the material flow).
- LSO7694/ LSO6694 Hz is de-blocked if any of the two conditions are
not given (no downcharging 2).
- LSO7692/ LSO6692
- LSO7693/ LSO6693
- LRO7695/ LRO6695 Lz, LLz
SOV limit switches, Time delay:
- SOV7991/ SOV6991 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV7992/ SOV6992 OPN, CLS, OPN &CLS 3s delay
- SOV7993/ SOV6993 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV7994/ SOV6994 OPN, CLS, OPN &CLS 3s delay
- SOV7995/ SOV6995 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV7996/ SOV6996 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV7999/ SOV6999 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV3906/ SOV3905 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay
- SOV3939/ SOV3937 OPN, CLS, CLS 3s delay

Lock Hopper Operation

Modes of Sequence:
Manual-Mode:
Can be selected by the OPERATOR if:
- Sequence is not running & Sequence is not in HOLD-mode.

Sequence changes to MANUAL-mode if:
- Sequence is in HOLD-mode & End Step has finished (120s).
- Sequence is in HOLD-mode & Operator presses the RESET-button
Auto-Mode:
Can be selected by the OPERATOR if:
- Sequence is not running & Sequence is not in HOLD-mode
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If the sequence is not running and from Manual- to Auto-Mode selected all
valves will be closed.
Hold-Mode:
Sequence changes to HOLD-mode if:
- Valve or Pressure measurement fault
- Step alarm
- Operator presses the HOLD-button.

Reset of Sequence:
Sequence will be reset if:
- Sequence is in HOLD-mode & Operator presses the RESET-button.
- Sequence is in HOLD-mode & End Step has finished (120s).
- Operator presses the STOP-button & End Step is running.


5.3. STARTS & STOPS OF SEQUENCES:
Start of Sequence:
Sequence is started if:

- Sequence is in AUTO-mode & Operator presses the START-button
Stop of Sequence:
Sequence is stopped if:
- Operator presses the STOP-button
- COREX-Process trips

In case the sequence is stopped, following steps are finished and/or
interrupted. Then the sequence jumps to the End-Step, Stops and is reset.
- Step 1 / Preconditions: interrupted
- Step 2 / Depressurize: finished
- Step 3 / Down charge 1 and Step 4 / Close Flaps 1: finished
- Step 5 / Pre-pressurize: interrupted
- Step 6 / Pressurize: interrupted
- Step 7 / Addl. Depressurize: interrupted
- Step 8 / Waiting: interrupted
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- Step 9 / Downcharge 2 and Step 10 / Close Flaps 2: finished
- Step 11 / Close All Valves: finished
- Step 12 / End Step: finished.
Effects of Sequence-Reset
- All Depressurizing valves are closed
- All Pressurizing valves are closed
- Material and sealing flaps remain in their present position
Effects of Sequence-Hold
- All Depressurizing valves remain in their present position
- All Pressurizing valves are closed
- Material and sealing flaps remain in their present position

Effects of COREX-Process Trip
- If the COREX-Process trips the sequence wil be stopped and the
intermediate bin depressurized, regardless whether the valves are in
Manual or Auto.
- Step 1 / Preconditions
- Step 2 / Depressurize
- Step 3 / Down charge 1 and Step 4 / Close Flaps 1
- Step 5 / Prepressurize
- Step 6 / Pressurize
- Step 7 / Addl. Depressurize
- Step 8 / Waiting
- Step 9 / Down charge 2 and Step 10 / Close Flaps 2
- Step 11 / Close All Valves
- Step 12 / End Step










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6. GENERAL CONCEPT OF PROCESS CONTROL

6.1. COREX OPERATION CONTROL:
The basic operation control is the control of gas flow rate and permeability
for reduction in the shaft furnace and the oxygen flow rate control and
the heat energy control for melting iron in the Melter gasifier. COREX
process should be controlled as per following diagram of the operation
management for maintaining proper reduction rate and hot metal
temperature & quality.





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6.2. MELTING RATE:


MELTING RATE:
Melting rate is rate of melting or quantity of HM produced per hour. In case
of COREX mainly it is controlled by tuyeres oxygen flow followed by DRI
& Coal feeding. But it is affected by many parameters like metallization,
RM quality, slag volume and other parameters.

COREX operation control should satisfy the basic precondition for
maintaining proper temperature of molten iron & slag and making iron with
desired quality. Each character of operation control is shown in
following table.




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Purpose Indication Influence Control
method
1. Reduction
control
-Hot metal
temperature
and quality
-Analysis of
DRI
- In burden
Temp
- Top gas
component
-Reduction
gas
Flow rate
and temp
-Descending
rate
-Top gas
control
valve
DRI screw
rpm
Reduction
gas temp
2. Melting
rate control
-Hot metal
temp
Production
-Ore batch
DRI screw
speed
-Reduction
rate
-Hot metal
temp
-Dome temp
-Oxygen
rate
-DRI screw
rpm

3.Shaft
permeability
control
-Reduction
gas rate
-Uniform
gas profile
-Pressure
drop in shaft
-Size
distribution
-Ore
decrepitatin
g
-Shaft temp
-Reduction
gas flow
rate
-Descending
rate
-Input Raw
material
4. Fixed bed
control
-Hot metal
temp &
quality
Level in
MG
-Coal
quality &
quantity
-HM Temp
-HM/ Slag
drainage.
-Dome temp
-Coal screw
rpm
-Oxygen
rate
-Dome temp
-System
pressure
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5. Dome
temp control
-Prevent tar
generation
-Dome temp
-Gas
component
-Coal
quality &
quantity
-Oxygen
rate
-Gas
velocity &
analysis.
-Coal and
DRI screw
-Dust burner
oxygen
-System
pressure
6.Sysrtem
pressure
control
-Dome temp
-HM temp
System
pressure
-Oxygen
rate
-Coal
quality
-Amount of
gas
generation
-Excess gas
control
valve
-Oxygen
rate
-Coal rate
7.HM temp
control
-HM quality
-Liquidity
of iron &
slag
-HM temp
-Race way
brightness
-Oxygen
rate
-Reduction
rate
-Fixed bed
-Oxygen
rate
-Melting
rate
-Coke rate
8. HM
quality
control
-HM quality -Analysis of
iron and
slag
-Fixed bed
level
-HM temp
-Reduction
rate
-RM quality
-Additive
rate
-Fixed bed
level
-HM temp

6.3. MELTING RATE VS. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION:
Oxygen consumption rate (sp oxygen) is normally inversely proportional to
the melting rate. Generally as the latter increases the former become lower
due to relatively reduced heat loss for emission in initial stage of restarting
melting rate usually low.
It is not advisable to run the Corex with low melting rate for the prolonged
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period because fuel consumption rate will increase and shaft going to be
unstable due to higher retention time of burden. Then the quality of HM
getting affected.
Similarly very high melting rate also lead to quality as well as the other
problems like DRS jamming, gas cleaning, lower Metallization etc,. In
higher melting rate quantity and quality of the reduction gas and also
retention time of burden in shaft is a big constraint leads to lower HM
temperature and more coke requirement. So it is necessary to optimize the
melting rate within boundary considering all process parameters, raw
material and system availability.


6.4. DOME TEMPERATURE CONTROL:
Dome temperature to be maintained 1000 C to 1050 C depends on the coal
volatile matter for proper devolatization and of coal CH4 % in cooling gas.
Both low dome and very high dome temp not advisable. Low dome may
lead to tar formation and chocking of ducts gap and bend jam etc, very high
temperature also will lead to coal decrepetation & refractory damage. In
case the dome temperature is reached approximately 950 deg C, the
generation of Metal and reduction gas is occurred.
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Melting rate vs. Dome temperature:
As the melting rate increase dome temperature & hot metal temp will go
down because of non-metallized & un-calcinated material flow from shaft.
So it is important to watch dome temperature before increasing the melting
rate.

1. INDICATION FACTORS:
Decision factors of dome temperature control are temperature
measurements (TR0 1440-1442) and the composition of the cooling
gas. If the dome temperature is too low, the percentage of CO2 and
CH4 of the cooling gas are increased. On the contrary, if the dome is
too high, the percentage of CO of the cooling gas is increased and the
quality of cooling gas is gone badly. So it is important to maintain the
normal dome temperature.

2. EFFECTING FACTORS:
The factors that affect the dome temperature are the feeding rate of
DRI, the reduction rate in the reduction shaft, calcinations of
additives the o2 amount of dust burner, the feeding rate of coal, the
level of the fixed bed, total gas generation and the system pressure
etc, the dome temperature is decreased as the following cases; the
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feeding rate of DRI is fast, the reduction of DRI is low, the
calcinations of additives are low, and the feeding rate of coal is low.
On the contrary, the dome temperature is increased as the following
cases; the o2 amount dust burner is increased and the coal size is
small.

3. THE THEORY OF DOME TEMPEARTURE CONTROL:
If the system pressure is increased the gas flow of Melter gasifier is
gone to the wall side, the velocity of the gas is decreased, the heat
exchange is improved the dome temperature is decreased, and the
temperature of the hot metal is increased.

MELTING RATE VS. OTHER PARAMETERS:
While starting the plant it is better to increase the tuyere O2 as quick
as possible. After dome reaches 950 C starts coal feeding and also
DRI feeding. Along with DRI screw speed increases, increase the
reduction gas to shaft and also coal input proportionately. Depends
on shut down duration try to stabilize the process as quickly as
possible.


6.5. PLANT PRESSURE & TUYERE VELOCITY:
Both parameters are inter related and important in the quality control and
also total MG gas distribution profile as well as refractory life in long run.
So it is important to maintain the constant plant pressure and tuyeres
velocity. Try to operate with 3.5 bar plant pressure and approximately 190-
200 m/s of velocity by opening and closing tuyeres with MR.

1) PURPOSE:
A. Gas distribution and tuyeres oxygen velocity control in the Melter
gasifier
B. To prevent the formation of fluidized bed
C. To improve the efficiency of heat exchange in the Melter gasifier
2) AFFECTING FACTORS:
A. Quality of Coal
B. Amount of charged coal and DRI
C. Amount of generation gas
D. Dome temperature
e. Gas permeability within the fixed bed, etc.
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3) ACTUAL OPERATION:
A. Control the system pressure by oxygen & tuyeres Velocity
Maintain 190 -200m/sec during the normal operation.
B. If system pressure decreased, the dome temperature will be
increased but the hot metal temperature is decreased.
C. In case of the formation of fluid bed is increased and the hot
metal temperature is decreased, increase the system pressure.
D. If volatile matters of coal are increased and coal size is small,
the fluctuation of system pressure is increased.
E. If the amount of coal to the Melter gasifier is increased, generator
gas amount is increased because of the combustion of volatiles.
System pressure is increased. Control of coal screw speed is
needed according to the amount of oxygen within the Melter
gasifier.

RELATIONS TO OTHER PARAMETERS:
1) Amount of O2 to the tuyeres - system pressure:


2) Dome temperature system pressure


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3) Hot metal temperature- system pressure:



The control of system pressure is a main factor to control the hot metal
temperature. The fluctuation of system pressure makes hot metal
temperature decrease.

COOLING GAS ANALYSIS:
Especially CO2 content in cooling gas plays a major role in DRI
metallization. Both high and very low CO2 content is not good. So it is
better to control CO2 in the range of 5-8%.

Tools like iron ore fines, specific O2 to tuyeres, dust burners O2 and
melting rate can be used for controlling the analysis.

DRI SCREW OPERATIONS:
During normal plant start DRI screw can be started from 0.8 rpm. It is to
be increased steps along with reduction gas and specific tuyeres O2.
Normally screw discharge is 165 lit/rev. Calculate every day screw
discharge, because day-to-day lot of parameters discharge rate can vary
day to day. Monitor screw pressure and down pipe temperature and
shaft AP to ensure shaft condition.

Always during sudden plant pressure decrease or in case of screw
stoppage doesnt forget to reduce top gas & also differential pressure to
venturi scrubber (If PDC 2208 is in pressure control mode).
During increase of melting rate, first increase the screw speed & after 5
minute adjust the gas flow accordingly. DRI screw operation to be
parallel with coal screw or vice versa.
During normal running all screws are operating with common speed set
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point. However screws can be operated with asymmetric mode depends
upon process requirement. This can be used as a tool to break channeling
inside the shaft.

6.6. CHAR BED LEVEL CONTROL:
1) BASIC CONCEPT:
Fixed bed is a burden that is mixed up with DRI, additive and char.
With going downward it is heated up by counter flow gas. If DRI heated
up for enough time, quality of hot metal becomes better. So its level has,
to be kept high as possible. In actual operation it is always sustained at
the level that is belw1m of dust burner. But it is not advisable to, control
dome temperature and other operation factor by controlling fixed bed
level.

2) FIXED BED LEVEL CONTROL:
A. CASTING & LEVEL:
As cast progress fixed bed level tends to go slow down. If slag and metal
is drained out successfully, usually down of fixed bed level is about 1 m.
So in advance of cast DRI & coal screw rpm need to be increased to
maintain fixed bed level.

B. FLOW RATE OF OXYGEN THROUGH TUYERES &
LEVEL:
Down speed of fixed bed is determined by flow rate of oxygen
through tuyere. That is, if flow rate of oxygen increase fixed bed
level is going fast down due to increasing consumption rate of char and
melting rate of DRI simultaneously. So both coal and DRI screw speed
have to be adjusted according to flow rate of Oxygen to keep fixed
bed level.
Specific tuyere oxygen to be decided with following parameters
volatile matter in coal, melting rate, dome temperature, CO2 & CH4
content in cooling gas, total gas generation, hot metal & slag quality
and pressure peaks etc.

C. System pressure and level Increase of system pressure contribute
passing gas to delaying in burden. This serve as merit that quality of
hot metal can improve. But if system pressure is very high, because
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penetration distance of oxygen is too short to form central flow,
burden becomes unstable.

D. Quality of hot metal & level rising of fixed bed level make contact
time between material and gas longer. Accordingly both hot metal
temperature and [Si] content is higher.

3) FIXED BED LEVEL CONTROL IN ACTUAL OPERATION:
A. LEVEL CONTROL IN NORMAL & ABNORMAL
OPEARTION:
Item Normal
Maximum level LRO 1602 -100 %
Minimum level LRO-1602 0 %

B. LEVELLER POSITION & VOLUME:























Leveler
position
Volume
m
Vertical
height (m)
Dust burner-
LRO 1602
109 1.2
LRO 1602-
LRO 1603
105 0.95
LRO 1603-
LRO 1604
50 0.6
LRO 1604-
LRO 1605
100 1.3
LRO 1605-
LRO 1606
105 1.8
LRO 1606-
TUYERE
LEVEL
113 2.56
LRO 1602-
Tuyere
501 12.9
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1) The above level indicators are based on older version. Now we have
shifted the locations of level indicators to operate with higher char bed
level with 9th row staves & increased dust burner level. Now the
bottom most level LRO 1601 is planned to shift to + 23.45 meter, LRO
1602 to + 22.40 meter, LRO 1603 to + 21.4 meter, LRO 1604 to +
20.25 meter & LRO 1605 AT + 18.35 meter.

2) If the dome temperature is too high and the hot metal temp is not so
low, increase the melting rate (Both coal & DRI screw can be
increased). If the HM temp is low; increase the coal screw speed
considering the fixed bed level.

3) Before shutdown the char bed level to be kept at higher level. To
compensate the same increase the coal screw speed 3 - 4 hours before
the shut down depends on the shut down duration. It will helps to
maintain level during plant start. Immediately after plant start coal
screw cant be started due to low dome temperature. Higher char bed
level will also helps to maintain good hot metal temperature.

4) Because of more fines input because of poor raw material quality, false
char bed level indication is possible. It is always better to optimize the
burner oxygen. The purpose of the O2 injection of dust burner is to
control the dome temperature and to burn the dust inside the Melter
gasifier. In case the amount of the dust burner oxygen is low, the
following phenomenon will be occurred.
The amount of dust circulating in MG is increased
Fine particles of dust is increased
The height of fluidized bed is increased
The efficiency of hot cyclone is decreased
The dust loading in reduction shaft is increased
Some trouble in the gas cleaning line is occurred





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Following table shows the factors affecting the dome temperature:
Factor Dome
temp
Factor Dome
temp
Feeding rate
of DRI
Increase Decrease Feeding
rate of
coal
Increase Decrease
Metalisation Low Decrease Coal
size
Small Increase
Calcination Low Decrease System
pressure
High Decrease
Dust burner
O2
Decrease Decrease Fixed
bed level
High Decrease


FIXED BED LEVEL & TAPING:
Burden material load of Melter gasifier in COREX is lighter than that of
blast furnace because the COREX is separated to two parts reduction shaft
and Melter gasifier. And also the behavior of molten iron in the Melter
gasifier is different from the blast furnace. Molten iron of the blast furnace
moves through the void of the coke in deadman of the hearth due to high
burden load, but COREX molten iron moves in the free space below the char
dead man.

The shape of coke deadman and the existence of free space effects the
erosion of the brick in hearth and bottom. According to tapping time,
COREX char bed moves up and down because the char bed floats on slag
and molten iron. Total burden weight of char bed can be calculated by the
weight subtracted floating force by gas from char bed weight itself, and char
bed can be floated with the balance of total burden weight of char bed and
the buoyancy of slag & molten iron.

PRECONDITIONS TO FLOAT CHAR BED ON SLAG & IRON:
1) Total burden weight Buoyancy: Deadman penetrated by slag and iron.
2) Total burden weight = Buoyancy: Begin to float deadman on slag and
iron.
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3) Total burden weight Buoyancy: floating deadman on slag and iron.

Burden weight = char bed weight floating force by gas (AP)
Total burden weight = burden weight + deadman weight
Slag buoyancy + molten iron buoyancy.

COREX char bed is floating on slag & molten iron, which causes char
bed to move up and down in tapping time. Behavior of Slag & molten
iron is subjected to the balance of total char bed weight and the
buoyancy of slag & molten iron. Fig 10-2 shows the behavior of char
bed that comes down until the tap hole level after finishing cast. Iron &
slag is continuously generated below the char bed before cast, and the
char bed moves up because of slag buoyancy. When iron & slag start to
drain, iron drains out at first as interface of slag and metal moves up to
the level higher than the tap hole level. With draining of slag and metal, char
bed moves down again. Usually char drains out from the tap hole when char
bed reached on the tap hole level, and then the tap hole should be closed. So
char deadman is always penetrated by some of slag and char bed is always
floating on slag and molten iron.



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6.7. REDUCTION SHAFT OPERATION:
The reduction rate in the shaft mainly depends on reduction gas flow and
quality. Also other things like gas distribution, pressure drop, material
descending condition etc. affect the reduction rate in the shaft.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE REDUCTION RATE:
The ore reduction rate in the shaft should be more than 90%. Basically
reduction rate depends on reduction gas flow rate. Reduction rate
increases if reduction gas flow rate increase, and reduction rate
decreases if reduction gas flow rate decrease. But gas distribution should
be even for reduction because reduction rate could be influenced by shaft
condition like pressure drop, gas flow and material descending condition.
- Reduction gas flow rate
- Reduction gas temperature
- Material descending velocity
- Material traveling time
- Gas distribution
- Indication factor of reduction rate
- Analysis of DRI Sample
- Gas utilization
- Shaft wall temperature & vertical temperature

FLOW RATE CONTROL OF REDUCTION GAS:
Reduction gas flow is controlled by top gas control valve, for ore reduction
depends on melting rate. In case of using pellet, reduction gas flow rate is
less than using lump ore because the reduction velocity of pellet is
higher than that of lump ore, and reduction flow rate is different for
pellet and ore. Gas utilization decrease due to uneven gas distribution
and high dust loading which result to reduce reduction rate of same
reduction flow. Reduction gas flow should be properly maintained in the
shaft considering ore and pellet characteristic because dust content per
unit volume become high and void age decrease if reduction as flow
become excessive. To keep more than 90% reduction rate in the shaft,
top gas flow should be calculated and maintained for each material.
Melting rate will be increased in case of high temperature of hot metal if top
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gas flow is excessive compared with charging ore. But melting rate will be
decreased in case of low. Temperature of hot metal or top gas flow will be
increased if top gas flow is insufficient compared with charging ore.
Brig 2-
1
shows the weight loss of pellet is higher than that of lump ore during
reduction, which means than reduction rate of pellet is better than lump
ore. So using lump ore needs more much reduction gas to be injected to
shaft than using pellet.
REDUCTION GAS TEMPERATURE CONTROL:
Reduction gas is controlled by cooling gas injected to generator gas in liner
according to bustle temperature, and the temperature keeps 790-.8500C
for ore reduction. The temperature of reduction gas injecting the shaft
with 800C increase up to 880C in the shaft because of ore reduction,
and at this temperature ore reduction occur actively. If reduction gas
temperature is extremely high, material temperature increase above
830C, which makes pellets, be clustered due to growing metal fiber
material. Clustered pellets cause to make material bridge above DRI
screw, stop revolving the screws and deteriorate gas profile. So it is very
important to keep the reduction gas temperature suitable. Especially for
using pellets, it is necessary that reduction gas flow should be low and
reduction gas temperature keeps lower than ore.
DESCENDING VELOCITY AND RETENTION TIME OF
MATERIAL IN SHAFT:
Descending velocity is proportioned, to retention time. In case of 90 ton/hr of
melting rate, the traveling time of material is about 8 hours in the shaft. The
longer retention time is, the better ore reduction become. Reduction rate
becomes high due to high retention time, but dust content becomes
increased and pressure drop goes up, which may cause to make uneven
gas distribution, slip and hanging. Therefore descending velocity should
keep as high as possible to shaft condition because it makes material
void age increased. Descending velocity can be adjusted by DRI screw
rpm and hot metal temperature.

REDUCTION RATE AND HOT METAL TEMPERATURE:
Reduction rate can be known by analysis of DRI sample, gas utilization
and theoretical calculation. If reduction rate drop, hot metal temperature
will be down. So reduction rate should be controlled previously to
prevent hot metal temperature decreasing abruptly.

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Generally, hot metal temperature drops after 3 hours when reduction rate
decrease, and so oxygen rate or coke rate should be increased before the
temperature drops. Prior to dropping reduction rate, shaft condition shows a
phenomenon; vertical. Temperature, gas utilization and wall temperature
below bustle decrease. Most abrupt: drop of hot metal temperature occurred in
case of bad shaft condition. Specially using mixture of pellet and ore,
reduction rate dropped abruptly because of high pressure drop, slip and
hanging due to segregation of pellet and
ore.

GAS DISTRIBUTION:
It is of the most important thing to distribute reduction gas uniform through
out burden to accomplish stable operation of shaft furnace as well as Melter
gasifier. From this, pellet can be reduced as well as additive is calcinated. To
achieve even gas flow, minimum size, size distribution and reductive
degradation properties of pellet has been controlled. The gas distribution can
be judged by pressure drop across the shaft, temperature variation, abnormal
descending of burden and utilization of reduction gas etc.

GAS DISTRIBUTION CONTROL:
SMALL PARTICLE REGULATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION
CONTROL:
Because larger particle guarantee gas to flow well through burden, input of
small particle has to be regulated. The smaller particle is, the worse
permeability is even if size distribution of particle is harrow and shape is
regular. Generally resistance to gas flow increase greatly as particle size
decrease below 13 mm. Also the range of particle sizes affects permeability.
By keeping the range of particle sizes to minimum permeability increase.
DEGRADATION CONTROL OF PARTICLE:
Iron ore and pallet are inclined to degrade during heating and reducing.
Especially pellet tends to swell at its maximum around 850 C to degradate
early; Small particle generated from degradation is accumulated into pore
and block the way of gas. If dust is accumulated in particular parts, dust
stack is accelerated and gas flow is deviated. It can be caught in observing
vertical or horizontal temperature deviation and pressure drop of burden in
shaft furnace. To avoid this problem, select iron ore or pellet that cam
endure degradation from heating and reduction. Also samples have to taken
to be analyzed periodically.

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DUST CONTROL OF REDUCTION GAS:
COREX reducing gas contains considerable dust generated from coal
pyrolysis and pellet reduction. Most of them is captured and eliminated in
hot cyclone but some is in flowed into shaft furnace and accumulated. In
case that hot cyclone system is run in abnormal operation and input of dust
into shaft furnace become to increase, condition of shaft furnace such as gas
distribution, deviation of temperature and so on should be checked from
time to time. If abnormal operation may prolong, it has better be run after
being resolving the problem.
GAS DISTRIBUTION CONTROL IN ACTUAL OPERATION:
It can be judged whether gas distribution is uniform or no uniform by total
pressure drop of burden. Total pressure drop of burden become to increase
steadily with the gas velocity on condition that other operation factor is
fixed. The following figure show relationship between bounds of pressure
drop and top gas flow rate in normal operation. Also Gas distribution has
been controlled monitoring the differential pressure across the shaft. When
pressure drop exceed critical value, slip and hanging appear. It happens
when material is sticky and degraded, dead man grows up, bustle port is
blocked and gas flow is deviated severely.

6.8. HOT METAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL:
The purposes of hot metal temperature control are first, to ensure proper
behavior of melts (slag & hot metal) inside Melter and during tapping to
achieve dry operation of Melter gasifier. Second, to obtain target hot metal
quality this influences down-stream process. Especially, silicon content
and sulfur content in hot metal are strongly influenced by hot metal
temperature.
The key point of hot metal temperature control is to keep target hot metal
temperature stably using several control measures. The most
influencing factor is metallization degree, which is directly related to
the shaft performance. Every indicating and controlling parameter has
their own response time according to the melting rate.
MAIN AFFECTING FACTORS METALLIZATION (OR
REDUCTION)/ DEGREE OF DRI:
Iron oxide is reduced by two step reduction path. The first step is
indirect reduction by gas I solid reaction which is exothermic and mainly
occurs in reduction shaft. The second step is direct reduction by liquid I
solid reaction which is highly endothermic and occurs during / after
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melting of DRI. Therefore, the target of COREX Operation should be
maximizing indirect reduction in the reduction shaft and minimizing
direct reduction in the Melter gasifier. If low metallized DRl is fed to
melter gasifier, then heat level is decreased and fixed bed is deteriated
(char consumption increase, fixed bed level decrease, char particle size
decrease, gas & liquid permeability decrease) due to highly endothermic
nature of direct reduction, in real operation, metallization degree itself is
not referred by operator because analysis results can not cope with control
actions. However, factors which affect Metalisation degree, for example top
gas flow rate, top gas composition, cooling gas composition, in-burden
temperature, horizontal gas temperature distribution, shaft temperature shaft
delta pressure, are continuously evaluated to counter measure low
metallization.

6.9. MELTING RATE AND OXYGEN FLOW TO TUYERE:
The only heat source to MG is combustion of oxygen at tuyeres front and
dust burners. Oxygen flow to tuyere is increased but specific O2 flow is
decreased, as melting rate is increased. HM temp is promptly controlled by
O2 flow.
RESPONSE TIME:
1. Indicating parameter:

Sl.No Factor
Response
time
1
st
affecting
factor
1
In burden
temperature
7-8 Metalisation
2
Down pipe
temperature
4-6 Melting rate
3
Slip and
hanging
6-10
Penetration
of gas
4
C/G CO2
CH4
4-6
Dome
temperature
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2. Controlled Parameter:


Factor
Response
time in
hrs
Check
place
1 Amount of
tuyere O2
2-3 FRC8001
2 DRI feed
rate
4-5 DRI screw
rpm
3 Coke ratio 4-5 Weighing
time
4 Feeding rate
of coal
4-5 Coal
screw pin
5 Amount of
reduction
gas
7-8 FRC 2001
5
q CO of top
gas
8-
10
Distribution
of gas
6 Basicity
2-
3
Change the
retention
time
7
Brightness
of tuyere
2-
3
Change hot
metal temp
8 Dome temp
3-
4
CG
Analysis
9
Fixed bed
level
3-
4
-
10
HM temp
(comparison
with last
tap)
0-
1
Change
HM temp
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6 Specification
of coal
4-5 Mixing
bin
(sampling)
7 Specification
of pellet
12-15 Raw
material
handling
8 Velocity of
tuyere O2
2-4 Monitor
9 System
pressure
2-4 PRC 2003


6.10. QUALITY CONTROL OF HOT METAL:
HM quality means maintaining HM temperature and chemical composition
(mainly C, Si, S, P etc,) as per the required standard.

Carbon & Silicon have generally co-relation with HM temperature and
retention time. So they can be controlled by proper HM temperature (i.e.
also coke rate), certain height of fixed bed and melting rate

Sulphur can be controlled by slag volume & basicity based on input raw
material composition. Very high acidic or basic slag is not advisable. It is
better to maintain Basicity (CaO/SiO2) in the range of 1.10.

Si content in HM normally increase dramatically after restarting the furnace
after shutdown due to longer retention time.

P and Mn content of HM can be only controlled by input raw materials.
98%of the total P2O5 gas to hot metal.










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7. GAS SYSTEM

Introduction:
COREX process is having two process vessels in which upper is called as
Reduction Shaft and Lower as Melter Gasifier.

Iron bearing materials & Fluxes are charged in RS and coal is fed into MG.
The volatile matter present in the coal gets gasified in MG after cracking
Heavy Hydrocarbons into H
2
and CO. The char after reaction with O2 at the
tuyeres also produces CO gas which together goes out of MG through four
generators gas ducts.


















Total gas generated in Melter Gasifier (MG) is having four outlets for
carrying the gas, which are called Generator Gas ducts (GGD).

These Generator Gas ducts (GGD) are connected to a hot gas cyclone
(HGC) for cleaning the dust carried along with the gas. The dust settled in
the cyclone is further taken to a Dustbin, which is located below the Cyclone
and is injected in to the Melter Gasifier through a Dust Burner with Nitrogen
as Injecting media and Burnt with Oxygen. The process of this dust
separation in HGC and burning in the MG again is called Dust recycling
system that makes the COREX process environment friendly.
Gas
Holder
PDC 2212
H/C
Ore
Coal
Melter
Gasifier
Shaft
Excess gas line
C/G Compressor
Top Gas
Line
FRC2001
SOV2940
Export
gas
PRC2210
Sludge
PDC-2207
PDC-2208
Sludge Sludge
Sludge
Sludge
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The Major composition of gas generated in MG:
CO : 65-70 %
CO
2
: 05-08 %
H
2
: 20-25 %
CH
4
: 1- 2 %

The generated gas from MG is coming out at around 1050 C and which is
controlled to a range of 850 C for Reducing and Calcinations of Additives.
Control of this temperature is done by adding the cooling gas in to the GGD
through Temperature control valves which is called cooling Gas addition.

The clean gas that is coming from the cyclone is taken through Bustle of the
Reduction shaft for reducing the Iron Oxide and Calcinations of the
Additives that are charged in Reduction Shaft, which is called Reducing
Gas.

As shown in the schematic, the clean gas of from the outlet of HGC is taken
in to the Reduction shaft bustle, through a Top gas flow control valve
FRC2001. The amount of flow through the RS is depending upon the
conditions and movement of Reduction shaft, which is generally 1050-1120
m3/hr/ ton of oxide charge.

The gas that is coming out from the RS is called Top gas that is at around
280 -300 c and the major composition of the gas is follows

Top gas composition:
CO : 40-45 %
CO
2
: 30-35 %
H
2
: 15-20 %
CH
4
: 1-1.5 %

The top gas is further passing through a packing scrubber for cooling and
cleaning the gas.

As shown, the gas which not passing through RS is taken via a packing
scrubber which is called Cooling gas Packing scrubber which is having two
outlets i.e. Excess Gas scrubber and Cooling Gas venturi scrubber.

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Excess gas scrubber is controlling Plant pressure through its two hydraulic
actuators DN 400 & DN 800. Plant pressure is controlled always to maintain
fixed velocity at the exit of the tuyeres.

Top gas and excess gas after gas cleaning are connected to consumers
network through the gasholder. Gas network is controlled by total gas
generation & the level in the gasholder. Unused gas is flared as shown
through a pressure control valve PRC 2210.

The cooling gas venturi is connected to a Compressor, which can boost the
pressure, by about 1 bar for cooling gas addition to GGD.

7.1. DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM:
INTRODUCTION:
WHY DUST RECYCLING IS REQUIRED?
The gas generated in MG is dust laden and the dust content may be in range
of 150-180-g/m3 gas which again depends on the quality of Raw materials.
This gas is to be cleaned for dust separation before passing it through
Reduction Shaft. The performance of the DRS is a direct impact on the
COREX process for its Plant availability, Environment, Safety etc. The
poor Performance in DRS on the other hand makes the environment very
unclean through the increased sludge rates with a decreased performance in
the Reduction Shaft which calls for forced shaft emptying process.

The increased dust generation in the MG also would add problems to the
Performance of the Dust Recycling system.

PROBABLE REASONS FOR MORE DUST GENERATION IN MG:
- High dome temperature ( 1080 C) resulting the more decrepitating oI
Coal.
- Poor quality of Raw materials like pellets, Coal / Coke etc.
- High fraction fines in the charge materials.
- High velocity of the gas.

COMPARISONS BETWEEN COREX AND BLAST FURNACE GAS
CLEANING SYSTEMS:
In COREX process about 70% of Dust generation which is separated in DRS
is recycled again into the System through the in built DRS. In Blast furnace
the off take gas is passing through a Dust Catcher which collects the Dust
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and the dust is further un loaded in to a hopper / Trucks etc. The dust from
the Dust catcher is not an on line recycling like in COREX, but it can be
used in all waste recycling process like Sinter, Pelletizing etc.

COREX is having four DRS lines through which the dust is recycled and BF
has a single common Dust catcher from.

Both COREX and BF have wet scrubber systems to clean and cool the Gas
after passing through the Dust separations systems.

The Generator gas duct carrying the Hot gas form the Melter gasifier is
connected to a the refractory lined Hot gas cyclone where in the dust
particles settle down due to change in direction of the gas flow resulting the
loss in momentum.

The Dedusting takes place in the upper part of the hot gas cyclone where the
vortex tube is installed. In the lower part of the hot gas cyclone the dust is
collected. To prevent the back stream of collected dust to the upper part a
displacement cone (Chinese cap) is installed between upper and lower part
of the hot gas cyclone.

The hot dust is injected into Dust burner through nitrogen injector and Burnt
in the MG with Oxygen. Nitrogen injection flow through the dust burner is
normally in range of 250 -350m3/hr and oxygen flow through the burner can
be varied from 500 -4500 m3/hr which is tool to control the Dome
temperature.

The dust burner is continuously cooled with water which is circulating from
critical cooling water system (Closed Loop) and normal flow of circulation
is 30m3/hr for each burner at 9 bar pressure.

ORIGINAL CONCEPT OF DRS:
In the original concept, DRS is having two Dust bins located below the HGC
called as Upper and lower dust bins. The dust form HGC can be taken into
the Upper and lower dust bins in batches through operation of the Hydraulic
disc gates provided below the HGC and UDB. The flow of the dust can be
kept in open mode also by keeping the both disc gates open depending upon
the line performance.
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HGC, UDB & LDB are provided with Nucleonic level sources for
measuring the dust level. Grids are installed in the lower part of the hot gas
cyclone and in the lower dustbin to safeguard the adjacent built in equipment
against coarse particles.

The hot dust collected in lower dustbins is transported by means of nitrogen
to the dust burners and burnt in the Melter gasifier using oxygen and
combustion takes place in front of the dust burners.


Dust shut-off valves are installed below hot gas cyclones and below the
lower dustbins. These shut off valves are normally open during operation
and used to isolate the dust lines during maintenance.
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Knife Edge gate valve (KGV) is installed at the emergency discharge
nozzles of the hot gas cyclones, the two dustbins. These are normally closed
and kept with reversible blinds, which are used to clear the Dust lines in case
of any blockages during shut down.

A coarse particle discharge line is provided below the T-piece with two
Knife gate valves which is connected to a small vessel called Catch pot. A
small quantity of Nitrogen is provided to fluidize the dust from coarse
particles (percolation). If in case of hot line, these Knife gate valves can be
kept closed closing the Nitrogen also. In such case discharge of coarse
particles form T-piece to catch pot has to be ensured form time to time by
opening the closed knife gate valves.

The coarse particles form Catch Pot is to be discharged during shutdown
through standard operating practices.

MODIFIED CONCEPT:
Due to the various operational problems encountered in DRS, UDB is
removed to optimize the performance of Dust line performance.

In this modified concept, the dust form HGC is taken to LDB and the
transfer of dust from LDB is the same as explained above original concept.
Dust from HGC can be kept in open mode by keeping the Disc gate open or
in batch mode by operating the Disc gates, which depends on the
performance of the Dust line.
The above modification has given good results and increased availability of
the DRS.

PROPOSED CONCEPT FOR ESSAR COREX:
Elimination of both UDB and LDB is proposed to optimize the DRS in
Essar COREX. In this new concept, dust flows from the HGC to T-piece
through DN 400 line and injected with nitrogen as usual. A manual shut off
valve is provided below the HGC and one automatic cold body valve is
provided in the line for isolation of the line during maintenance.




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Dust Analysis:
C :approx 60 %
S :approx 1 %
Fe :approx 20 %
Other oxide :approx 19 %.

7.2. GAS CLEANING SYSTEM:
INTRODUCTION:
The gas leaving the Reduction shaft is called Top gas, which is dust laden
with temperature in range of 280-300 C normally. So this Gas requires
both cleaning and cooling for which it passes through a top gas-packing
scrubber.

First the incoming gas to the scrubber is quenched in pre scrubber and then
further it is cleaned in top gas wooden packing scrubber consisting of
Adjustable venturi scrubber, mist eliminator. The differential pressure
across the venturi scrubber is set and controlled through the shown
Adjustable venturi scrubber.

The top gas pre scrubber, packing scrubber and venturi scrubber are
continuously circulated with process water as described in Process water
systems.
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7.3. COOLING GAS SYSTEM:
The gas, which is not taken to the RS, is directed to the Cooling gas-packing
scrubber, which is first quenched in Pre scrubber and enters the packing
scrubber. The differential across the packing scrubber is controlled through
Baumco scrubber Cooling packing scrubber has two outlets as shown i.e.
excess gas and cooling gas in which the differential pressure is controlled
through its respective adjustable venturi.

The Cooling packing gas pre scrubber, packing scrubber, Excess & Cooling
venturi scrubber are continuously circulated with process water as described
in Process water systems




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7.4. COOLING GAS COMPRESSOR:



Cooling gas compressor is a Lobe type positive displacement compressor,
which is used to control the temperature of the Gas leaving the MG to a
range of 850 deg c.

The inlet to the compressor is connected from cooling gas venturi and the
compressor can boost the pressure by about 0.9 bars.

There are two compressors provided for each module among which one is
stand by and one is running. Each compressor is provided with separate
lubrication system for both Gearbox and Compressor.

Stand by compressor is always kept running with its slow speed drive so that
there is no dust accumulation on the lobes.
Pre conditions for Compressor start:
- Both compressor and Gear box lubrication systems are running in
order
- All the drives and position of valves are healthy
- Process cooling water system is running in order
- Machine cooling water system (non critical ) should be running in
order
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- Inlet pressure to the compressor should not be Low.

CONTROL OF THE COMPRESSOR:
During the start of the compressor to avoid the excess load on the
compressor, one Control valve (HIC) is provided which bypasses the
discharge back to the inlet f the compressor and it closes after opening the
normal discharge valve.

The discharge of the compressor is cooling the gas coming out from MG,
which is temperature controlled and hence cooling gas flow to GGD is not
constant. But the compressor being fixed displacement type, it is required to
control the Pressure differential across the Compressor and a control valve is
provided (PDC2213) which diverts the discharge back to cooling gas
venturi.

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL CONTROL (TDC2419):
It is desired to avoid any condensate water that could hamper the compressor
and hence a control valve is provided to maintain the differential
temperature of the gas entering the compressor. The temperature
measurement is just after cooling gas venturi and before entering the inlet
silencer of the compressor. Normal temperature differential between these
two points is 5 deg C. Part of the gas from the discharge of the compressor is
used through TDC2419 for this control.

VIBRATION CONTROL:
Vibration of the compressor is online monitored in both axial and radial
directions which should be 5-8 mm / sec. These vibrations could be
because of two reasons basically. One is due to the unbalanced lobes due to
accumulation of dust and second one is due to any loosened Foundation
bolts etc.

The vibrations due to the first reason i.e. unbalanced lobes can be controlled
with the given ethanol injection on to the lobes which brings down the
vibrations significantly. Normally each start and stop of the compressor is
accompanied by the ethanol injection and it can be injected in between when
ever the vibration goes high.

As described in introduction of the gas systems, the gas leaving the MG is at
around 1050 C which needs to be controlled to a range of 850 C and this is
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done by adding cool gas through a temperature control valve in each
generator gas line (TRC 2411- 2414). The pre conditions for the addition is
running of cooling gas compressor and discharge pressure of the compressor
is more than the plant pressure at least by 0.1 bar.

Failure of the cooling gas addition due to any reason makes nitrogen valve to
open till the gas addition resumes. The scheme of addition to GGD is shown
here for one line, which is similar to the other three lines.


















TRC SOV
N
2

N
2

SOV
N
2

Cooling gas
addition
MG
Cooling gas
addition
Generator gas Duct
N
2

TRC
Oxygen to Tuyeres
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8. PLANT START AND STOP PROCEDURES

8.1. PLANT START:
START PROCEDURE:
GENERAL:
A good prepared plant start in an optimal way in dependence of the shut
down duration and plant conditions enables the operation team to achieve
- A normal production rate in a short period.
- More uniform quality of hot metal.
- Minimum damages to the refractory of the MG.

This summary refers to the start of COREX plant as well as the adjustment
in general. The more detailed description utilizing the individual displays
are covered separately. All flows given in m/hr or l/min are values at STP
conditions.

To ensure a safe operation of the COREX plant the field operator has to
check the conditions of the field equipment according to check lists
provided.

For increase of the melting rate in steps 20 40 50 60 70 80
90 t/h and increase of other process parameters, more detailed instructions
are given separately which are the part of this procedure and have to be
followed if a special instruction is not given.

PRECONDITIONS:
Oxygen plant, power plant and Steel melting shop have to be informed about
the start time.
- All utilities available.
- All dedusting plants in operation including pneumatic dust transport to be
ready.
- Material handling system ready.
- Coal drying plant ready / in operation.
- Gas analyzers in operation
- All water system in operation
- Seal pots flushed, drained and checked for function
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- Pilot burners of the flare in operation
- Hydraulic for safety valve SOV2990 in operation
- Hydraulic for DRI screws in operation
- Hydraulic for lock hoppers, disc gates, charging distributor and coal gate in
operation.
- Hydraulic for adjustable venturi scrubbers in operation
- Valves of CGC to be checked for operation.
- Hydraulic for coal screw conveyors in operation
- Lubrication for gear box of the cooling gas compressor in operation
- Lubrication for seals of the cooling gas compressor in operation
- Lock hoppers for coal & ore ready and in auto mode
- Launders and casting hall ready
- Drilling machine and mud gun ready
- Open O2/N2 maintenance hand valves in the proper procedure

ADJUST SET POINT OF THE SCRUBBERS:
- Adjust the adjustable flap scrubber to 0.25 bar on PDC2207 and switch to
auto.
- Adjust the adjustable cooling gas venturi scrubber to 0.25bar on PDC2212
and switch to auto
- Adjust the adjustable excess gas venturi scrubber to 1.2 bar (or other SP if
required) on PDC2203 and switch to auto
- Adjust the adjustable top gas venturi scrubber to 0.5 bar on PDC2212
and switch to auto
- All adjustable scrubbers should be operated with the above given pressure
drops or higher to achieve a good washing of the gas and to minimize
deposits in the down stream pipelines and equipment.

CHECK O2 TUYERES FOR BLOCKAGES:
- Poke all O2 tuyeres before pressurizing of the plant
- Switch the N2 flow control valve FRC3020 to manual and open it to 5%
- Open the shut off valve for N2 to the tuyeres SOV3920
- Switch FRC3020 to auto and SP 6000 m/hr
- Verify that N2 flow on FFY8101- 26 for all O2 tuyeres is in the normal
range, respectively that all tuyeres are free.
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- Decrease the SP on the N2 flow control valve FRC3020 to 3000 m/hr,
switch it to manual, open 3% and maintain 3% open to prevent entering
of dust in to the tuyeres during pressurizing of the plant
- If one or more tuyeres are blocked, depressurize the plant and poke the
relevant tuyeres

PURGE AND PRESSURIZE THE PLANT WITH N2:
- Purge the plant only if during maintenance activities penetration of O2/air
into the system was possible.
- Check that the N2 flow control valve FRC3020 to the O2 tuyeres is in
manual and 3% open.
- Check that the N2 shut ff valve SOV3920 to the tuyeres is open.
- Switch every single valve for N2 to inliners SOV3925-28 in central mode
and manual, open them and pressurize the plant up to 1 bar on PRC2203.

PURGE THE PLANT:
If system was opened for entering of air and purging of the plant is required
- Depressurize the plant to 0.2 bar by decreasing of SP of PRC2203 in the
steps of 0.2 bar. If the last depressurizing step is progressing to slow
decrease the SP of the flap scrubber to 0.1 bar again
- Repeat the procedure of pressurizing and depressurizing of the plant until
the O2 content on ARO2703 and on transportable O2 measuring instrument
is <0.5 %

CHECK THE PLANT FOR LEAKAGES:
After completion of purging:
- Close both shut off valves SOV2905 and SOV2939 in front of excess gas
- Scrubber in order to pressurize the plant in short period of time and with
less N2
- Pressurize the plant up to 2 bar on PRC2203 via the shut off valves for N2
to the inliners SoV3925-28.
- Maintain the pressure in the range of 2-2.5 bar by adjustment of N2 flow to
the plant in order and check for leakage areas of the plant where
maintenance work was carried out.
- Close further the flow control valve FRC3020 to 1-2% in order to reduce
cooling of the char bed with N2 during check, respectively if the start of the
plant is delayed.
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ADJUST THE PLANT PRESSURE FOR O2 START:

After completion of the leakage check:
- Adjust the pressure to 1.2 bar on PRC2203
CHECK / ADJUST N2 FLOW / PRESSURE TO THE CONSTANT
USERS:
- Check instrument air pressure.
- Pressure of PCV034 for N2 to stuffing boxes of the coal screws to 0.5 bar
above the plant pressure.
- N2 flow to the labyrinth of the DRI screws to approx 1800 l/h
- Set the SP onFRC3021 for N2 to coal charging bin to 250 m/h
- N2 flow to the safety valve SOV2990 to 50 m/h on FIO3162.
- N2 flow to the flare to 50 m/h on FIO.
- N2 flow to the glands of the TRC2512/22/32/42, SOV2913/23/33/43 and
SOV2914/24/34/44 valves in the dust recycling lines.
- N2 flow to the coal riffler to approx 1500 m/h on FRC3140
- N2 pressure in the tank for pressurizing of the intermediate bins for ore and
coal on PIO3310 (6 bar)
- Check that the N2 pressure on the local differential pressure regulator of
the cooling gas compressor is 0.2 bar higher than the middle pressure (inlet
+outlet pressure divided by 2)
- N2 flow to the ore sealing flap SOV7994 to 150 m/h on FIO
- N2 flow to the ore charging bin to 50 m/h on FIO
- N2 flow to the charging distributor (cylinder)to 100 m/h on FIO
If the shaft level gets lost or one of the sealing flaps is leaking.
- Increase the N2 flow to the seal flap, ore charging Bin and charging
distributor to maintain the temperature in the ore feeding bin < 200 c on
TRO7695.
- N2 flow to the ore feeding bin to 50 m/h on FIO
- N2 flow to the coal feeding bin to 50 m/h on FIO. (If one of the sealing
flaps for the charging of coal or ore is leaking).

-CLOSE THE TOP GAS FLOW CONTROL FLAP FRC2001

START COOLING GAS COMPRESSOR:
Check that the oil lubrication unit for gear box and for seals of the CGC are
in operation when a plant pressure > 0.9 bar on PRC2203 is reached (at the
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lower pressure the compressor can trip due to the low pressure in PIO2220
in the suction line)
- Select one of the CGCs
- Select the valves for addition of cooling gas to the gas inliners,
respectively of the down pipes to sequence and auto.
- Put the group for start of CGC to auto and press the start object.
If the compressor no.1 is selected the start signal
- Stops the spiral spin drive
- Opens the hand by-pass flap HIC2830
- Activates timer 0-15 seconds
After expiring of the time and under precondition that the hand by-pass flap
HIC2830 had reached the limit switch open
- Starts the compressor no.1
If the second compressor is running
- Stops the second CGS by following steps
5 sec after the start of compressor no.1
- The hand by-pass flap HIC2840 will be opened
When HIC2840 reaches the limit switch open
- The discharge valve SOV2902 will be closed
- Second compressor will be stopped (if running )
- Spin drive will be started

Starts cooling gas circuit:
If the CGS no 1 is running, following activities occurs automatically:
- The discharge valve SOV2901 after the CGS no 1 will be opened
- Pressure difference control valve PDC2213 will be forced to manual and
output 80% and then switched to auto , SP 0.8 bar
- Temperature difference control valve TDC2419 will be forced to manual
output 80% and then switched to auto ,SP 5 C when SOV2901 had reached
the limit switch open
- The output of the hand by-pass flap HIC2830 will be forced to 0%.
Prepare start of cooling gas to the users:
- Select single groups for the addition of the cooling gas to the inliners and
to the down pipes and start them.
Start of the groups is a precondition for the start of addition of cooling gas to
the users automatically, by the signal COREX plant operation

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Start the lower coal screw conveyor

Start the hydraulic for the lower screw conveyor

- Select the hydraulic pump to sequence and auto and start the object
- Select the group and start the object the start signal

As long as the upper coal screw conveyor is not running the lower one is
running with full speed
SRC6801(upper screw) will be in manual clamp mode until COREX
operating signal comes.

O2 start
- Give signal for evacuation of COREX tower and plant start
- Check that pilot burners of the flare are in operation
When a plant pressure of 2.2 bar on PRC2203 is reached
- Select the list O2 / N2 HELP for START UP and when the signal
READY TO START is available
- Press the button for group start
- forces any valve NOT selected to auto mode ( just before participating in
the start sequence) to auto mode
- opens SOV3920 for N2 and forces SP of FRC3020 to 6000m/h
- closes O2 bleed valve SOV8906
- forces the output of O2 flow control valve FRC8001 to 20%
When 5000 m/h N2 on FRC3020 are reached
- O2 block valve SOV8901 will be opened then with a delay of 1 second
SOV8900, which resets also O2 - stop sequence
When 8000m/h O2 on FRC8001 are reached
- SOV3920 will be closed
- The output of the N2 flow control valve FRC3020 will be forced to manual
and output to 100 % ( to ensure open position for next stop of the plant)
- The SP for O2 flow control valve will be set to 22000 m/h with the time
delay of 10 seconds
The signal COREX plant in operation (with already available signal
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Starts cooling gas to the users by
- Forcing of the output of the bustle gas temperature control valves
TRC2411-14 to 10% and with the delay of 10 seconds
- Opening of the shut off valves SOV2951-54 for addition of cooling gas to
the inliners
- Closing N2 block valves SOV3929-32
- Closing shut off valve SOV3925-28 for addition of N2 to the inliners if
open.
- Switching the temperature control valves TRC2411-14 to auto mode and
SP 800 C, but the temperature control valves TRC2411-14 remain 10 %
open
- Sets the SP for the temperature control valves TRC1413-36 to 800 C (All
involved valves in the addition of cooling gas to the down pipes remain
unchanged. Only when the SP of 800 C is reached, the addition of the
cooling gas to the down pipes starts automatically )

Adjust the increase O2 flow and plant pressure
- Check gas analysis and flare if igniting
- Adjust plant pressure accordingly to maintain the velocity at the tuyeres of
200 m/s
if daily instructions are not prepare, respectively not required
- Proceed with increase of the Sp for the O2 flow of the tuyeres on FRC8001
and increase of the plant pressure on PRC2203 according to detailed
instructions given in relevant annex.
Start dust recycling system

Start injectors for transport of the dust
On basis of LINE1 following explanation is given for the start of the
compete DRS and is also valid for other lines.
The single groups of DRS for the lines 2, 3 and 4 can be started one after the
other
- Select the object injector of the line 1 to auto mode and press the start
button. The start signal
- Opens SOV2915 for dust transport and SOV3941 for N2 injector
- Closes SOV3955 for purging of the burner with N2
- Forces the SP of the N2 flow control valve FRC2011 to 250 m/h and auto
- start the injectors for the dust transport of the other three dust lines
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Start down charging of dust

Before start of down charging of dust in open or batch mode, the
injectors for dust transport must be in operation

Open line operation
- Select the open line operation by pressing the group object open
- Select the group object down and switch to manual mode. This signal
switches all valves involved in the down charging of dust to manual mode.

Start O2 to the dust burners
The start of the dust burners is only possible, if the dome temperature on
one of TRC1440/1441 is higher than 700 C.
- Select the object Burner of the line 1 to auto and press the start button.
The start signal
- forces the SP of the O2 flow control valve FRC8002 to 650 m/h
- opens SOV8902 for O2 to the dust burner with the delay of 30 seconds
- closes SOV3921 for purging of the line with N2, when the O2 flow on
FRC8002 is NOT L1
- Adjust the SP of temperature control valve TRC2512 considering the
conditions of the dust line 1 and put it after few minutes to auto
- Start O2 to the dust burners to the other three lines.
To start with addition of coal feed as soon as possible and to minimize
burning off the char bed (low char bed, cold hot metal) increase O2 in steps
of 300 m/h approx. every 5 minutes (lower char bed, shorter time intervals )
up to 2000 m/h and adjust it when a normal dome temperature is reached
(990-1020 C).

If the level of the char bed on LIO 1602 is showing 100% longer than 30
minutes or the temperature on one of the temperature measurements
TRC2512, TIO251 or TIO2513 exceeds 800 C the O2 to the dust burner will
be stopped by closing of SOV8902.
Start the upper coal screw:
For operation of the screws in auto and manual mode the hydraulic pumps
have to be selected to auto mode (sequence).
Interlocking regarding screw control, respect. Interface to process
interlocking is dealing with controllers only and not with the hydraulic
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drives. To start the hydraulic pumps
- Select group and press start button. The start signal starts the hydraulic
pumps

Start the DRI screws and adjust their speed
The DRI screws should be started approx 10 minutes after the start of the
coal screws.
The selection switch has a position Enabled- Disabled
To start the DRI screws
- Switch the selection switch to position Enabled. This signal forced the
controllers from auto mode to E1 mode and common SP on SRC1800
- Set desired SP for the screws on SRC1800 select the object and press it.
The start signal switches the speed control of all DRI screws to common
SP1800 and sets the SP to 0.40 rpm
(Switching of the selection switch to position Disabled forces the
controllers to auto mode and individual SP)


Start with addition of reduction gas to the reduction shaft
For the start of the gas flow via the reduction shaft, the reduction gas
temperature on TRC2411-14 should be approx. 800 C
15 minutes after he start of the DRI screws
- Switch the top gas flow control valve FRC2001 to manual, open it 10%
and increase 5 minutes later to 13%. (indication on FRC2001 approx. 17000
m/h and stable)

5 minutes later
- Switch the top gas flow control valve FRC2001 to auto, SP 20000 m/h
- Proceed further with increase of the top gas flow on FRC2001 and with the
increase of the DRI screw speed on SRC1800 (in advance of the increase of
the top gas flow) according to the detailed instructions given in the enclosed
annexes, if daily or special instruction is not available.

The specific top gas flow should be adjusted according to the DRI screw
discharge rate and not according to pellets charging rate. Only in event that
the shaft level was lost and the shaft will be quicker refilled, the specific top
gas flow can be slightly increased. If the pressure loss across the reduction
shaft on PDI1201 starts to increase and achieves critical values for the given
burden, melting rate, dust input, the specific top gas flow should be decrease
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again to prevent deterioration of shaft operation.

Adjust the process parameter of the cooling gas circuit
- Check flows, temperatures, pressures and other parameters and adjust
them.
- Start to increase the SP for the temperature control valves TRC in steps of
10 C every 10 minutes up to 850 C or other temperature if given in Daily
instructions.

Ensure that the difference between cooling gas pressure on PRO2215 and
the plant pressure on PRC2203 is > 0.1 bar by make more cooling gas
available for the users by
- Increasing of the SP of the pressure difference control valve on PDC2213
(not > 0.9 bar) and
if this measure is not sufficient
- By decreasing the SP of the temperature control valve on TRC2419 (not
below 2 C)
- Starting/increasing of water addition to the lower coal screw (max. 2 m/h)
the addition of water to the MG via the lower coal screw should be put in
operation if the dome temperature on TRO1440/1441 remains longer than 30
minutes > 1050 C to reduce the anticipated bustle gas temperature.
If the dome temperature is too high and the available cooling gas amount is
not sufficient to maintain a given bustle gas temperature
- Increases temporary the SP for the temperature control valves TRC2411-
14 to prevent tripping of the groups for addition of the cooling gas to the
users.
When the dome temperature came down and temperature control of the
bustle gas is possible again
- decrease the SP of the bustle gas to the previous value
If the operator forgets to do this, the program will take care of it but the
operator should not forget to bring the SP back to the odd value, when the
temperature of the MG comes down.
If the bustle gas temperature remains approx. 30 C above the normal
temperature value longer than 10 minutes
- Reduce in steps of approx. 5% the top gas flow on FRC2001 to minimize
danger of agglomeration of the burden in the reduction shaft.
If during operation the inburden temperatures on TRO1401-06 increase to
900 C, reduce the top gas flow on FRC2001 accordingly to maintain the
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temperatures < 900 C


Adjust process parameters and proceed with increase of melting rate
Based on analysis of the plant conditions before the stop of the plant
(melting rate, temperature of the last taps, metallization of DRI etc),
stoppage time and current plant conditions:

- Estimate roughly values for the important process parameters, their
changes during increasing of melting rate and optimal time intervals to
achieve following intermediate melting rates: 40 50 60 70 80
90 t/h, respectively a target value.

Decision how quickly to increase the melting rate and which process
parameters should be adjusted, should be made in dependence of the
following process parameters:

- Melting rate before the plant stop, hot metal temperature (if both high,
shorter time intervals between two steps) length of shut down (longer shut
down, long time intervals) metallization of DRI (metallization lower, longer
time intervals), coke portion of the char bed and the char bed height (both
high, shorter time intervals and quicker decrease of coke to coal feed). All
these and other process parameters should be considered , when decision is
made in which time intervals to increase the melting rate, to reduce the ratio
of coal to the coal feed and to reduce the specific O2 flow to the tuyeres.
Prepared tables and annexes should help for making best decisions. The
development of the dome temperature in combination with the hot metal
temperature of the last tap, could help to prove/ correct chosen parameters,
for example an increase of the dome temperature above the normal range
(990C 1020 C) could result from too high O2 flow to the dust burners, to
high specific O2 flow to the tuyeres, low char bed level, from a low coal
feed or from a combination of few of them. If the last tap was hot, the
specific) 2 flow to the tuyeres should be reduced if the other parameters are
in a normal range. If the last tap was relatively cold, O2 flow to the dust
burners are too high, coal feed to the Melter gasifier and char bed height in
the normal range, an increased dome temperature is probably resulting from
too fine grain size of the char in the char bed. In this case and in the event of
a low char bed level the coke portion to he coal feed is the best quick
correction measure. On t he longer term coal feed should be adjusted (higher
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portion of stable coal)

After every increase of melting rate for 10 t/h (intermediate step)
- Analyze current plant situation, compare estimation with enclosed tables
and annexes, make decision how to proceed further with increasing of
melting rate and which values have to be increased /decreased for above
mentioned intermediate steps, until the target value is achieved.
- Adjust all relevant specific process parameter like specific O2 flow to the
tuyeres, total specific O2 flow, and specific top gas flow.
- Maintain in front of the top gas flow control flap FRC2001 a pressure of
approx. 0.5 bar on PRO2219 by adjustment of the Sp of the adjustable top
gas scrubber on PDC2208

Check feeding raw material to the stock house and to COREX tower
- Check regularly and ensure the adequate material with an appropriate
quality is fed to a corresponding bin and to COREX tower.
- Check regularly and ensure that enough raw materials is available in the
stock house. If this is not the case or quality of the raw material is not
appropriate, the field operator has to inform the shift leader about the
deviations of normal operating valves.

Maintain constant char bed level and dome temperature
A high and constant char bed level (80 100 % on LIO1602) and low
fluctuating and appropriate dome temperature (990 1020C on
TRO1440/41) are the most important measures to achieve a good and
maintain uniform and stable HM quality. Therefore burning off the char bed
should be minimized, respectively avoided below the certain level (50 % on
LIO1603)
If there are problems with coal transport/charging which can be solved
within 30 minutes (maximum 1hour delay)
- reduce in dependence of coal amount in the coal charging bin the O2 flow
on FRC8001 to 28000 (extreme case 22000) m/h and other process
parameters accordingly to prevent burning off of the char bed.
If there is a risk that coal from the coal charging bin will be consumed
before the problem is solved.
- prepare the plant for stop and stop it when the charging bin is empty

Adjust additives to the coal feed and/or to the reduction shaft
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If the estimated time period to achieve a target production rate is again
expected to be longer than 2 hours or if the plant should be operated for a
certain period of the time with a lower or higher melting rate than before the
plant stop.
- Adjust additives to coal (mixture fine limestone/ dolomite or quartz)
according to burden calculation.
- Calculate new burden mixture to the reduction shaft and change the batch
composition
- Do not forget to adjust the additives to coal when new mixture reach the
area of DRI screws

Stabilize production rate and hot metal quality
After achieving of target melting rate.
- Check and readjust all relevant process parameters to approximately
following values according to following criteria to ensure hot metal
temperature of 1490 1520 C and required uniform quality:
- Maintain a high char bed level (LIO 1602 80-100%).
- Maintain all the time the dome temperature on TRO 1440/41 of approx
1000 C (990 1020 C).
- Specific O2 flow for a given coal feed and melting rate (optimum value
known from previous operation).
- O2 flow on FRC8001 and plant pressure on PRC2203 according to the
diagram plant pressure/O2 flow.
- The speed of DRI screws according to charging rate and if the reduction
shaft is not full according to the specific discharge volume of the DRI
screws (l/rpm).
- Specific top gas flow on FRC2001 according to daily instruction (approx
1100 m/t pellets) to ensure a high metallization degree (of DRI samples >
88%, min 85%).
- Required O2 flow to the dust burners on FRC 8002 05 to maintain the
dome temperature in the range of 990 1020 C but not below 1000 m/h if
the dust load is high.
- Pressure difference of the adjustable top gas venturi scrubber on PDC2208
to maintain on PRO2219 approx. 0.5 bar.

Adjust slag basicity
With every increase or decrease of melting rate for the longer time period
than 2 hours
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- Adjust the additives to coal according to burden calculation to achieve the
anticipated slag basicity.
- Check and if required adjust the amount of additives of the reduction shaft
in event of bigger change of melting rate.


Optimize process parameters and reduce/stop coke addition
- Proceed with operation and try to optimize process parameters according to
daily instructions
If the hot metal temperature of the first tap > 1480 C and the dome
temperature in the normal range.
- decrease the coke rate to the coal feed according to the enclosed annexes
and in dependence of the hot metal temperature and other process
parameters.

8.2. PLANT STOP:
3 HOUR BEFORE STOP:
Inform to all relative departments. (O2 plant, Power plant, Energy
Center, all gas consumers, LRS, SMP & PPC etc.)
Fixed Bed (LRO 1602) should be kept in full level. Increase the speed
of the coal screw gradually 3 hours earlier before the stop of the
plant.(depends on level).


2 HOUR BEFORE STOP:
Decrease the melting rate Decrease the DRI screw speed in step of 0.1
rpm/10 minutes up to 1.0 rpm and reduce the top gas flow rate according to
ore changing amount. While reducing the top gas flow reduce SP to TGVS
(PDC2208 also)
Decrease the O2 amount in step 1000 Nm/10 min and make O2 amount
29000 Nm/hr for FRC 8001 1/2 hour before the stop of the plant,
accordingly reduce coal screw speed also.

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1 HOUR BEFORE STOP:
Open last tapping before stop.
Empty all dust recycling lines (Hot cyclone, Lower dust bin).
Decrease the Bustle Temperature -Decrease the set point of TRC2411-
2414 by 10/15 min to 800 deg.
Adjust melting rate and each process parameters - Decrease the DRI
screw rpm by 0.1 up to 0.8 rpm - Decrease the O2 amount by 1000 Nm/ 10
min and 15 min before the stop of the plant, let the amount of O2 be 26000
Nm/hr for tuyeres side.
Reduce the speed of the coal screw in order to decrease tar formation (In
this case, careful operation is needed to prevent the level loss of fixed bed)
10 MINUTES BEFORE STOP:
Ensure coal & ore feeding and intermediate bins are empty.
The plant is ready for stop The total gas flow through the
reduction shaft should be reduced up to 30000Nm/hr in steps.
Adjust the amount of O2 flow for each dust burner according to the
dome temperature. Reduce the speed of the coal screw up to 4.0 rpm.
Confirm quality of hot metal, HM temp & tuyere condition.
Stop the Plant Stop by Selecting the O2/N2 Group on CRT and initiate the
stop signal of the plant. The stop command closes the oxygen to tuyeres &
dust burners- 22000 Nm3/hr nitrogen enters in to tuyeres
Also Depressurizing valves for coal and ore lock hoppers opens.
System pressure: Auto SP to1.2 Bar.
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Coal and all DRI screws: stop.
15 MINUTES AFTER THE PLANT STOP:
N2 flow rate via FRC3020 is changed to 12,000Nm/h from
22,000Nm/hr (in integral steps of 1000 m3/min).
30 MINUTES AFTER THE PLANT STOP:
Decrease the system pressure up to 0.7 kg/cm.
FRC3020: 120005, 000 Nm/hr (in integral steps of 500 m3/min).
Purge the plant with 0.4 to 0.7 Bar pressure. Adjust all venturi
scrubbers SP.
45 MINUTES AFTER THE PLANT STOP:
Decrease the system pressure up to 0.2 bar. If the sum of the
inflammable gas wouldnt go down below 10%, repeat the pressurizing &
depressurizing.
Stop cooling gas compressor.
Give clearance for opening alternate bolts in the system.
Close all shutdown valves except +19 meter ramping nitrogen.
60 MINUTES AFTER THE PLANT STOP:
Close N2 all shut off valves for dust recycling systems on the CRT
Keep minimum nitrogen to tuyeres (~ 300 Nm3/hr)
Depressurize so that the system pressure may be zero.
Open the following valves fully to maintain the draft (negative press)
toward the flare stack valves, Baumco, DN 800 & DN 400 line SOVs &
cones.

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75 MINUTES AFTER THE PLANT STOP:

After getting small draft close ramping nitrogen slowly & close hand valve also.
Close LP shut off valve in low-pressure gas line. (Export gas).

Announce the completion of the plant purge after getting
negative pressure & all shut down valves closed. Start giving clearance
to maintenance jobs as per schedule.



























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9. REFRACTORY FOR COREX

Main function of refractory & heat insulating materials is to control high
temperature processes economically as well as in an environment friendly
manner.

Steel industry is the major consuming industry of refractory in any country.
It is well known that 70-75% of the total refractory produced in any country
is consumed by the Iron and Steel industry. It is therefore, essential that the
refractory industry should respond and also meet the requirement of the
changing demands of Steel industry particularly in terms of quality and then
quantity. So, the development and growth of both Steel and Refractory
industries are somewhat inter dependent. The plant availability, production
cost & decision for capital repair of the plant are mainly depends on the
design of refractory & quality of refractory.

COREX: Present day Steel industrys demand is to produce steel at lower
cost and through environmental friendly process. Worlds industrially Proven
Smelting Reduction Process Corex allows flexible, cost efficient and
environment friendly production of Hot Metal.

Corex technology is based on physical separation of Reduction and melting
Process, which are carried out in two main reactors. These are:
1. Reduction Shaft
2. Melter Gasifier

Beside above units, there are other areas like DRI conveying system, Gas
circulation and Dust recycling and Cast House where different types of
refractory are used. Here some main units description and the quality of
refractory used at different areas are projected.

9.1 Reduction Shaft: Following main activities take place in the reduction
shaft.
(a) Reduction of Iron bearing material.
(b) Calcinations of Limestone & Dolomite.
Here mostly 45% dense Al
2
O
3
bricks are used which are procured
indigenously. In the Bustle area special shape of silicon carbide burled
bricks are used. The main aspect for using these brick is its stability. Dome
portion refractory is done by gunning with 55-60 % Al
2
O
3
mass.
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The cleaning of the bustle port during reduction shaft is a difficult task. The
64 Bustle ports are getting jammed over a period of time due to many
reasons. The quality of the raw material & more dust content in reduction
gas are main reasons.

Provision to flush the bustle port with high-pressure nitrogen before opening
any manholes during the shut down seems to be a good option. Otherwise
after opening the manhole because of air entry, cluster will be formed &
then it becomes difficult to remove the jam.

Refractory arrangement for bustle port:



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REDUCTION SHAFT REFRACTORY OVERVIEW:


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9.2 Melter Gasifier (MG): Here the following function takes place:
Drying and vitalization of coal
Generation of reduction gases
Final reduction of Iron carriers
Melting of DRI (sponge Iron) and
Generation of liquid Hot Metal & slag

This is the only unit where refractory are exposed to various severe thermal
shocks. To take care of these conditions, the following quality of bricks is
selected in different zone in the MG.

HEARTH BOTTOM:
This is similar to BF lining. Bottom most area is of two layer and graphite
blocks. Above this, three layers of carbon blocks and above it mullite bricks
are used on two Courses. Outer most side of the Hearth wall up to tuyere
zone is Micro Porous carbon blocks. The use of micro pore carbon blocks
will limit the attack of alkali, Zn, CO and iron penetration. By adding
metallic silicon and pure Al
2
O
3
to the carbon mix as additives, will give
reduced pore size to the bricks. A carbon ramming mass is provided between
water-cooled staves and carbon blocks.





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To safe guard the hearth pad, ceramic cup lining is recently introduced in
both Blast Furnaces as well as corex hearths.

Tap hole refractory:


Requirement of the Ceramic Cup brick:
High resistance to corrosion and corrosion by Iron and Slag
Dimensional stability (PLC at 1000
0
C should be zero)
Resistance to Alkali vapors and CO corrosion
Ability to accommodate thermo-mechanical stress

Hence, high quality SIALON bonded corundum bricks of special shape are
used at the inner walls. Special inter locking pattern arrangement is done to
take care of complete stability for lining.

Tuyere zone refractory: In this area of furnace, oxidation from leaking
tuyeres and abrasion from swirling coal and coke at the edge of the raceway
are the principal attack mechanism. Temperatures are highest in this part of
the furnace. Hence high conductive refractory with excellent thermal shock
resistance like SIALON bond silicon carbide bricks are used in the area.

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MODIFICATION OF REFRACTORY DESIGN IN MG:
Because of early damage of refractory above tuyere zone, especially stave
row 5, 6 & 7. Now we are planning for lot of modifications including
copper staves for row 5 & 6.The modified proposal is as shown below.



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CHAR BED ZONE:
This has generally proved to be the critical area of the furnace other than the
hearth. It is at the top of the cohesive zone where liquids are beginning to
form is known as lower char bed zone. Temperatures are high, reduction
reactions are still occurring and slag formation is just begins in this lower
char bed zone. High thermal conductivity nitride silicon carbide bricks are
best suited for this zone. Silicon carbide-ramming mass is used to fill the gap
between water-cooled staves and refractory.

CALMING ZONE:
Temperature in this zone is lowest but the burden materials are abrasive. In
addition carbon monoxide will tend to attack the refractory. High Alumina
corundum base SIALON bonded bricks are preferred in this zone. The
working layer in backed up by insulation layer.

DOME AREA:
This area is called gaseous free board zone also. Due to the continuous gas
flow, the transition area between free board zone and char bed zone is
fluidized.

Gunning twin layers does entire lining of dome zone. The first is insulation
and the working lining is done by 60% Al2O3 gunning mass. Proper
metallic and ceramic anchors are welded in site to have the stability to the
gunning material, which is to be done in panels of 1.5 Mt x 1 Mt.

A protection lining is given all through the side wall starting from ceramic
cup to calming zone to avoid initial thermal shocks to the main working
lining.

Main modification in Melter Gasifier Area:

1. Increasing the bog depth of hearth by removing one mullite layer.
(Increase the depth of hot metal pool below tap hole level). This will
reduce hearth erosion; specially tap hole erosion as well as more
homogenous quality of hot metal.

2. Copper staves in row 5 & 6 for better heat transfer. It will enhance
refractory life & also helps for skull formation (in case of refractory
failure).And minimizes external sell temperature.
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3. New copper ledges in row 6, 7 & 8 and cast iron ledge (built in) in row
9.Ledges will support the refractory & also for better grip during
thermal shocks.

4. Tongue & groove arrangement for new copper staves for better
refractory support & grip (i.e, embedded refractory in staves).

5. New anchors in row 7 & 8 for providing better grip to silicon carbide
castable, this castable layer will give good protection in case of
refractory brick layer failure.

6. Change in area above tuyere belt & dome area refractory as shown in
above figure to increase refractory life.


9.3 CAST HOUSE:
The refractory used in the cast house runners are primarily high Alumina or
alumina-silcate based, since the basicity of slag is around the neutral region
(varies from 0.95-1.1). In the cast house trough, the refractory has to offer
multiple aspects of resistance. First, the refractory has to be strong to resist
the weight of molten iron and slag; secondly, it has to resist the effect of
continuous flow of iron and slag and above all the erosive / corrosive action
of the slag and slag/iron. In cast house troughs, most wear takes place at the
iron/slag interface followed by the slag area. The lining below the iron level
is the least affected zone. In the slag area, the refractory is exposed to the
chemical and mechanical effect of the molten slag. Since the choice of
refractory is compatible with the slag chemistry, the erosion is not severe in
the slag zone alone. The most refractory wear is visible in the slag/iron
interface. There are multiple reasons for the refractory wear in this region.
First, the slag being in contact with the molten iron is at its highest
temperature. Secondly, at the interface there is a partial oxidation of the iron
into FeO, which is highly corrosive. Thirdly, the refractory erodes both from
chemical attack by the slag at the slag/metal interface along with the
mechanical erosion from the continuous flow of slag and slag/iron along the
lining; thus exposing new surface of the refractory.

The refractory composition in this area has to satisfy the above criteria. The
composition of refractory in the trough is based on Alumina as base material
to provide resistance to high temperature, silicon carbide addition to provide
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the corrosive / erosion resistance and some amount of carbon (as graphite) to
provide non-wetting characteristics. Since the development of low and ultra-
low cement castables (LCC and ULCC), LCC and ULCC have been
preferred as the cast house refractory, which replaced the earlier use of resin
or pitch-bonded ramming mixes. The major advantage of ULCC is its ability
to be repaired by recasting the lining at regular intervals until the lining
becomes weak due to the oxidation of the carbon in the unaffected area of
the lining. Since the development of sol-gel based castables in the early 90s,
the use of monolithic refractory has taken a new direction. The changes in
the bonding system from high Alumina cement to colloidal silica provide not
only a number of significant advantages, but also a newer application
method, namely by pumping.



Both Cast house main runner & slag runner with tilting arrangement
overview.



There are several advantages of sol-gel-based castables / pumpables over
low-cement castables which are as follows:

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a) By nature the gel-bond castable has self-flow characteristics, it is easier
to cast either by gravity or by a pump.
b) Due to the absence of minor ingredients in the mix (such as deflocculates
and dispersants), the mixing time is shorter resulting in less time for
casting
c) The high temperature bond from sol-gel bonding being mullite, the
refractoriness of the gel-bond castables is much higher than of LCC,
which forms less refractory compounds such as, anorthite/gehlenite
d) Due to the nature of the bonding, the sol-gel bonded castable has much
superior thermal shock resistance resulting in less cracks in linings
e) Since the sol-gel bonding provides a coating on the carbon particles, the
gel-bond castables also provide better oxidation resistance
f) The hot strength of sol-gel bonded castables are much higher (hot
modulus of rupture @ 1500
0
C) than that of LCC or ULCC
g) Due to less oxidation of the carbonaceous materials and better thermal
shock resistance, the lining life of sol-gel base castables are longer than
that of LCC or ULCC.

Tables 1 and 2 show the chemical and physical properties of LCC and sol-
gel based castables used in Corex cast house troughs. It may be noted that at
14000C the LCC forms a glassy phase primarily consisting of anorthite and
gehlenite. This provides a better compressive strength. Whereas in the sol-
gel bonding, the high temperature phase is mullite which provides better
MOR and not high CCS.

Table I: Chemical compositions of ULCC and gel-bond castables for
Corex trough:
Composition
(%)
ULCC Gel-bonded
Al
2
O
3

SiO
2

TiO
2

Fe
2
O
3

SiC
CaO
68 - 70
8 - 9
1.5 - 2.0
0.4 - 0.6
19 - 21
0.4 - 0.5
72 73
7.4 7.8
1.4 1.6
1.0 1.2
17.0 18.0
--

Table II: A physical property of Corex trough castable/pump able mixes:


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Properties ULCC
Gel-
bonded
Bulk density (kg.m
3
)/porosity
(%) after heating at
110
0
C
815
0
C
1400
0
C


2805/15.6
2740/19.7
2740/18.5


2915/14.3
2835/17.2
2805/18.4
Cold crushing strength (MPa)
after heating at
110
0
C
815
0
C
1400
0
C


8.9
11.7
48.2


21.8
53.1
43.3
Cold modulus of rupture
(MPa) after heating at
110
0
C
815
0
C
1400
0
C


2.1
2.4
11.7


4.0
8.3
9.6
HMOR (MPa) at 1400
0
C (in
N
2
atm)
2.2 3.8





DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM:
The design of refractory for hot gas cyclone is slightly modified because of
refractory failure in cyclone inlet & dome. Upper bin is already eliminated in
the design & also planning to remove lower bin, so both cases refractory is
not discussed. Hot gas cyclone before & after modification shown below.







BEFORE MODIFICATION:


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HOT GAS CYCLONE AFTER MODIFICATION:






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10. SUPPORTING SYSTEM FAILURES


10.1. POWER FAILURE:

THE ACTION GUIDE LINES IN POWER FAILURE:
1) Confirm the power failure of the plant
2) Confirm the O2 cutoff and N2 injection to tuyeres @ 22000 Nm/h.
3) Confirm the following valves are operated to power failure positions
All venturies full open.
All valves in excess gas line open.
Flare valve open.
Plant pressure auto SP 1.2 Bar & ensure pressure is coming down.
All shutoff valves in gas system for coal dryers: close
All LRC valves of scrubber water system close.
All water flow control valves for scrubbers close.
Confirm whether the HIC valves for MCW and stave cooling
water system are open fully and adjust these valves in few steps
depends on levels of head tanks and the temperature of the return
water.
Confirm the emergency generator is running, if not, make it start in
manual and make the loads start in regular order.
The following emergency pumps (hard wired pumps) have to be run
quickly:
1. Inlet cone pumps (2).
2. Gland water pump (1).
3. Stave pump (1).
4. MCW critical pump (1).
5. MCW non-critical pump (1).
6. Start both clarifier rakes from field.
7. Start + 0 meter & venturi Hydraulic pumps.
8. Ensure power for tilting runner.

4) If the tapping is in progress, plant pressure to be maintained with
nitrogen addition.
5) If the level of a scrubber is coming down continuously, nevertheless LRC
valve is closed; the hand valves should be closed to prevent gas leakage.
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6) Confirm FRC2001 is closed after 10 mins to prevent air suction in
reduction shaft.
7) Switch from the emergency power to regular power after recovering the
power failure.
8) Announce the message that regular power will be on for people to
escape from danger places.
9) In process of back of regular power, the power failure will happened once
more; therefore careful action is needed against it.

10.2. O2 & N2 FAILURE:
COREX plant is quickly stopped as the supply of oxygen or nitrogen is
interrupted by the trouble of this supply system. In that case certain flow of
nitrogen is fed in to the Melter gasifier via the tuyeres to establish raceways
in it and prevent flowing backward of slag into the tuyeres within 3 seconds
after plant trip. Preparing for a failure of the O2 main compressor N2 and O2
back up systems is installed. But if the N2 back up system does not work,
nevertheless the O2 plant is tripped, which cause COREX plant to a big
troubles.

REQUIREMENT:
Remarks
NORMAL MAX Emergency
Pressure
Kg/cm3
Rate
Nm3/hr/THM
Oxygen 55000 60000 - 8.5 500-530
Nitrogen
14000 18000
32000
X 30 min
Down insteps
11 95 - 120

10.3. OPERATIONS ACCORDING TO O2 & N2 FAILURE:

1. THE POWER FAILURE AT COREX:
COREX plant will be stopped, but N2 will be supplied by oxygen plant for
purging the COREX plant.

2. TOTAL POWER FAILURE OF OXYGEN PLANT:
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To minimize nitrogen consumption at Corex end during extreme emergency
case like two ASU trips simultaneously, total nitrogen network divided in to
critical & non-critical. All non-critical area nitrogen will be closed during
above period to restrict peak consumption (for stopping both Corex) to
55,000 Nm3/hr.New auto isolation valves in CBS & CDP line & Stock
house line introduced. And also following areas in tower identified as
critical:
1. Seal for Coal Screw
2. Seal for DRI Screw.
3. DRS block valve & disc gates cooling.
4. Oxide charging distributor.
5. Oxide Lower Seal Flap.
6. Radar level indicator.

For the above area nitrogen is provided from high-pressure line to +72 mtr
tank.

To cut-off nitrogen to other areas new SOV is given at +19 mtr after
pressure control valve. And in this case ramping is also faster, In one hour
time total nitrogen consumption to be reduced to 15,000 Nm3/hr.

10.4. OXYGEN & NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS:
1. Nitrogen requirement to Corex at different cases.
Sr.No. Description
Requirement
in Nm3/Hr.
Time in min
1
Both Corex-1 and Corex-2 are
running at normal production rate. 28,000 - 32,000 Continous
2
Corex 1 trip & Corex 2 is
running with normal production
rate 47000 0 to 5
42000 5 to 10
40000 10 to 15
37000 15 to 20
35000 20 to 25
33000 25 to 45
30000 45 to 90

Total quantity required for 0 - 90
minM
50,000 Nm3 (i.e, 63 tons) 22000 till plant start
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3
Both Corex 1 & Corex 2 trip
simuntaneously 64000 0 to 5
58000 5 to 10
54000 10 to 15
50000 15 to 20
40000 20 to 25
34000 25 to 45
30000 45 to 90

Total quantity required for 0 - 90
min
56,000 Nm3 (i.e, 70 tons) 15000 till plant start
4 55000 0 to 5

Both ASU trip simuntaneously &
due to which both corex trips.
50000 5 to 10
EXTREME EMERGENCY 45000 10 to 15
35000 15 to 20

Total quantity required for 0 - 60
min
28350 Nm3. (i.e, 35.5 tons) 25000 20 to 30
20000 30 to 45
15000 45 to 60
10000 till plant start


2.OXYGEN REQUIREMENT (FOR BOTH COREX)
Sr.
No. Description
Requirement in
Nm3/Hr. Time in min
1 Before 1 months of heat - up Full amount
For blow out
& testing
2 Oxygen requirement for one corex 60000 - 63000 Continous
3 Oxygen requirement for both corex.
1,20,000 -
1,25,000 Continous
4
OXYGEN RAMP UP AFTER
RESTART 30,000
Immediately
after start
45,000 0 to 60
55,000 - 60000 60 to 120
60000 - 63000 120 TO 180



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11. REDUCTION SHAFT EMPTYING


11.1. REDUCTION SHAFT EMPTYING: STOP PROCEDURE

Adjust coke rate to ensure Hot-metal temperature in the range of 1480C
to 1520 C.
Aim for Slag Basicity around 1.05, with Al
2
O
3
content 14% max.
Operate the plant with 100 % Essar DR pellets.
Operate the plant with good Coal blend.

12: 00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:

Change ore batch to 30 % HBI/DRI & 70% - pellet.
Charge the coke to RS at 20 % by volume in the oxide feed to the shaft
along with HBI from 12:00 hrs before oxygen stop.

10:00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:

Change ore batch to 70 % HBI/DRI & 30% - pellet.
Charge the coke to RS at 25 % by volume in the oxide feed to the shaft
along with HBI from 10:00 hrs before oxygen stop.


08: 00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:

Start Temp charging to RS, Set top temp to 400 deg.
Increase nitrogen (by opening the hand valve more in the field) to the
lock hopper and charging distributor to maintain the safe temperature
(below 200 C) for the seals.
Change ore batch to 100 - % HBI/DRI.
Start reducing the top gas considering top temp.
Adjust the melting rate to 70 TPH.
Stop gas to the reduction shaft by closing FRC 2001 before 6 hours of
oxygen stop & then stop charging to the shaft.
Adjust slag basicity.
Start reducing bustle gas temp set points to 780 deg in steps.


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04:00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:
Increase the coke rate to 35 % in steps.
Consider discharge volume of DRI screw as 10 - 15 liters higher side
before starting emptying. If one of the DRI screws stops discharging,
increase the speed of the other DRI screws to maintain the required
melting rate.
Gradually cut down on the addition of the iron ore fines to zero.
Keep coal charging on higher side maintain high char bed level before
stopping.

2: 00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:
Once two of the six DRI screws stop discharging HBI from shaft, Charge
few (2 3 batches) of 10 m3 batch of HBI to break / clean the natural
dead man in the shaft.
Stop charging to the coal charging bin at the beginning of the last tap, to
keep the coal charging bin empty.
Empty dust recycling system bins by pushing the dust to the melter
gasifier.
Prepare the plant on time to fill up LRO 1602 to 100 % prior to the last
tap.
Adjust the last tap according to hot metal quantity of the pre ultimate tap
and number of charges put in to the shaft to clean the natural dead man in
the shaft.
Plan the last tap in such a way that the last tap should be at least 150 tons
of hot metal. When only one the five DRI screws are discharging (during
charging Period of destroying the dead man in the shaft), add few more
batches if required to have a minimum of 150 tons of hot metal in the last
tap before oxygen stop

1:00 HRS BEFORE OXYGEN STOP:

Open the tap when at least 2 or 3 screws stops discharging.
Dry the furnace to the maximum possible extent. Reduce plant pressure at
the end to 1.2 bar for better drainage.
Approximately 15 - 20 minutes of the end of the last tap, stop upper coal
screw and maintain plant in operation in order to devolatize the coal and
to avoid degassing of the coal after oxygen stop. Reduce oxygen to the
dust burner if required.
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00:00 HRS STOP OXYGEN AND PURGE THE PLANT:
NOTE:
After oxygen stop, normal ramping / purging starts. After completion of the
purging sequence, proceed with cooling of the plant. Open FRC 2001 to cool
the shaft. Keep plant pressure at 1.2 bar and cooling gas compressor in
operation for 90 minutes. Start decreasing the set point on bustle gas
temperature in steps of 20 deg. C for every 10 minutes. Open slightly FRC
2001 to cool reduction shaft in such a way to maintain the temperature of the
seals below 200 deg. C (TIO7491). [Ref detailed Ramping & purging
procedure].

Stop cooling gas compressor and start depressurizing the plant and prepare
the plant for shut down jobs.

Stop nitrogen to the consumers (by closing the hand valves in the field) in
steps as per the list enclosed. As per shutdown schedule take up the
maintenance jobs.


11.2. REDUCTION SHAFT EMPTYING : START PROCEDURE

Before the start of oxygen, fill up the shaft up to 2 meter below the normal
level to allow proper headroom for inspection of charging distributor feed
legs as per filling recipes.
Charge 20 tons of coke (size 13 40 mm) and limestone mix to the shaft
before Charging the DRI and pellet mix.
Fill up coal charging bin with the coke rate that will be decided based on
the actual Shutdown time. However, as a guideline it will be same as
during stop of the plant.
Pressure test is completed and tuyeres are poked and plant is ready for start.
[To tart pressure test ref normal start procedure].
Before starting pressure test start DRI screws with 0.3rpm.
Start blowing of oxygen with 26 tuyeres with 22000 Nm3 / hr and
increase in steps of 1000 Nm3 / hr every 10 minutes.
Keep tuyere velocity around 190 m / sec.
Check the tuyeres.

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DOME TEMPERATURE > 700 C:

Start dust burner system with 500 Nm3 / hr of oxygen through each dust
burner.
Increase the oxygen in steps to reach dome temperature to 900 deg. C
within 30 minutes.
Start coal screws after discharging entire quantity of coke to MG from
shaft and dome temp is above 950 deg.
Adjust bustle gas temperature around 820 deg. C.
Open top gas flap FRC 2001 and adjust specific top gas flow at 800
Ncum / t DRI. Increase in steps top gas flow to 1200 N cum / t DRI.


1 HR AFTER FEEDING DRI TO MELTER GASIFIER:
Increase melting rate to 40 tons / hour and keep specific oxygen to the
tuyeres at 700 Nm3/thm.
Open nitrogen to inliners and to down pipes.


APPROXIMATELY AFTER 3.5 HOURS:
Perform first tap, 3.5 hours after blowing of oxygen.
Decrease coke rate and keep around 25 % considering the hot metal
temperature.
Start Changing DRI Pellet as per recipe.
Achieve melting rate of 70 TPH before tap.
Increase melting rate to 80 TPH in steps if the tap is good.
Change the coal batch considering the tap analysis.
Increase pellet mix in steps as per the annexure. (Consider the tap
analysis before reducing the DRI percentage in the oxide line)
Adjust the specific top gas flow considering inburden temperatures of
shaft.
Increase melting rate in steps as per the annexure.
Decrease coke rate and keep around 20 % considering the hot metal
temperature.
Aim for stabilizing the process and also go for normal raw material
blends.


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RS EMPTYING GUIDELINE CHART


Step Activity
Time
for
O2
stop
in
hours MR
Sp O2
tuyers
FRC
8001
Dust
Burner
O2
Total
oxygen SpTG
TRC
2411-
2414
Matl
charged
TO RS
Matl
discharged
from RS
Total matl
remaining
in RS
1
Start RS
reciepeNo.2 12 100 365 36500 16000 52500 1060 830 580
2 11 100 365 36500 16000 52500 1040 830 580
3
Start RS
reciepeNo.1 10 100 365 36500 16000 52500 980 830 580
4 9 100 365 36500 16000 52500 850 825 580
5
START RS
EMPTY 8 75 440 33000 15000 48000 700 820 30 80 530
6 7 75 413 31000 14000 45000 0 810 0 80 450
7 6 75 400 30000 12000 42000 800 0 80 370
8
Start
increasing
coke to MG 5 75 400 30000 12000 42000 790 0 80 290
9 4 75 400 30000 12000 42000 780 0 80 210
10 3 75 400 30000 12000 42000 770 0 80 130
11 2 70 414 29000 10000 39000 760 0 70 60
12 1 65 431 28000 10000 38000 750 30 60 30
13 O2 STOP 0 0 30 0

NOTE:1) As there is no TG flow during emptying,screw discharge may increase by 10-20 ltr/rev.

2)Monitor RS wall temp,diff pressure ctc and adjust the screw speed as per required MR.

3)Gradually build up MG level to ensure sufficient level before plant stop.







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12. IRREGULARITIES IN COREX PROCESS AND
THEIR REMEDIES

The irregularities in COREX operation may arise either of the
followings:
Due to faulty mechanical devices like valve, coolers.
Due to faulty Mechanical operation like tapping, charging.
Due to abnormal process occurring inside the furnace with respect to
Physico-Chemical changes in the charge.

12.1. SHAFT HANGING:
If uniform descent of the burden in the furnace is interrupted either by
wedging or bridging of the stock or by scaffolding, it is known as
hanging. It is in fact caused by different reasons:

Bridging of Ore / Pellets / DRI particles in the vicinity of coke particles
which disturb the smooth ascend of the burden and uniform flow of gas
across the reduction shaft. The material discharge from shaft to Melter
gasifier is not uniform, means each batch discharge will take different time.


THE FOLLOWING ARE THE OBSERVATION MADE DURING
SHAFT HANGING:
Sluggish movements of the Batch /charges
High top gas temperature
Non uniform and low In burden temperatures
High Differential Pressure across the shaft and Below bustle
Reduced screw discharge
Poor metallization and Calcinations in the Reduction shaft

REMEDIES:
Remove the Iron Ore [soft ore] from the oxide batch and reduce the gas
flow to the shaft.
Reduce the melting rate add some percentage of coke to over come the
cold spell and drainage problem.
Increase the coke volume in the shaft and observe for the uniform
distribution of gas.
Closely monitor the DRI screw pressure, Purge the screws, which are
taking more discharge, pressure with nitrogen to keep screws in operation,
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otherwise there may be the possibility of stoppage of the Screws with high
discharge pressure.

12.2. SLIPPING:
Slipping is defined as sudden sinking of the stock caused by collapse of the
hanging, welding, scaffold, etc. In short it is the aftermath of these
irregularities. In severe cases slipping causes chilling of the hearth. The
best remedy is to allow the furnace to slip on its own by Adjustment of the
gas flow and pressure.

12.3. CHANNELING:
Preferential flow of ascending gases through certain areas of the burden,
because of their relatively much Better permeability is known as channeling
since this passages appears as channels. This basically arises because of
improper distribution and wide size range of the charge in the furnace.

Use of a more uniformly sized burden and proper distribution of charge can
minimize this. Channeling Otherwise reduces the effective cross section of
the furnace for gas-solid interaction and thereby decreases the productivity
directly.

12.4. CHILLED HEARTH:
This is very serious disorder since it affects the drainage of hot metal and slag
adversely. The temperature of hot metal and slag will go down. It affects the
poor slag drainage due to low temperature in turn it affects the production
rate.

IT MAY DUE TO THE FOLLOWING REASONS:
The change in the input raw material quality.
Poor slag drainage in the last tap.
Delay in tap opening due to some other problem.
Water leakages from tuyeres area.
Low metallized burden hit to the tuyeres.
Dislodging of the skull from its position, falling in to tuyeres area.
Wrong mix up in the burden charge, e.g.: Ore charged in place of coke.




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REMEDIES:
Charge more coke to keep furnace in hot condition.
Reduce the melting rate by reducing the oxygen through the tuyere.
Check the burden mix and change in the raw material quality.
Take more raw material samples for chemical and physical analysis.
Check the performance of the shaft. Improve the condition of the shaft,
Metallization and In burden temperature.
Prepare the cast house as fast as possible, check the tuyeres brightness
Continuously.
Take out the fine material from coal charge, iron ore fines.
Try to take all the slag in to the SGP. Keep slag dry pits empty for worst
situation.

12.5. GENERATOR GAS DUCT (GGD) JAMMING:
The Melter Gasifier is having four gas outlets [ducts] and there are chances of
chocking of these ducts below the cooling gas addition point. This is across
the cross section of generator gas duct.

This may be observed in any one of the GGDs or more than one number at
any given point of time. But most of the time GGD blockages occur at same
location in the generator gas duct. This may be due to the high volatile
matter in the coal or may be due to the low dome temperature operation. The
jamming starts at slower rate at the neck position of the generator gas duct,
but it will grow at faster rate as it gets more surface area for settling and
develops in to a larger size across the cross section of the duct and finally
block the gas passage.

FOLLOWINGS ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF GGD JAMMING:
Gas load on other generator gas ducts will increase and in tern more
cooling gas is to be added to the duct in other ducts.
Localize temperature on each duct may increase than the normal
temperature, if cooling gas addition is not sufficient / proper.
Chance for gas channeling, will drop the metallization and affect the In-
burden temperature.
Differential pressure of shaft will rise.
Screw discharge pressure will go high.



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REMEDIES:
Reduce the Melting rate [production rate] to have a better control over
furnace operation. Reduce the plant pressure by 0.5 bar [3.5 bar to 3 bar].
Check the local shell temperature on the cooling gas addition duct.
Check the total cooling gas addition to the each generator gas duct and
load on the CGC, accordingly adjust the process parameter.
Increase the nitrogen flow to the each dust burner injector to have positive
dust flow towards furnace [say 200 Nm3/hr to 400 Nm3/hr].
Change the charging mix; adjust the coal blend for better operational
parameter control and to improve the furnace condition.
In worst condition like two GGD block, Plant has to be put down for
GGD cleaning, otherwise it will further deteriorate the shaft condition.

12.6. RED SPOT ON MG SHELL:
Over the period of operation Melter Gasifier refractory may get eroded and
MG shell will get exposed to the furnace gas, resulting in hot spots on the
MG shell. It may be localized one or it may spread through out the
circumference or some parts on the circumference of the MG shell,
depending on stave refractory conditions.

The experience from other plants is showing the refractory damage in front of
Row number 5 and 6 which led to hot spots on the MG shell. By maintaining
certain operational parameters it is possible to form the skull over stave walls,
but there is always a chance that this skull get re melted due to peripheral
flow of gases due to drop in char bed permeability and once again may cause
hot spots.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Close the tuyeres, which are below the shell showing high temperature, and
also reduce the melting rate by reducing the oxygen through the tuyeres.
Maintain the maximum possible velocity through the tuyeres. Close
monitoring of stave water temperature is required (deltaT).
Control of fines in the input raw material to the Melter gasifier.
Maintain the top char bed about 80%.
Proper slag drainage to maintain dry hearth.
Furnace to be run hotter for better drainage.
Stable operation of furnace.
Ramping up of the melting rate shall be at a slow pace.

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If shell temperature reaches to red hotness temperature, it may require
stopping the plant if not controlled by reducing the oxygen through the
tuyeres. Mist cooling and nitrogen cooling arrangement is required to cool
the shell.

12.7. TUYERE BURNING:
The burning of tuyeres can occur due to following reason:
High fusion point viscous slag, which is formed above the tuyeres level
Dislodging of the skull from its position and falling in to the char bed
causing splash the slag on to the tuyeres, resulted in burning of number of
tuyeres at a time.
Change over from Oxygen to Nitrogen shall be smooth; otherwise slag /
metal may enter in to the tuyeres and will damage the tuyeres.

Improper hot metal and slag drainages of the furnace.

THE USUAL REMEDIES ARE:
Make fluid / less viscous slag. Adjust the basicity of slag.
Improving the quality of the raw material.
Use low alkali burden and making same thin and acidic slag if the alkali
content is high in the burden.
Eliminating channeling or preferential flow.
Ensuring smooth change over of nitrogen from oxygen.
Ensure good drainage of hot metal and slag

12.8. WATER LEVEL ABNORMALITIES IN THE SCRUBBERS:
Each scrubber is provided with three continuous level measurements that are
bubbler type instruments. The average of these three is taken for the control
of the scrubber level control that is controlled by a two-range split control
valve. The control valve is consisting of one ball valve (DN 250) and one
Butterfly valve (DN400), which operate with pneumatic actuators.

The scrubbers are usually set for its control at about 50% level and any
failure to maintain this level may cause the failure of water seal in the
scrubbers and gas can pass through the water discharge lines of the
scrubbers which is highly dangerous.

Causes for abnormalities of scrubber level:
The level abnormality can be either on higher side or lower side.
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The abnormalities can be due to errors in measurement or malfunctioning
of the control valves

CASE1: POSSIBLE ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS:
- Check whether all three are equal in range. If any one is abnormal,
take it to maintenance mode and get it flushed / purged by
instrumentation

CASE 2: POSSIBLE MALFUNCTIONING OF THE CONTROL
VALVE:
- Check the outputs for the individual valves and their position feed
back
- If there is any abnormality with the position of the valve, check the
position in the field for its air, valve positioner etc. If every thing
looks normal, then the valve is assumed to be struck and in such case
the control of the level can be shifted to the single valve by closing the
manual valve in the line of the struck control valve. This operation
requires special co ordination from field and control room to ensure
that the isolation is trouble free.

LOW LEVEL IN THE SCRUBBERS:
This can cause the gas to rush in the clarifier and pump house, which is
highly dangerous, and in this case all the people must be made alert and area
should be evacuated. Only the trained people with suitable safety apparatus
are allowed to co-ordinate from the field and all efforts must be put to bring
the level in the scrubbers to normal at the earliest.

12.9. JAMMING OF DRS:
The effective recycling of dust back into the system and burning in the MG
has huge impact not only on the process of COREX, but also on the
surroundings, environment and people working. So it should be desired to
see that the all four lines are running effectively. With any one line down we
may be able to continue till an opportunity shutdown, but will have a bearing
on all as specified above.

Effect of down dust line on the process:
- Increased dust load in reducing gas effecting the performance of
Reduction shaft
- Increased coke and fuel rates resulting high cost of production
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- Increased sludge load and sludge disposal problems

In normal operation, the dust settled in HGC is down charged in to the
melter gasifier through T- piece. From T- piece injected into the burner and
burnt with oxygen. So it is important to see that the process of this dust
injection is smooth and continuous without building any dead levels either in
HGC or Dust lines. Thus dust is discharged in open mode i.e. keeping the
disc gate continuously open. But if any abnormality is found in the line like
high temperature of the dust, high skin temperatures or any sluggishness in
the dust discharge, the system can be operated in semi batch mode i.e.
operate the Disc gate according to the level in cyclone.

The indications for the flow of dust are the differential pressure across the
dust burner and temperature in the dust line, T-piece and the levels in the
HGC. so any sluggishness in the dust line can be identified from the above
indications and some basic steps may be followed to prevent the total
jamming of the dust lines.

STEPS TO AVOID THE JAMMING OF LINES:
CASE I: DUST DISCHARGE FROM HGC IS SLUGGISH:
INDICATIONS:
1. Level rise in HGC
2. Drop in dust temperature
3. No differential pressure across the Horizontal portion
REMEDIES:
1) Check the position of the Automatic and Manual shut off valves
2. Try nitrogen fluidizing

CASE 2: BLOCKAGE IN HORIZONTAL LINE
INDICATIONS:
1. Pressure rise in Dust Line and possible failure of Nitrogen injection
due to Inter lock with Pressure in Dust Line
2. Drop in dust temperature
3. Max. differential pressure across the Horizontal portion
4. Subsequent level rise in HGC.

REMEDIES:
1. Stop Oxygen to the dust burner and Nitrogen injection
2. Close manual shut off valve above T-piece.
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3. Open the knife gate valve in the coarse particle discharge line at
+21m.
4. Flush the horizontal potion two three times with given nitrogen valves

If the line could not be revived from its horizontal line blockage, then
nitrogen injector will have to be stopped and Block valve is to be kept closed
keeping the nitrogen SOV in front of the Burner open. In this case oxygen to
the burner may be given at less than the normal flow and the line will have
to be cleared in an opportunity shut down.

12.10. DRI SCREW STOPPAGES:
COREX process has experienced many times the stoppage of DRI screws
which will have a bearing on the performance of the Reduction shaft and as
a whole on the process.

The screws are run by Hydraulic motors and are variable speed to control the
discharge of DRI feed to MG. Hydraulic pressure of the pumps is indication
of the load on the screws. In normal operating conditions, pressure may be in
range of 80 to 110 bar. Any thing above that requires a special attention and
nitrogen flow through the Screw nozzles should be increased to reduce the
load on the screw.



VARIOUS REASONS FOR THE STOPPAGE OF DRI SCREWS:
- Blockage of DRI down pipe
- High dust load in Reducing gas
- High specific amount of Top gas
- High temperatures in the reduction shaft causing cluster formation
- Air penetration into the process during any shutdown causing fusion
of the DRI
- Any foreign material like metal pieces, Refractory pieces etc.
- Bearing failure of the screw

The stoppage of any screw can be judged from the profile / Trend of the
hydraulic pressure.
If the pressure rise is gradual, it could be due to blockage of DRI down pipe
in which case nitrogen purging may help to revive the screw while the plant
is in operation.
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If the pressure rise is very sudden, it could be due to any obstructions with
foreign material or clusters in between the screw paddles.

REVIVAL PROCEDURES OF DRI SCREWS WHILE THE PLANT
IN OPERATION:
- Purge the screw nozzles with Nitrogen
- Try to run the screw from field in both forward and reverse directions
- Observe the movement of the screw and if it is not encouraging, stop
further trials
If the screw could not be revived online, it may be tried during shutdown
with all safety precaution in place.



























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13. CAST HOUSE

13.1. INTRODUCTION:
Once COREX is in operation the accumulated liquid metal and slag needs to
be taken out periodically. This is done in cast house and process in called
tapping.
Cast house is where tapping is carried out to take out the hot metal and slag
from the furnace using drilling machine and after draining out of estimated
amount of hot metal and slag mud Gun is used for tap hole closing. The hot
metal will flow through refractory lined trough (Main iron runner and Tilting
runner) in to the ladles placed on track at ground level. These ladles are
refractory lined steel vessel of 140 t capacity used for transportation of hot
metal to steel melting shop. The slag that is lighter than hot metal will float
above and get separated near main runner skimmer & taken in to slag
granulation plant through the slag runner. In case of heavy flow or Slag
Granulation Plant is not ready to take slag then slag is diverted in to Slag
Dry Pits.
COREX is having TWO number of Cast house, one granulation plant and
two Slag Dry pits of 600 tons (SLAG) capacity each. The runner is
refractory lined; it will get eroded after certain amount of hot metal is
tapped. In COREX relining of main runner is usually done after 90,000 to
100000 tons of hot metal produced through the runner, which depends on
how best main runner is managed like Cast house operation, Hot metal and
slag Quality, Quality of refractory, Drainage rate, Clay quality, Proper
scheduling for minor repair of running trough along with stand by cast
house.
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRE REQUISITE FOR TROUBLE
FREE TAPPING:
Constant tap hole length.
Controlled erosion in the tap hole with hot metal and slag.
Even delivery speed of hot metal stream
No turbulence in the stream at the tap hole exit.
Smooth opening and closing of the tap hole.

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To achieve the above results on a regular basis continuously, it is required to
have a total system approach. It should start right from the day-to-day
operation of the furnace, material design and proper application technology.

The temperature and composition of the hot metal varies from plant to plant.
Higher temperature and specially the Si content of the hot metal affects the
performance of tap hole clay adversely

The Tapping rate of iron and slag is determined by (tons /minute):
Tap hole diameter.
Tap hole length.
The thickness of the molten iron and slag layer (level)
Plant pressure.
In order to obtain a longer tapping time the erosion of tap hole diameter due
to abrasive action of metal and slag at high temperature, to be reduced. This
should be with ensured long tap hole length.

Material design for tap hole mass has undergone a radical change. Both
siliceous and aluminous aggregate are used along with various additives and
binders. Phenolic resins, tar, various oils are used as binders along with
Carbides (SIC) and /or nitrides (SiN) as additives. Carbides and Nitrides
imparts corrosion and abrasive resistance properties where as it also
improves sinter ability of the mix.

Slight expansion has been recognized as desirable property. It may please be
noted that SiC gets oxidized both under oxidizing and reducing atmosphere.

SiC+2FeO SiO2 + Fe + C -----------(1)
FeO+C Fe + CO (g) --------------(2)

SiC + CO SiO+2C --------------------(3).
SiO+CO Si+CO2 --------------------(4)

The last reactions are associated with volume expansion that may be
beneficial for maintaining the tap hole diameter.



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TROUGH:
The performance of trough also will depend on:
Nature of the material and its characteristics.
Design and Engineering of the trough.
Operational Parameters.
The type of construction of main trough plays an important role in deciding
the trough life and its availability. Particularly important is the bottom slope
which determines the flow rate of Iron / Slag in the trough which determines
the erosion rate of refractory lining. Also related to the slope is the height of
pool available at impact area of trough, which cushions impact energy of
falling stream during tapping. Presence of such a pool determines the
condition of refractory lining at the impact zone. Based on Slope, three
types of main troughs design are in practice.

A) WET RUNNER/POOLING RUNNER/NON-DRAINABLE
TROUGH:
This trough holds molten metal even after tapping and only for inspection of
refractory lining condition it is drained out. All large capacity furnaces opt
for this type of trough for faster evacuation of hot metal.
B) SEMI WET TROUGH:
Such a trough has relatively high slope of 3 % and so wear pattern both on
bottom and sidewall Refractory linings. Also, the height of pool is low at
the impact zone and so the wear at that area is also high.
C) DRY/NON POOLING TROUGH
The slope is generally more than 5% and the iron stream directly hits
refractory lining. The wear in such trough is much more in bottom and imp-
act area. Such troughs are common with Blast furnace of low volume.
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13.2. COREX CAST HOUSE PRACTICE:
MAIN IRON TROUGH.
HOT METAL RUNNER. RUNNERS
TILTING RUNNER
DRAINAGE RUNNER
SLAG RUNNER
SLAG GRANULATION PLANT.
CAST HOUSE DEDUCTING.
DRILLING MACHINE.
MUD GUN.
HYDRAULIC POWER PACK



NO OF CAST HOUSES : 02
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NO OF TAP HOLES : 02
TAP HOLE ANGLE : 3 DEG.
MAIN IRON RUNNER ANGLE : 5 DEG.
RUNNER LINING : CASTABLE

CAST HOUSE PRACTICE:
HOT METAL PRODUCTION/DAY : 2600 MT *2
NO. OF TAPPINGS /DAY : 09 10 PER MODULE
HOT METAL TEMPERATURE : 1500 20 C
HOT METAL ANALYSIS : Si 0.5 to 0.8 & S 0.04
SLAG B2 : 1.10

TAPPING PRACTICES:
- SINGLE TAPHOLE OPERATION.
- TWIN TAPHOLE OPERATION.
TAPPING DURATION:
TAP OPEN TO CLOSE : AROUND ONE HOUR
TAP CLOSE TO OPEN : 1 Hr. TO 1 Hr. 30 Min
(DEPENDS ON THE MELTING
RATE)
RUNNER LIFE : 90,000 100000 tons through put.
REFRACTORY CONSUMPTION : 0.42 - 0.45 Kg/THM
13.3. CAST HOUSE RUNNER REFRACTORY:
CAST HOUSE RUNNER REFRACTORY:

MAIN IRON RUNNER : ACCMON 16SC GEL (ACC) &
CASTON AT 390 (VIL)
HOTMETAL RUNNER : ACCMON 16SC GEL (ACC) &
CASTON AT 190(VIL)
TILTING RUNNER : ACCMON 16SC GEL (ACC) &
CASTON AT 190 (VIL)
DRAINAGE RUNNER : ACCMON 16SC GEL (ACC) &
CASTON AT 190 (VIL)
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SLAG RUNNER : ACCMON 16 SC B (ACC)

CAST HOUSE RUNNER REFRACTORY:
TYPES OF REPAIRS: MAJOR REPAIR DURATION 72 Hrs.
MINOR REPAIR DURATION 8-24 Hrs.

SCHEDULE FOR MAJOR REPAIR:
COOLING & CLEANING : 04 Hrs
BREAKING : 16 Hrs
TEMPLATE FIXING : 04 Hrs
CASTING : 04 Hrs
SETTING : 06 Hrs
TEMPLATE REMOVAL : 01 Hrs
SKIMMER FIXING : 01 Hrs
SLOW HEATING : 12 Hrs
FULL HEATING : 24 Hrs




CAST HOUSE REFRACTORY:
TAPHOLE CLAY : ANHYDROUS TAP HOLE CLAY
CLAY CONSUMPTION : 1.35 Kg/ THM
MUD GUN HOLDING TIME : 30 MIN.
SUPPLIERS : VVEL, HI-TECH & UBIQUE

MASS COMPOSITION:
CHEMICAL:
Al2O3 :55 60%
C :16 18 %
SiC + Si3N4 :15 17 %
OTHERS : REST
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PHYSICAL
VM : 7 8 %
BD : 2.1 2.25 g/cc
GRAIN SIZE : 0-3.5 mm

13.4. PREPARATION BEFORE TAP OPENING:
Checking of clay gun and Drilling machine:
1. Clay Gun:
Check all signal lamps.
Check if any sticker material is remained in the-nozzle.
Check the oil level in the tank.
Check the temperature of oil.
Check the actuating status of motor.

2. Tap hole opener (Drilling machine):
Check the condition of Air Pressure.
Check the status of each actuating part.
Check the chain tension.
Check the carriage movement.
Check the chain for its smooth movement.
Check all air lines for any leakage.

3. Tap hole:
Check for any gas leakage around the tap hole.
Check for any sticked material is remained on the runner and to the
tap hole mouth.
Check for any water leakage is appeared around the tap hole.

4. Each Runner:
Check the main iron trough condition.
Check the slag runner condition.
Check the for sand dressing in slag runner.
Check for any crack at the joint between tap hole and main runner.

5. Tilting Runner:
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Check the bottom refractory condition in tilting runner.
Check for any crack in the refractory lining in the tilting runner.
Check for any jam remained in side the tilting runner.
Check the tilting operation of tilting runner.

6. Tapping Material and consumption:
Mud gun clay : 0.3 tons /tap
Lance pipe size : 2 pipes (8 mm)/ tap
Drill rod + Bit : 1 number / tap.
Mud gun nozzle :
River bed sand :
Long shovels : as operation requirement.

13.5. TAP OPENING & CLOSING PROCEDURE:
1. DECIDE THE SUITABLE TIME FOR TAP OPENING:
Tap closing to tap opening time is mainly depends on melting rate.
Tap opening time is varied from normal time of opening of tap
depends upon the followings.
- Previous tap drainage status.
- Quality of hot metal and slag, Temperature and Chemistry.
- Melter gasifier performance.
- Shut down preparation.


2. DRILLING PROCEDURE:
Fix the Rod having drill bit in to the Check.
Take the Tap hole opener to the tap hole face and mark the center for
tap hole, it will set the direction for tap hole which connects the hot
metal.
If the center is posed correctly, Drill the tap hole up to 200 mm less
than last tap hole length.
By appearing spray and molten Braking from the tap hole, take back
the Tap hole opener to parking position.
Replace ROD with iron bar and open the tap by using bar.
THE MEASUREMENT OF TAP HOLE LENGTH:
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Tap hole length is measured from the scale, which is position on to the tap
hole opener. Each division in the scale is equivalent to the one tenth of the
meter. Maximum length can be read from this scale is 2.7 meters.

3. PROCEDURE FOR TAKING HOT METAL TEMPERATURE:
Insert tip into hot metal ("Yellow" light indicates rising temperature,
Red light and buzzer indicates dip completed).
Remove tip from hot metal.
Observe the Temperature from cast house display board.
Time is recorded from the control room.

4. PROCEDURE FOR TAKING SAMPLE FOR HOT METAL AND
SLAG:
Prepare sample mould
Clean waste material from mould surface (Ensure clean surface)
Prepare sample spoon.
Remove adhering metal or metal skull from spoon.
Position spoon over metal runner (warm up the spoon to remove
moisture).
Collect the hot metal from runner in to the dry spoon and Pour it in to
the mould.
Pour excess metal from spoon into metal runner.
Remove sample from the mould. Cool the sample and send to
laboratory for analysis.
Repeat the above for taking anther sample.
5. PLUGGING THE TAP HOLE:
Plugging time can be estimated by considering the melting rate, tap
speed, and tap-to-tap time, but normally final decision of tap hole
plugging is done after draining of the estimated amount of metal and
slag from the furnace.
Check the erosion of tap hole and drainage status of molten metal and
slag. Especially, tap hole erosion is a critical view point to decide
plugging.
Check the gas coming out from tap hole. If it more it indicates that
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hearth is got emptied.
Estimate the time, of plugging with considering the amount of slag is
drained from furnace.

6. EMERGENCY PLUGGING:
When the molten metal starts overflow from runner.
When Drain hole got break out.
When the operation of tilting runner got failed.
When the continuous tapping is impossible due to the tap hole erosion
And heavy metal and slag flow.
When the un-controlled char rush in to the runner.

PREPARATION FOR NEXT TAP:
Cover the main runner with rice husk to reduce the heat loss from metal
runner.
Check for the erosion of sand in the slag runner and the jam in the slag
runner, cleaning of the slag runner jam and dressed with sand.
Take out the clay gun after 30 minutes back to the parking position,
check the main iron trough condition.
Empty out the clay gun barrel, Cooling the mud gun barrel, Check the
clay gun nozzle and replace it with new one if necessary, check for the
reducer jam.
Cleaning the main trough and tap hole mouth, by taking out the jams and
dressing of the runner with sand.
Check the drilling machine by operating carriage and rotation. Insert the
new drill rod and prepare drilling machine for next tap.
Fill the clay gun with clay and take the tap hole impression to make
proper tap hole center.
Check for ladle placement, minimum three ladles are to be placed.

13.6. ABNORMALITIES & REMEDIES:
1. TAP CLOSE FAILURE:
A. REASON FOR FAILURE:
Breakout in front of tap hole.
Sticked material at tap hole mouth.
Delay in pushing the mass (operating of the clay gun Ram).
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Clay gun failed to operate.
B. COUNTER MEASURES:
Safe guard the clay gun by taking it in to parking position.
Reduce the system pressure from control room.
In case of nozzle damage replace clay gun nozzle with new one.
Place more ladles and carefully operate the Tilting Runner.

2. EROSION OF TAP HOLE:
A. REASON FOR FAILURE:
Due to bad Quality of clay.
Wrong adjustment of tap hole center.
B. COUNTER MEASURES:
If tapping is not under control, close the Tap immediately.
Reduce system pressure for better control over the tapping.
Enhance the supervising about tilting runner operation.
When there is over flowing of molten material in main runner, plug
the tap hole Immediately.
After complete plugging, repair tap hole and remove sticking material
in main iron runner.

3. SELF-OPENING:
A. REASON FOR FAILURE:
Improper closing of tap hole.
Bad quality of mass, its setting time should not be more than 30
minutes.
B. COUNTER MEASURES:
Place one emptier ladle.
Reduce the Plant pressure and check the clay gun nozzle, if required
change with new one.
Fill the clay gun with other clay.
Close the tap; ten minutes after closing of the tap normalize the
plant pressure.
Other cast house should be kept ready for change over if required.

4. EXPLOSION IN TAP HOLE:
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A. REASON FOR FAILURE:
In case of in sufficient heating up of clay in the tap hole due to less
setting time for clay before tap opening.(wet clay).

B. COUNTER MEASURES
Before tapping, repeat movement of bar inward and backward
about 3 times to vent the gas and to open the tape hole.

In case of taping with oxygen, catch the pipe tightly as long as
possible. Safety precautions to be taken before tap opening.




























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14. WATER SYSTEM

14.1. INTRODUCTION:
Water in an industry, as in case of living beings, is the lifeline. It is used
mainly for cooling, cleaning and consumption (drinking water as well as
process feed). Water being a scarce resource, the lookout of every design
engineer is to have a water system that is efficient with optimum
consumption. At the same time, as responsible citizens, one must return the
excess or wastewater to the environment with a safe and non-polluting
chemistry. In the COREX process, water is used for cooling and cleaning.
The design of sludge handling system and effluent treatment system ensures
our compliance to the environment.

Broadly, the water system in COREX is divided into four types:
- The closed circuit systems- The water here recycles for cooling various
items without any loss or evaporation. The heat is transferred to the
secondary system at the end of the circulation process.
- Secondary systems- These, as mentioned earlier cool the closed circuit
systems. The heat is ultimately given to the atmosphere by cooling
towers.
- Process Water and sludge handling- This is the gas cleaning and sludge
disposal system of the COREX gas. Water is used to scrub and cool the
COREX gas from reduction shaft and Melter gasifier. Clarifiers in the
return circuit remove the sludge and the water is re-circulated after
cooling in a cooling tower.
- Raw water based systems- The consist of the gland water and the
miscellaneous water system

A make up water system supplies make up to each of the above systems. In
addition to the systems mentioned above, the slag granulation plant also has
a slag granulation water system, details of which are covered under slag
granulation system.

The figure in next page shows the various water systems.
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CLOSE CIRCUIT SYSTEMS:
Close circuit systems supply water to cool various machineries. The water
comes in direct contact with the machinery during this process. Raw or
untreated water may leave deposits on the machinery or cause corrosion
during this process. This may reduce the heat transfer efficiency or cause
damage to the equipment. To avoid this, soft water with anti corrosion
treatment is circulated in the system. Soft water is one in which calcium and
magnesium ions are replaced with soluble sodium ions.












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The general close circuit design is as in the following figure:



The systems start at the re-circulation pumps which supply water to their
respective consumers. The water, during normal operation, after cooling the
machinery comes back to a mechanical filter. Filtered water passes on to
heat exchangers, where the heat is passed on to the secondary system. The
water then reaches back to the recirculation pump suction.

The system has built in features to protect the process during power failure,
stoppage of circulation pumps or similar emergencies. Refer to the figure
above.
- Each system has an emergency tank which stores water for about 15
minute circulation volumes. During power failure, the HIC valve
comes to an open position (This valve is a fail open valve, meaning in
fail condition i.e, failure of power, compressed air or signal, it
automatically comes to open position). The water flows from the
tank, enters the bottom of the consumers, comes out at top and drains
out into the emergency pond. Non-return valve (NRV-1 in the figure)
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ensures that water always enters the consumers from the bottom. To
decrease the path of water travel a short circuit line is provided
between the inlet and outlet paths. The non return valve (NRV-2 in
the figure) in this line prevents the recirculation pump water from
circulating through this line.
- Before the tank gets empty, the diesel generator takes a start and the
emergency pump comes into operation. This now circulates the water
in the emergency pond through the consumers, HIC and back to the
pond.
- As system is normalized, the emergency pond also fills up the
emergency tank
- A jockey pump fills up the tank against minor leakages during routine
operation.

There are three systems under the closed circuit system:
- Machine cooling water critical- This provides water for cooling of
tuyeres, dust burners and Melter gasifier
- Machine cooling water non-critical- This provides water for various other
equipment as listed in the diagram below
- Staves cooling water- This provides water for cooling hearth bottom of
the Melter gasifier and staves.

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS:
CRITICAL NON-
CRITICAL
STAVES REMARKS
TOTAL FLOW 750 m/h 500 m/h 2000m/h
OVERHEAD
TANK
HOLDING
VOLUME
50 m 30 m 80 m Stave overhead
tank is pressurized
to 2.5 bar with
Nitrogen *
SUPPLY
TEMPERATURE
36 C
42 C
36 C
42 C
36C
44C

SUPPLY
PRESSURE
11.20 bar 11.20 bar 12 bar
PUMP
CAPACITY
750 m/h
1 working +
1 standby
500 m/h
1 working +
1 standby
1000 m/h
2 working +
1 standby


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Stave tanks, as it is placed at +43m platform is at lower height when
compared with Critical and non-critical tank, which are at +72m platform.
Hence, in order to ensure that gas does not enter the water pipes during a
leakage, the stave tanks are additionally pressurized by nitrogen to 2.5 bar.

It may be clarified here that the naming of non-critical system is a misnomer
as all the three systems are equally critical. The entire COREX process trips
if any one of the systems trips.
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The closed circuit systems in the COREX process are truly closed circuit,
i.e. there is no leakage or water loss during normal operation. The level
indicators provided in the tank are sensitive enough to detect a minimum
0.3% loss. Hence these readings are used to detect any possible burning in
tuyeres, staves and other equipment.
SECONDARY SYSTEM:
Secondary system is used to extract the heat of the close circuit systems at
the plate heat exchangers. The water is cooled in cooling tower and recycled.
Apart from this, the system also supplies water to the air conditioning units
of the main control buildings. The following figure shows the circuit of the
secondary system.


THE SECONDARY SYSTEM HAS TWO SUBSYSTEMS:
- The first one cools water from the Machine cooling non-critical and stave
cooling water system. It also supplies water to the AC systems. This has
a concrete cooling tower
- The second one cools water from the critical water system. This has an
FRP cooling tower.

Unlike the closed circuit systems, this system uses industrial water as the
circulating medium. The system has evaporation at the cooling tower, due
to which, the salt concentrations increase in water. This is prevented from
increasing to dangerous levels by blowing down a controlled amount of
water and diluting the salts by taking fresh intake of make up water (which
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has lower concentration of salts). The blow-down water is taken as a feed to
the process water system. To remove the small amount of dirt brought in by
the industrial water, a by-pass filter is provided. A by-pass filter pump
supplies the water to the filter, which, as it gets clogged with sludge,
backwashes it. The backwash water flows to a drain from where it is
collected in a sump and put in the clarifier of process water system.

The water in the secondary system is treated against corrosion, scale
deposition and bio-growth.

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS:
SECONDARY-
MAIN
SECONDARY -
CRITICAL
TOTAL FLOW 2400 m/h 600 m/h
POND
HOLDING VOLUME
1000 m 600 m
SUPPLY
TEMPERATURE
Max:- 60C
Min:- 33C
Max:- 60C
Min:- 33C
SUPPLY
PRESSURE
3.2 bar 2.7 bar
PUMP CAPACITY 760m/h
3 working + 1
standby
330 m/h
working + 1 standby













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14.2. GLAND WATER & MISCELLANEOUS WATER SYSTEM:



The gland water system and the miscellaneous water system take feed from
the raw water pond.


GLAND WATER SYSTEM:

The gland arrangements in the pumps proved sealing between the rotating
shaft and the static housing. Sealing is provided by gland ropes. The heat
generated during the process will burn the ropes if not cooled. Normally, a
portion of the pump discharge water is tapped to provide for gland cooling.
However, this water is not suitable if it has impurities. They may block the
cooling path or get between the seal and shaft and cause scoring. External
gland cooling needs to be given for such pumps. In COREX process, the
process water pumps are such ones. The gland cooling systems supply water
to the gland for all process water and sludge handling pumps. No treatment
is given to this water.





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MISCELLANEOUS WATER SYSTEM:

The water from miscellaneous water system has no designated user. The
water may be used for various purposes like floor cleaning, spraying, minor
cooling etc. Tapings from this system are given to each floor of COREX
tower and all shops in the COREX system. The water may be used for any
small and unplanned requirement. No treatment is given to this water.




























Flow, m/h Pressure, bar Remarks
GLAND WATER PUMP 50 10 1 working, 1std. by
MISCELLENAOUS 50 8 1 working
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PUMP HOUSE LAYOUT:





































PUMPS DETAILS WITH RESPECT TO PONDS AT PUMP HOUSE:
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PUMP DETAILS WITH RESPECT TO SERVICES
EMERGENCY POND
CAPACIT
Y
PRESSU
RE
TEMPER
ATURE
SERVICE TAG NO.
(m3/hr) (bar)
Max/Min
(
0
C)
LIQUID
JOCKY PUMP 822P07 10 8.2 60/33
SOFT
WATER
JOCKY PUMP 822P08 10 8.2 60/33
SOFT
WATER
STAVE COOLING PUMP 823P04 400 8.2 60/33
SOFT
WATER
M/C.COOLING NON CR. PUMP 822P05 140 11.2 60/33
SOFT
WATER
M/C.COOLING CR. PUMP 822P06 200 11.2 60/33
SOFT
WATER
SECONDARY WATER POND
SEC. COOLING WATER PUMP 824P01 760 3.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
SEC. COOLING WATER PUMP 824P02 760 3.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
SEC. COOLING WATER PUMP 824P03 760 3.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
SEC. COOLING WATER PUMP 824P04 760 3.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
AIR CONDITIONING PUMP 824P07 200 4.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
AIR CONDITIONING PUMP 824P08 250 4.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
FILTER PUMP 824P06 250 4.2 60/33
COLD
WATER
HOT WATER POND
PUMP 821P13 850 4.4 53/33
HOT
WATER
PUMP 821P14 850 4.4 53/33
HOT
WATER
PUMP 821P15 850 4.4 53/33
HOT
WATER
PUMP 821P16 850 4.4 53/33
HOT
WATER
COLD WATER POND
Process Water PUMP 821P01 750 8.7 50/33
Process Water PUMP 821P02 750 8.7 50/33
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PUMP DETAILS WITH RESPECT TO SERVICES
EMERGENCY POND
CAPACIT
Y
PRESSU
RE
TEMPER
ATURE
SERVICE TAG NO.
(m3/hr) (bar)
Max/Min
(
0
C)
LIQUID
Process Water PUMP 821P03 750 8.7 50/33
INLET CONE PUMP 821P05 210 10.2 50/33
INLET CONE PUMP 821P06 210 10.2 50/33
INLET CONE PUMP 821P07 210 10.2 50/33
BOOSTER PUMP 821P10 600 11.5 50/33
BOOSTER PUMP 821P11 600 11.5 50/33
BLOW DOWN PUMP 817P10 350 4 50/33
MAKE UP WATER POND
GLAND WATER PUMP 811P01 50 10 35/28 INDUSTRI
AL
WATER
GLAND WATER PUMP 811P02 50 10 35/28 INDUSTRI
AL
WATER
MISCELLENAOUS 811P04 50 8 35/28 INDUSTRI
AL
WATER
PUMP DETAILS IN CLOSED WATER SYSTEM
STAVE WATER SYSTEM 823P01,P02,P0
3
1000 9 43/35 SOFT
WATER
CRITICAL WATER SYSTEM 822P01,P02 750 11 38/35 SOFT
WATER
NON-CRITICAL WATER SYSTEM 822P03,P04 500 11 38/35 SOFT
WATER
PUMP DETAILS IN SLUDGE TRATMENT SYSTEM
CLARIFIER UNDER FLOW 817P01,P02,P0
3
30,30,30 3 42/35 CONTAMI
NATED
WATER
CLARIFIER UNDER FLOW 817P05,P06,P0
8
15,15,30 3 42/35 CONTAMI
NATED
WATER
TUNNEL DRAIN PUMP 823PO4,P07 10,10 3 42/35 CONTAMI
NATED
WATER


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14.3. PROCESS WATER SYSTEM:

The generator gas leaving from Melter gasifier is cooled down to 850 deg C
after mixing with cooling gas from compressor, and it is directed to Hot gas
cyclone, where approximately 70 % of dust is removed from the gas. This
gas is called reducing gas. Nearly 85 % of reducing gas is passed onto the
reduction shaft and rest of the gas is passed through Cooling Gas packing
Scrubber (CGPS) for cooling and preliminary cleaning. There it is further
divided to two parts, cooling gas and excess gas each of which is further
cleaned is adjustable venturi scrubbers.

The gas which taken to the reduction shaft, after reduction process, it leaves
the shaft and called as Top gas. It is directed into Top Gas Packing
Scrubber (TGPS) and then to top gas adjustable venturi scrubber.
The gasses coming out of the furnaces are loaded with lot of dust (the inlet
of Cooling Gas packing scrubber: 40g/Nm; the inlet of the Top Gas packing
Scrubber: 15 g/Nm3). As they pass through each scrubber, they are cooled
and cleaned up to the 50 mg/Nm3 and 40 C.

The process water system provides the water in the required amount,
pressure and quality for the gas cleaning systems of the COREX process. As
the gas from the COREX process (top gas, cooling gas or excess gas) is hot
and dust loaded, the water serves two purposes:

Cooling and quenching of the hot gas.
Remove the dust from the gas.

The process water also has a subsystem to collect the sludge (solid un-
dissolved impurities in water) from the circulating water, remove it from the
water and dispose off the same in a controlled manner.

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Process water is taken from the cold-water pond by three sets of pumps
(inlet cone pumps, scrubber pumps and venture pumps) to the different
supply points of the gas cleaning system. The various supply points of
process water are as shown in the diagram below:


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The water coming out of the scrubbers have picked up the dust in the gas.
Hence, this is known as the process contaminated water. These waters from
the packing scrubbers come to a set of degassers. However, the water
collected at the bottom of the packing scrubbers contains large particles
which have to be handled separately. So these are passed through a set of
small degassers separately and fed to a screw classifier from where these
pass to a scum scrapper.

The scum scrapper also received water from the cooling gas scrubber
systems. The cooling gas system, as it comes from the Melter gasifier,
carries some oily material with it. These are hydrocarbons produced during
cracking of coal in the Melter gasifier. These oily matters tend to form a
frothy material known as scum which floats on the surface of water. The
scum scrapper slowly removed the scum from the surface of water.

Water from the scum scrapper overflows to a feed box. The feed box also
receives water from the top gas scrubber system. The mixed water is now
fed the clarifier no.1. The sludge in the water settles in the clarifier and clean
water overflows to the hot water pond.

The water in the hot water pond is pumped to the process cooling tower
where its heat is removed. However, a peculiar phenomenon occurs in the
cooling tower. The gasses in the scrubbers were rich in CO and CO2. These
dissolve in water at high temperature to form a weak carbonic acid. Also, the
top gas system brings Ca++ ions with it (the source is lime stone in the
burden feed). These dissolve in the carbonic acid forming Calcium
bicarbonates. However, as the cooling takes place in the cooling tower, the
CO2 solubility decreases and the gas escapes. The bicarbonates are now
converted to carbonates which are no more soluble in water and thus they
form additional precipitate. This has to be again separated from the water.
So, the cooled water from the cooling tower is fed to a clarifier no.2.

The clean water overflowing from the clarifier no. 2 is collected in the cold
water pond where it is ready for recycling.

The water in the process water system receives lot of dissolved impurities
too during the gas cleaning process. Additionally, during the evaporation in
the cooling tower there is an increase in the concentration of these solids.
Since, these cannot the separated physically; we have to blow-down part of
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the concentrated contaminated water and dilute it with fresh industrial water.
A blow-down pump in the cold water pond pumps out the blow-down water.
The water has a few chemicals which are harmful to the environment and
hence cannot be let out without treatment. So the water is collected in an
effluent treatment plant, where the necessary treatments are given. The
treated water may be used for horticulture or as a process feed in any plant
requiring water as raw material.
SLUDGE HANDLING:
The sludge separated in the clarifier settles in the bottom of the clarifiers
from where is drawn out by sets of clarifier underflow pumps. These feed
the water to decanters through an agitator tank (not shown in figure).
Decanter is a solid-water separating machine. It consists of a rotating drum
at the center of which slurry (sludge mixed with water) is fed. Due to
centrifugal action, the sludge comes closer to the drum wall and the clear
water collects above. The water overflows out of the drum. A concentric
screw at the center of the drum rotating at a slightly slower speed, transfers
the sludge to the rear end of the drum, from where it is discharged.

The separated sludge may be used for various purposes as mentioned:
Use in COREX process after pelletising
Use in sinter plant
Use in cement plant
Use in a pellet plant
ESHL is conducting studies to find out the most suitable method.

THE SPECIFICATION OF GAS CLEANING SYSTEM:
DUST DENSITY in GAS
( g/ Nm3)
GAS (DEG C) SCRUBBER
NAME
SUPPLY
WATER
VOLUME
(m3/hr)
IN OUT IN OUT
Cooling Gas Packing
Scrubber
1000 40 < 0.5 850 40
Cooling Gas
Adjustable Scrubber
70 <0.3 <0.2 50 40
Excess Gas Adjustable
Scrubber
140 <0.5 0.005 40 40
Top Gas Packing
Scrubber
950 15 <0.5 300 40
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PUMP SPECIFICATION OF PROCESS COOLING WATER
SYSTEM:
PUMP NAME FLOW, PRESSURE USERS
Packing Scrubber Pump 1500 m/h, 8.7 bar Top gas &cooling gas
packing, Baumco scrubber.
Inlet Cone Pump 210 m/h, 10.2 bar

The inlets of T/G,C/G
packing Scrubber.
Venturi Pumps 500 m/h,8 bar The inlet of each adjustable
scrubber & the throat part
of C/G Packing Scrubber.
Cooling Tower Pumps 2400 m/h, 4,2 bar Process Cooling Tower
Clarifier underflow pumps 60 m/h, 4.5 bar Bottom of the clarifiers to
agitator

CHEMICAL DOSING IN PROCESS WATER SYSTEM:
FLOCCULANTS: Flocculants are dosed in the clarifier 1 and 2 to increase
the speed of settling in the clarifiers. These chemicals physically bind the
sludge particles, thus increasing there weight and hence, the speed of
settling.
DISPERSANTS: Dispersants are dosed in the cold-water pond to prevent
particles from coming together. The action is opposite to that of flocculants.
They prevent any particle from settling in the pipe lines.
SPECIAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN PROCESS WATER
SYSTEM:
Since the process water system has passed through a CO and CO2 rich gas
in the scrubber, some of the gas gets carried over into the water both as
dissolved and trapped gas. The degassers remove some of the trapped
gasses. These are let out at the top of COREX tower so that there is no scope
of human interaction. However, some gasses still get carried over. These get
released near the clarifier, especially in the feed box area.

To ensure safety of personnel, entry to the feed box area during plant
operation is limited to trained personnel only. Anyone entering the area must
carry a CO detector. No one should enter the area alone. There should be at
least two persons.

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Similarly, while taking up any maintenance job anywhere in the process
water system, proper isolation from the gas system must be ensured. Job
must be taken up after ensuring adequate protection from COREX gas.




































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15. RECENT MODIFICATIONS IN COREX

COREX C-2000 are in operation for last 11 years & due to the

MODIFICATION BENEFITS
1 Char bed height being increased,
introducing additional 9th row of
SG iron Stave Cooler.(Refractory
Embedded)
Increase in the char bed height will
improve the heat utilization. This is
due to increase in the contact time
between gas and solid phase. It will
reduce the fuel consumption,
Oxygen consumption and increases
the furnace productivity & quality
of hot metal.
2 Replacing Stave cooler of 5th &
6th row with ledge & refractory
embedded copper cooler
The refractory in the stave row 5
and 6 is more prone to high
temperature abrasion. To avoid this
damage requires thick skull
protection. This can be established
by intense cooling in this area, it can
be possible by using cooper staves
.There by development of hot spot
& unstable slag formation shall be
avoided.
3 Solid riffler at the MG dome for
coal distribution.
Ensuring the better coal distribution
in Melter Gasifier will in turn
reduces the coke consumption and
smooth operation of furnace. In turn
improve Heat utilization and the
furnace productivity.
4 Introduction of two additional O2
burner
This will ensure better control of
dome temperature & cooling gas
analysis will improve the
metallization. Ultimately results in
lowering the fuel & tuyer Oxygen
consumption & improves the
quality of hot metal.
5 All stave hose is of the Flexible
type instead of rigid one.
Ensures leakage free system,
otherwise there will be a leakages
due to vibration.
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6 T-piece modification in DRS For better particle separation &
improvement in availability of
system.
7 Elimination of Upper dust bin in
dust recycling system.
To avoid frequent jamming of DRS
line this calls for stoppage
otherwise.
8 Safety value modification with
both hydraulic & spring loaded
mechanical system.
To ensure complete safety of the
system in case of any hydraulic
safety system failure

9 Refractory Modifications:
a) Hearth sump depth being
increased by 500 mm
Shall ensure less wear out at tap
hole region
Overall homogeneity of hearth area
shall be ensured
b) MG dome complete gunning
with anchor without using anchor
brick
To ensure the less collapse of
anchor bricks
c) Dome of cyclone & dustbin of
castable design in DRS
To ensure less collapse
10 Chains provided in DRI drop box. Improves the material distribution in
the MG ,in turn increase the
efficiency of the furnace and
reduces the coke consumption
11 Removal of Both UDB and LDB Reduces the jamming of the Dust
recycle system, increase the plant
availability.
12 Modified T-piece for DRS system Modified T-piece is having bigger
in size .It reduced the frequent
jamming of T-piece area with
coarse particle ,so that plant
availability has increased
13 Introduction of nitrogen injection
for burnt tuyeres to avoid
immediate shutdown
Due to this arrangement no need to
take the immediate shut down
whenever chamber got burnt. It will
improve the plant availability and
day production
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RAW MATERIAL HANDLING:
MODIFICATION BENEFITS
15 In stock house bunker for level
measurement all ultrasonic level
transmitter have been replaced
with radar level transmitter
To have more reliability in dusty &
noisy atmosphere
16 In Coal Blending Station Silos,
for level measurement all
ultrasonic level transmitters have
been replaced with Load cell.
To have more reliability in terms of
occupancy as jams in the silo can
also be read without problem and
will have a linear scale.
17 Installation of three more
additional coal dryer
In order to reduce the moisture
below 5% for better functioning of
Melter gasifier during monsoon.
18 Installation of additional dry coal
screen
To avoid fines carry over to Melter
Gasifier & for better operation of
Melter Gasifier.
19 Enclosed type goggle valve in the
high pressure and Low pressure
gas network
It helps in safe isolation of gas
network when ever COREX taken
shutdown ( normally during major
shut down like Reduction shaft
emptying and gunniting).It is easy
to operate compare to spectacle
blind ,intern it reduces the shut
down duration
20 Additional Silo in Coal Blending
Station, Total Four silos.
Improve the Blending and operation
of Coal Blending Station .At a time
four different types of coal can be
used will improve the furnace
operation.
LOGISTICS:
MODIFICATION BENEFITS
14 Hot Metal ladle with self
propelled car has been replaced
with ladle & ladle car and track
mobile ( Both rail & road
logistics)
To improve logistics of hot metal
handling
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21 Removal of Screening facility
from Stock House.
This will improve the air quality in
and around Stock House and since
the water system is adjacent to the
Stock House, the chances of water
contamination will reduce.
22 Dry Coal transport system is
made two streams with a
flexibility in transport to any of
the Modules.
This will ease the operation which
allows us with a flexibility to
choose and supply dry coal to any
of the module. In case of breakdown
of one line, the second line will be
available to be used for both
modules.
23 Stock House facility is enhanced
with increase of No. of bunkers
from 15 to 17 and no. of weigh
bins increased from 5 to 9.
This will ease the operation which
allows us with flexibility in
batching and accommodating
different materials in the stock
house.
24 Use of Natural gas for Pilot
Burner ignition in Coal Drying
Units
Natural gas back-up is hugely
available and line-up for LPG
availability will be eliminated.

WATER TERATMENT PLANT:
MODIFICATION BENEFITS
25 Fill less process cooling tower in
place of fill Cooling tower
It ensures the no deposition in the
cooling tower and also ensures easy
maintenance of cooling tower will
reduce the operating and
maintenance cost.
26 Additional Secondary cooling
water system for close circuit
Critical water system. The
existing secondary water system
is for Stave and Non -Critical
water circuit.
This will ensure the efficient heat
extraction from primary. Due to
increase in the stave heat load call
for this modification will intern it
eliminated the evaporation cooler in
the stave water system.
27 One additional mechanical filter
in stave cooling circuit. Total
three Two running and one stand
by.
Two filter in the running circuit
will improves the flow rate in the
stave water system .One filter is
kept stand-by ,it is made available
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all the time this will ensure the
complete system availability and its
efficiency when running filters
chokes.
28 One additional Heat Exchanger in
stave cooling circuit. Total three
Two running and one stand by.
Two Heat exchanger in the running
circuit will helps in the better heat
reduction in the stave water system.
The Heat load due to cooper staves
at the heat exchanger is more than
without cooper staves. In order to
better heat removal Additional Heat
Exchanger and Secondary water
system is provided .One heat
exchanger is kept as stand-by &
made available all the time will
ensure the complete system
availability and its efficiency.
29 On line Catch pot drain system in
Cooling Gas Packing Scrubber
and Top Gas Packing Scrubber.
This will reduce the bottom portion
jamming of scrubber and
subsequent result in malfunctioning
of the scrubber control valve and
tripping of the plant. Due to bottom
drain with catch pot system will
ensure the safe draining of the
sludge water and smooth
functioning of the
Control valve.

30 Replacement of the capacitance
type scrubber level indicator to
Nitrogen Bubbler type scrubber
level indicator
Bubbler type level indicators are the
more reliable level indicator in the
dust water (slurry medium) compare
to capacitance type level indicator.
Introduction of the bubbler type
level indicator has eliminated the
faulty level measurement, intern
avoid the plant tripping and increase
in the plant availability.


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16. COMMISSIONING OF COREX PLANT

16.1. HEAT UP FLAPS AND BOTTOM AIR PIPE
ARRANGEMENTS FOR HEAT UP & START UP:


16.2. HEAT UP AND START UP PROCEDURES:
The process vessels i.e. Reduction Shaft, Melter gasifier, Hot gas cyclones,
Dust bins and hot gas ducts etc. are lined with refractory bricks / castable
which require to be dried and heated slowly.

PURPOSE OF HEARTING UP:
- Removal of moisture from refractory and castables lined in the
process vessels / ducts.
- To increase the temperature inside the Melter gasifier and fixed bed
temperature above the char combustion temperature to prevent
explosions

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PRECONDITIONS FOR HEAT UP:
- Successful performance acceptance test of all sections of the plant
- Completion of plant pressure test at 5.3 bar
- All tower equipments, raw material, water & other auxiliary system
functional test & cold commissioning to be completed.
- Process, machine cooling and stave cooling water systems in
operation
- Heating up thermo couples installed.
- Bottom air pipe with thermocouples installed and covered with
Converter slag
- Heat up burners (8 nos) and Tuyeres installed
- Blowers for heat up burners checked ready
- Fuel gas system for heating up ready in all aspects
- Heat up flaps installed
- Raw material preparation as per requirement
- Provision of lances for temperature measurement in front of tuyeres
- Both tap holes are drilled and kept open
- Condensate points on MG and RS are open
- Bottom air station checked up for flow etc.
- All startup raw materials available at plant site.
- LP gas available at the COREX plant, flare in operation
- Oxygen plant in operation, liquid storage tank for N2 and O2 filled
(N2 300 t, O2 400t required).

16.3. SALIENT FEATURES OF HEAT UP:
- Heating up of Melter gasifier
- Heating up of Dust recycling System ( at around 200 deg c of Dome
temperature)
- Heating up of Reduction shaft (at around 300 deg c of dome
temperature)
- Charging of CRE to RS and heat
- Charging of CRE to MG and air blow through Bottom air pipe
- Dismantling of burners and installation of all tuyeres at 1000deg c of
Dome temperature
- Filling of shaft with DRI / HBI
- Filling of MG with Given recipe (crushed electrodes / coke mix)
- Ensure tuyere temperature above 1000 deg c and all systems in
operation.
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- Start oxygen through the tuyeres (Plant start)

FEEDING OF CRE TO REDUCTION SHAFT:
PRECONDITION:
Dome temperature in Melter gasifier greater than or equal to 850C, start
feeding CRE mix.

FEEDING OF CRUSHED ELECTRODES TO THE MELTER
GASIFIER:
PRECONDITION:
1) CRE preheated over 55 hours in the reduction shaft or ignition of CRE
indicated by gas analysis
2) Gasifier dome temperature greater than 1000 deg C. (min. 950 deg C)

DISMANTLING OF START-UP BURNERS AND INSTALLATION
OF THE TUYERES:
PRECONDITION:
1) CRE filled up to the tuyere level
2) CRE temp in front of tuyeres in approx 1000deg C. (min.900 deg C ).
3) Bottom air pipes and full amount of O2 and N2 ready
4) Small size CRE in the reduction shaft
5) Liquid storage tank for O2 filler (400t required)
6) Liquid storage tank for N2 filled (300 t required)

START OXYGEN (DRY OPERATION):

PRECONDITION:
1) Temperature in front of tuyeres is greater than 800C
2) Level of EC-mix is upto LRO 1603
3) Reduction shaft is filled up to the bustle with DRI undersize mix
4) All systems of the plant ready for start
5) Oxygen plant is full operation, liquid storage tanks filled.
6) Oxygen line pressurized with oxygen upto SOV 8900
7) Iron trough and runner systems heated-up and prepared for
provisional tapping (both runners)
8) Flare ignited

CHARGING OF MIXTURE OF 70% COKE, 30% LOWER
VOLATILE COAL TO THE COAL-CHARGING BIN:
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PRECONDITION:
1) O2 ignition is OK, dome temperature is 900C
2) Plant system functional.

START DRI MELTING OPERATION:
PRECONDITION:
1) Plant is under control
2) Dome temperature is greater than 900C
3) Cast house systems ready for hot metal and slag tapping

FIRST CHARGING OF PELLETS TO REDUCTION SHAFT
PRECONDITION:
a) Shaft is filled up
b) Temperature in TRO 1401, TRO 1405 greater than 705C
c) Amount of reduction gas in accordance to melting rate and burden
calculation approx 1150m3/h/t of pellets
d) Shaft movement and pressure difference is ok
e) Dust recycling system in operation
f) Last 3 taps were ok
g) Melting rate is greater than 60% of nominal capacity.



16.4. EMERGENCY PLAN FOR DISTURBANCES DURING
START-UP OF THE COREX PLANT:

FAILURE AT HEATING-UP BURNERS:
FAILURE AT HEATING-UP BURNERS BEFORE CRE CHARGING TO
MELTER GASIFIER:
Air blowers for burners, which failed, have to be stopped to avoid cooling
down to refractory. After restart of burners the temperature increase can be
adjusted to 10 deg / hr till the temperature level before stoppage of the
burners is reached again.

N2 cooling of the bottom pipe has to be adjusted to minimum [approx
200m3/h each]- check pipe temperature thermocouple.

FAILURE OF HEATING-UP BURNERS AFTER CRE CHARGING
TO MELTER GASIFIER:
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IF MORE THAN 4 BURNERS FAIL:
Reduce N2/O2 at bottom pipe [each pipe 400 m3/h N2 and 100m3/h O2]
and air blowers to be concerned with have to be adjusted to minimum
(follow-up gas analysis - CO, CO2 content
After restart of burners increase bottom air stepwise to previous amount.
a) Start burner
b) When 4 burners in operation start O2 bottom pipes

Check ignition of CRE with bottom air with provisional gas analysis via
tuyeres.

WHEN ALL 8 BURNERS FAIL AND THE AIR BLOWERS ARE SHUT
OFF TOTALLY:
Reduce N2 to bottom pipes [400m3/h each] and stop O2 to bottom pipe to
avoid CO concentration and risk of explosion.
As soon as burners are ready for restart and air blowers are available, start
burner.

WHEN 4 BURNERS IN OPERATION:
Start O2 to bottom air blowers and increase N2/O2 to bottom pipe (each pipe
400m3/h N2 and 100m3/h O2 and increase to previous amount.

Check ignition of CRE with bottom air with provisional gas analysis via
tuyeres.

FAILURE CRE NOT IGNITING:
When ignition of CRE via bottom pipe is not possible, the CRE in the melter
gasifier has to be removed and the heating-up has to be repeated.

FAILURE OF BOTTOM PIPE:
FAILURE OF ONE BOTTOM PIPE BEFORE CRE CHARGING TO
MELTER GASIFIER:
Check if max. Capacity to the one remaining bottom pipe in excess of 6000
m3/h


FAILURE OF BOTH BOTTOM PIPES BEFORE CRE CHARGING
TO MELTER GASIFIER:
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Plant has to be cooled with 10 deg C/h, the bottom pipe removed and the
heating-up procedure repeated.

FAILURE OF ONE BOTTOM PIPE AFTER CRE CHARGING TO
MELTER GASIFIER:
Adjust N2/O2 flow on the remaining bottom pipe accordingly. Keep 100
m3/h N2 on the broken bottom pipe to cool the inlet flange.

After dismantling of heating-up burners and placement of the oxygen
tuyeres a maximum flow in excess of approx. 6000 m3/h should be possible.
Amount of missing bottom pipe can be compensated by O2 enrichment
(max. upto 35%) and prolongation of the heating time on the remaining
bottom pipe.

FAILURE OF BOTH BOTTOM PIPES AFTER CRE CHARGING,
BEFORE OXYGEN START:
Plant has to be cooled down with 10 deg C/h and after removal of the CRE
the heating-up procedure has to be repeated

FAILURE OF BOTH BOTTOM PIPES AFTER OXYGEN START:
Start-up procedure to be continued according to the schedule. If necessary-
use blowing lance over tap hole

IGNITION OF CRE IN THE REDUCTION SHAFT:
When ignition of CRE in the reduction shaft is noticed (H2 and CO increase
in top gas analysis). Start charging of CRE to melter gasifier. Open N2
valves to the DRI down pipes (SOV 3903/11/13/15/17/19).

Try to bring O2 content in the bustle gas less than 1% at reducing air on the
heating burners. Check ignition of CRE in melter gasifier with provisional
analyzer.


FAILURE OF DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM:
FAILURE OF THE DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM DURING THE
DRY OPERATION:
If the start of the dust recycling system after the O2 start fails, keep dry
operation by charging EC mix via coal screws to the melter gasifier stop
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plant and repair the system. After start of the dust recycling system continue
the start up program.

FAILURE OF THE DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM DURING
MELTING OPERATION:
If dome temperature exceeds 1000 deg C, reduce the O2 amount to the dust
burners. Continue with melting operation and repair dust recycling after 2
successful taps extend DRI period, minimize gas flow to the RS. After start
of DRS continue the start up program.

FIRST HOT METAL TAP IS NOT SUCCESSFUL, EVEN AFTER
OXYGEN LANCING:
Close tap hole, keep plant parameters and start tapping after 2 hours again. If
second try is also not, successful, keep plant parameters and try after 1 hour
again. If the third try is not successful, reduce DRI screws to 0.3 rpm and
add 20t/h DRI to the coal charge and increase coke content via coal line.
Try tapping every hour with intensive oxygen lancing.

If slag level reaches O2 tuyeres (black tuyeres) drill emergency tap hole,
stop DRI screws (DRI charging via coal screw) and operate only 6 tuyeres
above each tap hole (similar to chilled hearth procedure to BF plants)


WATER LEAKAGES

WATER LEAKAGE IN NOSE CHAMBER OF TUYERE:
Close O2 valve at tuyeres, open N2 flushing and close water valves at nose
& chamber. Change tuyere if convenient.

WATER LEAKAGE IN MAIN CHAMBER OF TUYERE:
Close O2 valve at the tuyere, Open N2 flushing and throttle water valves at
main chamber. Immediately connect nitrogen to chamber water line & close
water, then open nitrogen for cooling.


WATER LEAKAGE IN JUMBO:
Throttle water valves to jumbo. Depending on leakage stop plant as soon as
possible and change jumbo.

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WATER LEAKAGE INTO MELTER GASIFIER:
1) Noticed by an alarm at the cooling water system or by a big increase of
H2 content in the process gas, plant pressure or excess and top gas
flow.
2) Identify leakage by checking the individual water-cooled units (pressure
check by closing shortly outlet and inlet valves).
3) Depending on the location and size of the leakage it has to be repaired
immediately (plant stop) or after the next successful tap (e.g. tuyere)
4) In cases where repair is not possible or necessary (e.g. staves) the
appropriate pipes have to be shut-off and by-passed.

PLUGGED TUYERES:
If individual black tuyeres are noticed, check oxygen flow and pressure at
the tuyere. If pressure at the tuyere is 30% higher and the flow rate 50%
lower in comparison to the other tuyere. Close oxygen valves after 10
minutes and open N2 flushing.

After 1 hour open oxygen valve again for about 5 minutes and check
whether this tuyere starts again. If not close oxygen again and repeat
opening trials every two hours. If not successful after about 1-day trials the
blockage has to be removed during a planned plant stoppage.

TAPPING TEMPERATURE:

TAPPING TEMPERATURE TOO LOW:
Depending on the overall plant condition the following actions are possible:
Increase of oxygen flow to the tuyeres when dome temperature is also
low.
Increase of bed height and pressure in the melter gasifier
Decreasing melting rate.
Increase of coke rate for the recovering period

TAPPING TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH:
Depending on the overall plant condition the following actions are possible:
Increase of melting rate.
Reduction of bed height and pressure when dome temperature is low
Reduction of oxygen flow to the tuyeres when dome temperature is not
low
Change of coal mix (reduction of coke and/or of high carbon coal)
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If available: Increase or start of steam injection at the tuyeres.

OXYGEN PLANT TRIPS:

In the start-up period before the first tap the COREX plant has to be
operated by activating the liquid storage tanks at the oxygen plant until 2-3
successful taps have been taken.

Before stopping the plant the coke rate should be increased to have better
restart conditions.

16.5. REFERENCE TABLE FOR HEAT UP ACTIVITY:

PRECONDITIONS ACTIVITY SET POINT
MELTER GASIFIER
DRYING

Supply system of fuel to the
heating-up burners to be taken
in operation.

Check the function of combustion air
blowers.

Adjust the set points as per
instruction for fuel supply
LPG/CNG
Heating-up flaps: Start combustion air blowers for 1
burner, open gad hand valve and ignite
the burner.

Dome temperature
TRO 1441 - 50 deg
Safety valve: fully open

Heating-up flaps for:
Dust bins: closed All waste gas is going over the safety
valve

Top gas: closed Heating-up flap 345l01 to prevent


Cooling gas: not connected Condensation and corrosion in the plant.

PRC 2203 closed
FRC 2001 closed
SOV 2940 closed
SOV 2905 closed HIC
2939 closed All
charging valves closed
Start one or two burners more if
possible and keep increase of the dome
temperature of 6 C per hour.




TRO 1441 = 6 DEG C/h
increase
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PRECONDITIONS ACTIVITY SET POINT

Open N2 to bottom air pipes. FIR 3082: 400 m3/h
Open N2 to all purging points


Open N2 to the stuffing boxes of the
coal screw conveyors


TRO 1441: 150 C Check bottom pipe temperatures



TRO 1441: 200 deg C
Keep dome temperature at 200 C for 23
hours


TRO 1441: 200 deg C
Adjust burners for an increase of dome
temperature of 2.5 deg C per hour
TRO 1441 = 2.5 deg C/h
increase

Open and adjust dust bin flaps 352D81,
regulate safety valve heating-up flap
345L01 accordingly.

Dust bin outlet min. 70
deg C

Start additional burners

Increase N2 to bottom air pipes if
necessary FIR 3082 400 m3/h




HEATING-UP MELTER GASIFIER AND REDUCTION SHAFT


TRO 1441: 300 deg C
Start gas flow to reduction shaft


Open top gas flap fully 363L01


Close safety valve flap 345L01

Outlet temperature
Start rest of the burners (if not already in
operation)


TRO 2407, 70 deg C /min
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PRECONDITIONS ACTIVITY SET POINT

TRO 1441: 400 deg C
Stop the burners CO content less than 50
ppm
Dismantle safety valve heating-up flap
Close safety valve (seat cleaned) SOV 2990: closed

Change temporary thermo element at
dome (TRO 1441) to regular
measurement


Start burners again and adjust them
accordingly


Temperature increase rate at TRO
1441/1442 2.5 C/Hr.

TRO 2407 200 deg C
Check top gas temp. TRO 2407; after
reaching 200 C, increase purging for
sealing flap SOV 7994

FIO 3159: approx 100m3/h
N2 TIO 7491: less than
100 deg C
Adjust outlet flaps on dust bins 352D81 Outlet temperature approx
100 deg C
Retighten regularly hot flanges


Check regularly condensate tapping
points at melter gasifier and reduction
shaft

TRO 1440/1441: 500 deg C
Adjust N2 to bottom air pipe. FIR 3082: 600m3/h


Temperature of bottom pipes less than
100 deg C
TI bottom pipe less than
100 deg C

Keep dome temperature at 500 deg C
for 24h

TRO 1440/1441: 500 deg C
Adjust burners for an increase of dome
temperature of 2.5 deg C/h

TRO 1441: 2.5 deg C/h
increase
Switch the flap and excess gas scrubber
to manual and open them approx. 20%



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Start the pump for gas analyzers and
check O2 content of the gas

After stabilization of gas analysis, close
again the scrubber and switch off the
pump

Repeat the procedure every 4 hours.
TRO 1440/1441 860 deg C
Adjust a maximum O2 content of 3% in
the waste gas by adjustment of
combustion air
ARS2703: less than 3% O2
(provisional analysis point
at bustle flap)
ARO 2703: O2 max 3%
Charging distributor position 3
Start feeding of 172t of crushed
electrodes 13-40 mm to the reduction
shaft
5.4t each batch, 8 batches
per hour
Check that a light blow out through the
tap holes is ensured

Throttle carefully the dustbin flaps
352D81 to increase the gas flow over
the reduction shaft.
TRO 2407 less than
100C/min

Check shell temperature of DRI pipes,
check temperature in DRI pipes and
open N2 cooling if necessary by
opening N2 hand valves to the drop box
of down pipes

Shell temp less than 250C
Temperature on TRC
1431-1436 max. 950C
Check shell temperature and movement
of the compensators

Flush O2 lines with N2. Pressurize the
O2 line with O2 from the O2 plant upto
block and bleed valve SHV 8900.01

SHV 8900 closed
SOV 8906 open
SOV 8900/8901 closed
Start drying and heating-up of main iron
trough and runner system

Close condensate tapping points on
reduction shaft

6 condensate drains on melter gasifier
and 1 on reduction shaft, which are
equipped with hand valves, have to be
opened and closed regularly


CRE temperature locally
increased TRO 1412-1426
approx 300 deg C
Try to reduce O2 content of the bustle
gas to 2vol %, to prevent burning of
CRE in the reduction shaft.
ARO 2703 0-1%
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CO and H2 content of the bustle gas less
than 1%

ARO 2701: max 1%
ARO 2704: max 1%
When CRE is burning Check difference O2, CO and CO2
content between cooling gas and top
gas; if deviation of analysis occurs and
temperature TRO 2407 does increase
significantly, CRE is burning

ARO 2701,
2703,2702,2706,2707
TRO 2407
Dome temperature of 1000
deg C is reached.
Close tap holes
TRO 1440/1441/1442 .
Adjust N2 to the bottom pipes to 400
m3/h each and open O2 to the bottom
pipes 100 m3/h each .

O2 FIR 8082: 200 m3/h
N2 FIR 3082: 800 m3/h
Take note of the O2 increase and CO
decrease
O2 increase
CO decrease
CO2 increase
Start the DRI screws for 10 minutes and
charge approx. 3 t of crushed electrodes
to the melter gasifier.


Wait approx. 2 hours until crushed
electrodes had ignited and start charging
crushed electrodes to the melter gasifier,
with approx 20 t per hour

DRI screws each 0.50 rpm

Observe whether O2 content decreases
and CO content increases significantly -
if not, stop charging after one hour;
await a significant drop in O2 content as
a sign of CRE ignition in the melter
gasifier. After ignition, continue with
CRE charging.

Provisional tuyere gas
analyzer O2, Co

Increase bottom N2/O2 flow
O2 FIR 8082 = 400 m3/h

each bottom pipe : N2 800 m3/h
O2 200 m3/h
N2 FIR 3081 = 1600 m3/h



Check top gas temperature, when TRO
2407 is greater than 400 deg, and
throttle the top gas flap
TRO 2407: greater than
400 deg C
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All crushed electrodes (13-40 mm) are
charged to Melter Gasifier. If not
increase speed of DRI screws to 1 rpm
each until shaft is empty.


Shaft empty Charge 54 t of crushed electrodes (6-13
mm) to the reduction shaft


Increase bottom N2/O2 flow FI N2 1200 m3/h
FI N2 1200 m3/h
FI O2 300 M3/h
FI O2 300 M3/h
Temperature increase at TRO
1440/1441 can be adjusted to maximum
burner capacity (approx. 5 deg C/h)
ARO 2703: less than 2%

If shell temperature in the area of the
lower ore sealing flap is greater than
150 deg C (TIS 7491), increase N2
cooling.

TIO 7491 less than 150
deg C
Increase bottom N2/O2 flow
O2 FIR 8082 = 800 m3/h
Each bottom pipe: N2 1600 m3/h
O2 400 m3/h

N2 FIR 3081 = 3200 m3/h


If tuyere level is not reached, add
crushed electrodes (13-40 mm) to the
melter gasifier via coal line.


CRE temperature in front of
tuyere 1000 deg C
Check temperature of the material in
front of the tuyeres

Temperature lance
measuring 1000C deg

Reduce N2 to the bottom pipes 400
m3/h and close the O2 flow

N2 FIR 3082: 800m3/h
O2 FIR 8082: 0

Each bottom pipe: N2 400 m3.h


Check bottom pipe temperature and
increase N2 if necessary
TI less than 200 deg
Stop heating-up burner
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Reduce pressure to about 0.2K Pa by
opening of FRC 2001, PDC 2207, PDC
2208, PDC 2212 and PDC 2217 and top
gas 363L01

System pressure = 0.2 K Pa Take out burner and install tuyeres


Dismantle provisional gas analyzer at
tuyeres


Check regularly CO content in working
area

Dismantle heating-up flaps (top gas,
dust bins, cooling gas).

Tuyeres are placed and
temporary blow out ducts
dismantled and the man holes
properly closed
Fill 1st of coarse coke via coal line to
the melter gasifier.
Increase N2 flow to bottom pipe line
and open O2 each bottom pipe N2
3200 m3/h; O2 - 800 m3/h


Check analysis of cooling gas and top
gas (increase of CO content)


Check increase of dome temperature


Start to charge crushed electrodes (6-
13mm) from reduction shaft to melter
gasifier at approx. 27 TPH
6 DRI screw 0.63 rpm

Increase pressure to 2.5 bar in steps of
0.2 bar every 5 min
PRC 2203: 2.5 bar
PRC 2203 2.5 bar
Check tightness of plant


Check readiness of plant systems
according starting checklist.


Check charging systems


Check analysis of cooling and top gas
(increase of CO content)

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All crushed electrodes should
be charged from reduction
shaft in to the melter gasifier
If not, increase speed of DRI screws and
empty reduction shaft
DRI screws each 1 rpm
Start to fill up Bin 322B05 with EC-mix
(70% crushed electrodes 6-13 mm, 30%
low ash coke 6-25 mm).

LSO 6694 shows full
Start charging of EC mix to melter
gasifier by starting coal screws SRC
6800
SRC 6800 2.2 rpm
feed rate approx 34 t/h
Reduction shaft is empty Start charging of coke (8-25 mm) 60 m3
(30 t) to reduction shaft
6 batches of approx 5 t
each

Charging distributor is in
middle charging position
(SOV 7998)


Tightness is checked Reduce pressure to minimum (0.05-0.1
bar) in steps of approx 0.3 bar each 15
minutes
PRC 2203: 0.05 bar

Start charging of HBI mix (HBI, PL,
coke, BOF slag, and dolomite) 160 m3
total. Mixture according to weighing
program.

20 batches of approx 13 t
each, 7 batches / h
Start charging of coke from reduction
shaft to melter gasifier
DRI screws each 0.1 PM
time: approx 12 hours

PRC 2203 (0.05-0.1 bar
minimum)
Increase N2/O2 (oxygen enrichment to
approx 29%) each bottom pipe N2 4000
m3/h; O2 1600 m3/h.

N2 FIR 3081: 8000m3/h
O2 FIR 8081: 3200 m3/h

Melter gasifier to be filler up to LRO
1603 with EC unit
Level indicator LRO 1603:
100%

Melter gasifier should be filed
up to LRO 1603 level indicator
with EC mix
LRO 1603 100 % - Temperature
measurement with lances in front of
tuyeres.

T: greater than 600C
PRC 2203: 0.05 bar
Pressure is reduced to 0.05 bar Open nitrogen purging to tuyeres to
minimum on each tuyere
LRO 1603: 100 %
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HBI mix charged, shaft filled
up to bustle


Temperature measurements in front of
tuyeres
T: greater than 700 deg

Temperature in front of
tuyeres is greater than 700 deg
C
Increase pressure to 0.8 bar
Start ignition check program
PRC 2203= 0.8 bar
PRC 2203 = 0.7 bar Start cooling gas compressor.


LRO 1603 = 100 % Open hand valves for oxygen tuyeres,
except the tuyeres beside the bottom air
down pipes, these valves (tuyere No. 10,
11, 23, 24) remain closed.






16.6. TABLE FOR OXYGEN START (START UP ACTIVITY):

PRECONDITIONS ACTIVITY SET POINT
START UP OPERATION


Oxygen plant in operation Switch N2 valve FRC 3020 to
manual and open it 10%



PRC 2203: 0.8 bar
FRC 3020: 5000 m3/h
Liquid O2 storage 400 t Open SOV 3920


First manual 10% open
Liquid N2 storage 300 t
Cooling gas compressor in
operation
Put SP on FRC 3020 to 5000
m3/h, switch it to auto and open
1 minute later O2 valve SOV
8900/8901, whereby FRC 8001
is adjusted in manual to
10%open


FRC 2001: closed
PDC 2207: 0.15 bar
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Bottom O2/N2 on Put FRC 8001 in auto mode to
15000m3/h
PDC 2208: 0.3 bar
CE-mix level in the melter
gasifier upto LRO 1603
PDC 2212: 0.15 bar
PDC 2210: 0.1 bar
Temperature in front of tuyeres
greater than 700 deg C
SOV 2940: closed
Check list for O2 ignition
SOV 8906 closed
Ignition OK Increases plant pressure and
adjust the scrubbers
PRC 2203: 0.9 bar
Check cooling gas analysis

PDC 2207: 0.2 bar
Check visually ignition of flare

PDC 2208: 0.5 bar
Check systems

PDC 2212: 0.2 bar
Close FRC 3020 PRC 2210: 0.1 bar
Prepare coal charging system for
feeding of coal/coke mixture


Plant in operation Check plant tightness


Oxygen tuyeres
Start coal screws with EC-mix
20 t/h

SRC 6800: 1.5 rpm
Keep level LRO 1603 100% full LRO 1603: 100%

Dome temperature 750 deg C
and stable plant operation
Increase in steps of 500 m3/h O2
to the tuyeres every 15 minutes
to 18000 m3/h and plant
pressure accordingly

FRC 8001: 15000 m3/h
PRC 2203: 0.9 bar
Adjust the scrubbers PDC 2207: 0.25 bar
PDC 2208: 0.5 bar
PDC 2212: 0.25 bar
PRC 2210: 0.1 bar
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Dome temperature greater than
700C
Start dust recycling systems
O2 = 4x 650 m3/h
N2 = 4x 250 m3/h
FRC
8002/8003/8004/8005:
650 m3/h each
FRC
2011/2021/2031/2041:
250 m3/h each
Dome temperature 900C Prepare weighing system for
mixture of 70% low ash coke;
30% coal.


Dome temperature TRO
1440/1441 1000 deg C
Charging of coke/coal mixture
(70:30) to melter gasifier.

SRC 6800: 1.9 rpm
feed rate: 30 t/h
Check analysis of cold gas
Dome temp greater than 1000
deg C


Keep level on LRO 1603 at
100% by adjusting SRC6800
LRO 1603: 100%
SRC 6800: adequate
DRI MELTING
OPERATION

Dome temperature TRO
1440/1441 is greater than 1000
deg C
Start DRI screws (approx 20 t
HM/h melting rate)
6 DRI screws
SRC 1800: 0.25 rpm
Increase the Oxygen flow to the
tuyeres further in steps of 1000
m3/h every 30 minutes to 20000
m3/hy
FRC 8001: 18000 m3/h
PRC 2203: 1.1 bar
FRC
8002/8003/8004/8005:
750 m3/h each
Increase plant pressure
accordingly.


Increase O2 on dust burners, if
the dome temperature less than
1000 deg C

Increase melting rate in steps of
2.5 t/30 minute.

Charging distributor in central
charging position (pos 1)
Start charge HBI, PL, dolomite,
LD-slag/coke mixture to the
reduction shaft.
8 batches/hour
20 t each
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Start reduction gas to the
reduction shaft. Put FRC 2001 to
manual and open 3%. Increase
the flow in stages of 2000 m3/5
minutes to 45000 m5/h
FRC 2001: 15000 m3/h
TRO 2407 greater than
100C FRC
2001: 30000 m3/h

Start the reduction gas to the
reduction shaft put the FRC
2001 in manual mode and open
5% every 5 minutes until a flow
of 18000 m3/h is achieved (first
flow indication at 13% open,
about 16000 m3/h)

FRC 2001: 18000 m3/h
TRO 2407: greater than
100 C
Increase the flow in steps of
2000 m3 every 5 minutes upto a
flow of 45000 m3/h
FRC 2001: 45000 m3/h

Dome temperature TRO
1440/1441 is greater than 1000
deg C
Melting rate approx. 30 t/h and
keep it constant
SRC 1800: 0.43 rpm
FRC 2001: 45000 m3/h
Increase in steps of 1000 m3/30
minutes O2 rate to the tuyeres to
25000 m3/h, plant pressure
oxygen to dust burners and
reduction gas flow
FRC 8001: 20000m3/h
PRC 2203: 1.2 bar
FRC
8002/8003/8004/8005:
1000 m3/h
Change to 50% low ash coke and
50% coal

Level in reduction shaft is
approx. 2m below charging
distributor
Change charging distributor to
middle position (position - 3)
Check temperatures in the shaft

LIO 1610
FRC 8001: 25000 m3/h
PRC 2203: 1.8 bar
Reduction shaft is filled-up Check charging sequence
(should be equivalent to 30 t/h
melting rate).


Prepare cast house for first tap


When strong pulsation on
bottom air is noticed, molten
slag and hot metal are covering
the bottom pipes
Close O2 to bottom pipe and
reduce N2 to 100 m3/h on each
pipe
Open O2 hand valves of tuyeres
10, 11, 23, 24
N2 FIR 3082: 200 m3/h
O2 FIR 8081: 0
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Cast house prepared for first
tap
Start drilling of tap hole 1st tap
Ladles in position If not successful, use O2 lances
to open the tap hole


When 1st tap is successful,
HM temp more than 1470 deg
C
Increase in steps of 2.5 t/30
minutes melting rate to 40 t HM
DRI screws
SRC 1800: approx. 0.6
rpm
Increase in steps of 1000 m3/ 30
minutes O2 to the tuyeres to
28000 m3/h, coal, plant pressure
and top gas flow accordingly.

FRC 8002-8005: 1000 -
1500 m3/h each
FRC 2001: 60,000 m3/h
2nd tap
3rd tap

When 3rd tap is successful Increase melting rate to 50 t
HM/h
DRI screws
SRC 1800:approx
0.75rpm
FRC 8001: 30000 m3/h

PRC 2203: 2.5 bar

FRC 8002-8005: 1500
1800 m3/h each

FRC 2001: 75000 m3/h
4th tap
When 4th tap is successful
Dome temp more than 1000C Change to 75% coal
25% low ash coke
5th tap
When 5th tap is successful Change melting rate to 60t HM/h FRC 8001:33000 m3/h

PRC 2203: 3.0 bar

FRC 8002-8005: 1800 -
2200 m3/h each



FRC 2001: 90,000 m3/h

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6th tap TRO 2407: less than 350
deg C
Start charging 50% pellets o
reduction shaft


7th tap
8th tap
9th tap
10th tap

When 10th tap is successful
and RS condition is ok
Increase melting rate to 70tHM/h FRC 8001:35000 m3/h
PRC 2203: 3.5 bar
FRC 2001:105000 m3/h
TRO 2407 less than 350
deg C
FRC 8002-8005: 2000
2500 m3/h each

DRI with 50% pellets is
charged to MG
Take DRI samples, check
metallization
Metalisation of pellet-
DRI more than 90%

11th tap

When 11th tap is successful
and reduction shaft condition
is OK
Change to 100% pellet charge to
RS (see Annex 4)
FRC 2001: increase in
steps of 2500 m3/h every
15 min to 115000 m3/h.

Check temperature distribution
in the RS, reduction gas
utilization, top gas temperature
TRO 2407 less than 350
deg C

12th tap
13th tap
14th tap
15th tap
16th tap


DRI from 100% pellet feed is
charged to MR
Take DRI samples, check
Metalisation

Metalisation more than
90%
17th tap
18th tap
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OPERATION ON 70 t/h CAPACITY
19th tap
20th tap Tapping sequence 2.0 h
After a successful tap Stop the plant, change bottom
pipe flange and install LRO
1604, take char bed samples

Start plant again and increase
stepwise to normal conditions at
the MR of 70TPH


NOTE:
Above reference table is prepared based on JSW Corex- 1 & 2
commissioning experience. This may not be same here, based on the actual
conditions suitable changes can be made. The heat up start to Plant in
operation will take nearly 15 to 18 days. Any frequent interruptions during
heat up may cause further delays.
16.7 TYPICAL HEAT UP CURVE:
The trend bellow is a typical heat up curve of JSW Mod- 01 commissioning
in August -1999.


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1
0
/
0
7
/
9
9
1
2
/
0
7
/
9
9
1
4
/
0
7
/
9
9
1
6
/
0
7
/
9
9
1
8
/
0
7
/
9
9
2
0
/
0
7
/
9
9
2
2
/
0
7
/
9
9
2
4
/
0
7
/
9
9
2
6
/
0
7
/
9
9
2
8
/
0
7
/
9
9
3
0
/
0
7
/
9
9
0
1
/
0
8
/
9
9
0
3
/
0
8
/
9
9
0
5
/
0
8
/
9
9
0
7
/
0
8
/
9
9
Date
[
D
e
g

C
]
C1-TIR1481-INP C1-TRO1440-INP
C1-TRO1441-INP Heat Up Schedule
24 h keep
at 200C
Electrical problem
of heat up
burners
Trip and repair of
oxygen plant
Keep temp. at
410C due to LPG
shortage and
maintenance work
at oxygen plant
Charging crushed
electrodes to MG
Power failure at
heat up burners
Stop of burners due
to N2 instead of LPG
was in the line
Maintenance at
oxygen plant =>stop
of heat up burners for
erection of coal riffler
.
Pressure loss in
LPG main line
Heat up burners stopped
due to maintenance
work at safety heat up
valve
Installation of new
tuyeres (25 mm)
Reinstallation of 6 new
tuyeres due to incorrect
installation
Removing heat
up burners and
installation of
tuyeres
Oxygen start
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The trend bellow is a typical heat up curve of JSW Mod- 02 commissioning
in April 2000.





0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384 408
Hours
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

[

C
]
Schedule
Actual


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17.Melter gasifier Gunning


Introduction:

The refractory in the Melter gasifier is prone for damages after operation for
certain period of time. The experience from the operating Corex units reveal
that after about 3-4 years of operation the refractory in front of the stave row
5 to 8 have become weak areas causing hot spots / increased temperatures on
the stave cooling differential temperatures and so on. In such cases it
becomes difficult operate the plant at normal capacity due to probable hot
spots and other abnormalities on the MG shell. This may some time calls for
emergency shut downs also. The repair of the total refractory is possible in a
capital repair which calls for about 40 to 45 days shutdown. As such the shut
down for 40 to 45 days once in every 3-4 years is not viable.

So an intermediate repair of the refractory in front of the staves through
castables is possible through a robot gunning machine which is called
gunning. This Gunning operation can be done in 72 to 80 hrs period which
may lost for about 12 to 18 months from experience of the other plants. This
gunning operation there by increases the total campaign life of the Melter
gasifier balancing the techno economics of the plant.

Raw Material requirement for MG Gunning:


SL N0

MATERIAL

QUANTITY
REQUIRED (TONS)

1 Low alumina pellet
(Alumina ~ 1.8%)


5,000
2 DRI / HBI
(6 20 mm)

4000
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3 COKE
CSR > 60, CRI < 26


2000

4 Coal with superior blend
(Screened at 8 mm )
10000
5 Crushed electrodes

200
6 Burnt dolomite

50
8 LD Slag (+8 30 mm)

2000
9 Mill Scale 2500


Stop of the plant for guniting of Melter gasifier:

Basically the Gunning operation involves the reduction of Char bed height
ensuring the smooth stoppage and Restart. The target of the char bed height
is approximately +16.12 m
Preconditions & preparations
All equipment and materials required for gunitting of the Melter gasifier,
and following raw materials should be available at site before initiation of
plant stop:
Raw material availability as per the above enclosure
LRO 1605 LL trip of plant to be removed.
Gas analyzers to be checked, especially O
2
analyzer ( minimum two
times before 24 hours and one time just before lowering of level in MG
below LRO1605)
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All tuyeres available (burnt tuyeres must not be more than 2 nos.). All the
tuyeres which have completed six months of operation life to be changed
during the shutdown.
All down pipe drop boxes cleaned if blocked to enable reviving of
blocked DRI screw when the burden drops below bustle level.
Water addition to the lower coal screw tested (water flow up to 8 m/h)
Markings to be made on MG shell 90 apart to monitor shell
temperatures while lowering the char bed with the help of infrared gun.

Assumptions

Emptying of the shaft should start 16 hours before stop of oxygen to
empty it approx. 4 hours earlier to O2 stop
End of the second last tap should be 4 hours before start of the last tap, so
that the last tap is slightly bigger (>200 t) to ensure hot last tap & good
drainage.

Operation with lower char bed level and emptying of reduction shaft:

- Use of almost wet coal during lowering of the char bed for easier
control of the MG dome temperature (Gradual increase of coal
moisture by adjustment of coal dryers)

Priority
The highest priority during burning down of the char bed are hot & good
taps & Si content of hot metal not too high (< 2%).
If a tap is cold and slag can not be drained, reduce burning rate of the char
bed or even maintain the same level until tapping is stabilized again. (Tools:
Operation at high plant pressure, adjustment of coke rate, specific O2 to the
tuyeres)
36 hours before the scheduled stop of oxygen
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Adjust the melting rate to 95 t/h if the plant is operating with a higher
melting rate
- Start charging of superior coal blend screened at better size
- Adjust and maintain the CH4 content of the cooling gas in the range
2 2.5% to bring down the dome temperature and cool the MG
refractory (Buffer for heat during lowering of the char bed).
- Reduce the bustle gas temperature in 5C / 30 minutes to 820C.
- Start with twin tap hole operation.
- Mill scale charging to Melter gasifier, if not being charged already.

25 hours before the scheduled stop of oxygen
Change oxide feed to Low alumina & Good quality pellets (Al2O3 ~
2.0%).
- Start to charge DRI/pellets mixture to the reduction shaft, ratio 25/75.
Start with lowering of the char bed by charging less coal/coke.
- Reduce addition of coal/coke by approx. 10% so as to achieve
required drop of char bed level with the time.
- Calculate and compare the actual level dropped and estimated drop
in char bed level from time to time.
- Reduce accordingly the speed of the DRI screws to maintain the
same (coal/coke) / DRI ratio. (Note: Melting rate adjustment by oxygen
flow to the tuyeres and specific oxygen, respectively specific coal/coke
adjustment /thm by DRI screws)
- Reduce the melting rate to 90 t/hr.
- Reduce the bustle gas temperature in 5C/30 minutes to 780C to
cool down refractory of cyclones and ducts.
- Reduce oxygen velocity of the tuyeres to 190 m/sec and after one
hour to 180 m/sec to operate the Melter gasifier with more tuyeres
(lower char bed)
- Increase approx. 2 % coke for every 1 m lower char bed (Increase
more coke rate at lower char bed level) to maintain anticipated hot
metal temperature and quality and adjust specific oxygen via tuyeres.
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Aim is Si-content around 0.8% and hot metal temperatures around
1480 to 1510
O
C.
- Proceed further with lowering of char bed.
- Stave delta-T trends and shell temperatures to be monitored before
start and during decreasing of the char bed level which can serve as
indirect indication of char bed level
- Adjust CO2 content of the cooling (reduction) gas to 5 - 8 % by
addition of less mill scale, lower melting rate to achieve higher
metallization degree of DRI from the shaft
- Maintain specific top gas flow at higher side to achieve high
metallization degree of the burden. Aim is to achieve the CO2 content in
the top gas < 30% approx. 5 hours before start of shaft emptying

- Increase further the coke rate to accommodate operation with lower char
bed level.
- Increase mill scale for better control of dome temperature and if required
start with addition of 12 m/h water to the lower coal screw and increase it
further if required
22 hours before stop of oxygen
Reduce melting rate from 90 t/h to 80 t/h. Refer Table 2.
- Maintain further the CH4 content of the cooling gas in the range 2
2.5%
- Start to charge DRI/pellets mixture to the reduction shaft, ratio 50/50 and
change 2 hour later to 75/25.
- Replace 50% of additives to the reduction shaft by LD slag. Increase
LD slag 4 hour later to 100% and stop addition of Dolomite/Limestone
to the reduction shaft.
- Keep all the time limited amount of dolomite fines ( - 6.3 mm) and
flourspar in the Stock House near the belt conveyor for manual
charging in the event of large deviation in slag basicity.
- Check the discharge rate of the DRI screws in the last 4 hours before
start of emptying of the shaft, compare with the values which were basis
for calculation and adjust accordingly to achieve anticipated melting
rates. Consider also slightly increased discharge rate of the DRI screws
during shaft emptying.
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16 hours before stop of oxygen Temperature charging
- Proceed with adjustment of the melting rate.
- Increase to max. N2 addition to the ore charging bin and to the charging
distributor (by opening of hand valves in the field) to avoid damage of the
seal ring of the lower sealing flap.
- Reduce the size of oxide batch to 8m
3
and change, iron feed to the
reduction shaft to 100% DRI, switch over from level to the
temperature charging mode, SP 400C and start to empty the shaft
- Reduce the bustle gas temperature to 750C
- Reduce gradually top gas flow and reduce the water flow to the packing
of the top gas packing scrubber (do not reduce the water to the inlet cone)
and to the adjustable top gas venturi scrubber to increase the water flow to
the cooling gas packing scrubber (max. to all addition points), to compensate
water shortage in the process water circuit
- Adjust oxygen velocity to the tuyeres to 175 m/s and reduce further the
plant pressure if hot metal temperature & Si content are within acceptable
range to operate the plant with more oxygen tuyeres
- Aim for hot metal temperature between 1490 to 1520C & Si-content <
1.5% (by adjustment of coke, plant pressure & specific oxygen flow to the
tuyeres), slag basicity B2 around 1.05, with Al
2
O
3
content below 15%,
considering higher specific oxygen consumption during decreasing of
melting rate & during shaft emptying.
- Reduce oxygen to the dust burners and if taps are still normal running (t
> 1470C) proceed with addition of mill scale to prevent rising of dome
temperature due to low char bed level and high specific oxygen to the
tuyeres
- Reduce top gas flow in steps to 20,000 m/h (11 hours before oxygen
stop), monitor the return water temperature and reduce top gas flow further
to approx. 10,000 m/h (FRC2001 in manual mode approx. 5% open)
- Aim for smaller taps of approx.150 t, tap to tap time approx. 3 hours
to avoid big fluctuation of the char bed level before and after the tap
and do not drain MG fully dry because of smaller taps
- Inform gas consumers regarding raise in the export gas calorific
value
11 hours before stop of oxygen
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- Stop oxygen to the dust burners (one by one) if there are indications that
return water temperature of the cooling gas packing scrubber can not be
maintained < 90C after closing of FRC2001
- Close FRC2001 and if return water temperature of the cooling gas
packing scrubber can not be maintained < 90C reduce further the
melting rate (by decreasing of oxygen flow to the tuyeres). Reduce
addition of coal/coke and DRI accordingly to proceed with lowering of
the char bed
- Stop addition of DRI to the reduction shaft and close FRC2001 if the
whole produced gas can be handled by cooling gas pre-scrubber (return
water temp < 90C)
- Start addition of approx. 3000 m/h N2 (or more if enough N2 is
available) via temporary connection to the top gas duct (dust measurement)
to cool down refractory of reduction shaft during emptying of the shaft &
during purging of the plant
- If possible reduce further the reduction gas temperature to 700C to cool
cyclones and reduction gas ducts.
If there is not bigger increase of the CO2 content of the cooling gas, but the
dome temperature can not be maintained < 1100C and the taps are hot,
besides increasing of water addition to the lower coal screw, there are few
possibility to get it under control as
- Decreasing of the melting rate (less oxygen to the tuyeres).
- Increasing of slag rate (increasing fine dolomite and quartz)
- Temporary increasing of coal/coke addition (char bed level not to high)
- Aim to start the third last tap 11 hours and second last 7 hours before
oxygen stop.
- Maintain/reduce the plant pressure to 2.8 bar if the hot metal temperature
is still acceptable to operate the plant with more oxygen tuyeres
- Compare burden level in the shaft (temperature indications) with the
discharge rate of the DRI screw and adjust the speed for the required melting
rate.
- Perform third last tap and do not tap the MG dry.
If taping conditions are deteriorating (chocking of the tap hole, slag can not
be drained, cold tap)
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- Increase the plant pressure, adjust specific oxygen to the tuyeres, coke
rate and maintain the char bed level at LRO1605 (before tap) for one more
tap to achieve stable operation before further lowering of the char bed
- Aim to end the second last tap 7 hours before stop of oxygen and for
char bed level of approx. 3.1 m above tuyeres at the end of the second
last tap.
- Start to add 2 3 t/h fluorspar to the coal feed approx. 4 hours
before stop of oxygen.
- Change coal recipe to 30% CRE, 40% coke and 30% coal approx. 4
hours before stop of oxygen.
- Increase coal feed and reduce temporary oxygen flow to the tuyeres if
there is a sudden increase of dome temperature or CO2 in the cooling gas
(direct contact O2-gas above the char bed)
- Adjust water addition to the lower coal screw in dependence of dome
temperature.
- Proceed with charging DRI and LD slag (100% additives) to the
reduction shaft, when the shaft gets empty.
- Reduce addition of CRE/coke/coal if the char bed level is suspected to be
on higher side

2 hours before oxygen stop
Reduce the plant pressure to achieve conditions to open remaining closed
oxygen tuyeres, oxygen velocity 170 m/sec.
- Charge DRI and LD slag batch wise to the reduction shaft (only one
batch in the shaft).
- Charge coal mixture batches wise (1 to 3 batches in the coal charging
bin).
- Decrease further bustle gas temperature (if possible) to cool down
refractory.
- Perform the last tap.
- Reduce gradually oxygen flow to 24,000 m/h (or less if all oxygen
tuyeres are not available) and plant pressure accordingly to maintain oxygen
velocity of 170 m/sec.
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- Reduce charging of DRI to the reduction shaft for a melting rate of 30
t/h.
- Change coal recipe to 30% CRE, 70% coke and adjust LD slag via
reduction shaft.
- Reduce addition of CRE/coke if reaching of the char bed level of approx.
2 m above the tuyeres after stop of the plant is not ensured.
15 minutes before oxygen stop
Reduce plant pressure to 1.2 bar, oxygen to the tuyeres accordingly and tap
MG dry.
- Open the tap hole in the other cast house.
- Stop addition of DRI to the reduction shaft and DRI & coal screws in
dependence of estimated tap duration (reduction shaft empty and coal
charging bin nearly empty approx. 10 minutes before oxygen stop).
- Tap dry the furnace to maximum possible extent before closing of the tap
hole, close main tap hole and stop immediately the plant.
Stop oxygen and purge the plant
- Proceed with tapping in the second cast house during N2-ramping.
- Proceed with operation of the cooling gas compressor and with
decreasing of the reduction gas temperature up to 30C in a hour (if
possible) to cool down refractory.
When N2 ramping is almost completed (N2 = 5000 m3/h)
- Increase N2 to the injectors to 500 m/ h each for faster cooling of the
dome refractory.
- Open SOV3960 and start addition of N2 to the Melter gasifier via oxygen
line of dust burners (Block dome temperature and SOV-s for oxygen
addition to the dust burners) to cool down the dome refractory (limitation
total N2 consumption)
- Purge the plant by increasing of the plant pressure to approx. 1.5 and
decreasing to approx. 0.8 bar minimum 5 times with cooling gas compressor
in operation.
- Open after 1-2 hours main tap hole again collected hot metal & slag
- Depressurize the plant, partially via FRC2001 to purge the top gas
scrubbers, stop addition of N2 to ALL purging & cooling points including
pressure measurements with exception of N2 addition to sealing flap (small
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amount) and start with pocking of bustle slots and isolation of the plant from
gas users.
- Adjust pressure from zero to slightly positive pressure in the reduction
shaft, by adjustment of FRC2001 (SOV2905 & SOV2939 closed) to prevent
draft and fusing of dust in the bustle slots. Open PRC2003 and shut of
valves only if plant pressure is to high and pull out the DRI screws.
Maintain all the time slightly positive pressure in the reduction shaft (also
during pulling out of the DRI screws) to prevent penetration of air, fusing of
dust in bustle slots, formation of CO & heating of the shaft.
- Before pulling out of the next DRI screw, close tight the nozzles of
already dismantled screws to prevent entering of air.
- Purge the pipeline from isolating points to the flare as well as entire gas
system (combustibles < 5%) to prevent gas explosion at cold/hot face (gas
inlet at the pre- scrubbers), by opening of the safety valve and suction of air
(and/or LPG gas) via flare.
- Stop pooling out of the DRI screws, close tight all DRI screw nozzles,
close FRC2001 and maintain zero pressure via PRC2003, open safety valve
SOV2990 and close immediately PRC2203 and SOV2905 & SOV2939.
- Start with addition of small amount of N2 via two pocking holes to
prevent entering of air into bustle slots (if DRI screw nozzles not tight) and
start with breaking through of manhole refractory of the Melter gasifier.
- Complete pocking/cleaning of bustle slots and proceed after that with
dismantling of the DRI screws.
- In case, there are indications of final char bed level down than the
target level, charge 20 tons of CRE and 1 ton of burnt lime as a capping
material.


Start procedure after Mg Gunning:

Filling Of the Melter Gasifier & Reduction Shaft and Start of the Plant:
Preconditions & preparations
Assumptions for start & first day of operation of the plant

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All burnt tuyeres changed. Tuyeres poked. Temperature taken in
front of tuyeres found > 800
o
C. If required carry out lancing at least 4
tuyeres on cast house A.
Melter gasifier should be filled up to LRO 1605 (~ 50%) before
start of the plant and functioning of the level indicator should be
checked.
The plant should be pressurized to 2.5 bar and started with 3
oxygen tuyeres above the one tap hole with approx. 1800 m/h/tuyere.
Oxygen flow to be increased up to 2000 m/h/tuyere gradually and the
plant pressure to 3.5 bar. Two hours later one more tuyere should be
started and every hour one more until 10 tuyeres are in operation.
Further actuation of the tuyeres reduces the Velocity down while
maintaining the same Plant Pressure till the normal velocity of 190m /
sec attains
The plant should be operated by addition of DRI via coal line until
first tap and then switch over to the reduction shaft.
To move slowly the burden in the shaft during this period, the
DRI screws should be operated alternatively with only one screw in
operation (@0.3 rpm) and without addition of the reduction gas to the
reduction shaft (FRC2001 closed)
Nitrogen to all DRI screw nozzles should be kept open by 50%.
For the first hours of operation, fluorspar should be manually
added via the coal line. (Approx. 15 tons to be kept ready).

Filling of the MELTER GASIFIER via Coal line

Layer 1:

- Charge 30 t of CRE with LD slag & flourspar as per
Layer 2:
- Charge 18 t of CRE and 18 t of coke with DRI (unscreened), LD slag,
quartzite & flourspar as per
Layer 3:
- Charge CRE/coke (ratio 30/70), DRI (unscreened), LD slag, quartzite
& fluorspar as per Table 1.
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Preparations for filling up of the reduction shaft

- Close all manholes after completion of guniting, cleaning of the
reduction shaft and installation of DRI screws completed, pressurize the
plant to 2.5 bar, test DRI screws for function & leakage. If the DRI
screws are tight and free from leakage, filling of the reduction shaft can
start and minor maintenance works and tightening of smaller leakage
can be attended during filling of the reduction shaft
- Operate few times lock hopper-sealing flaps during pressure test and
check for leakage. If lower ore sealing flap is leak proof, the plant can
be started after charging of minimum 200 t of DRI to the reduction
shaft to charge DRI partly from the reduction shaft and be in position
to operate the plant for 2 3 taps before stop for filling of the shaft and
replacement of the O ring.
- Pressurize and depressurize the plant by N2 few times to purge O2
(<1%) before opening of the goggle valve and removing of blind to high
pressure gas line ( O2/gas mixture risk of explosion)
- Prepare the burden calculations for different melting rates for
different layers, Al2O3 content in slag around 12 %, basicity B2 around
1.02 and for Si-content in hot metal of the first tap from the reduction
shaft of approx. 2.5% and of the second tap approx. 2%.
- Consider 30 % Ensham coal and 70% SBW coal, grain size + 8 mm.
- Consider MONET ISPAT DRI with lower Al2O3 content for filling
of the reduction shaft and for changing over to 100% JVSL pellets
operation with Al2O3 content (~2.0%).
- During DRI charging the metal detectors and magnetic separators
are not operational, continuous control for foreign material must be
ensured.
- To minimize risk of ignition, DRI has to be kept dry, N2 has to be
continuously added to the bin in the stock house and an extensive care has to
be taken to prevent self-ignition of DRI and damages of equipment.
- With exception of LAYER # 1, which contains high amount of coke,
the shaft will be filled with 30% coke (by volume). The same coke
portion of 30% should be maintained until DRI is replaced by 100%
pellets, to minimize DRI consumption.

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Filling of the REDUCTION SHAFT
- Check that the charging distributor is in center position (position 1), to avoid
damaging of refractory by falling material
- Charge LAYER # 1: 15 batches equivalent to 90 m of coke/DRI/ LD slag as per
Table 2.
- Carry out functional tests of DRI screws for material discharge by
operating 6 DRI screws at 0.5 rpm for 5 minutes.
- Charge LAYER # 2: 13 batches equivalent to 130 m of burden mix with
DRI/Pellets (ratio 95/5), coke and LD slag as per Table 2.
- Charge LAYER # 3: 15 batches equivalent to 150 m of burden mix with
DRI/Pellets (ratio 95/5), coke and LD slag up to 4 mts above bustle
- Charge LAYER # 4: 31 batches equivalent to 310 m of burden mix with
DRI/Pellets (ratio 90/10), coke and LD slag and fill the shaft up to the top.
- LAYER # 4 to be continued till second tap.

Preparation of the plant for start & operation

- Put limitation for FRC8001 to 5% and SP for start of oxygen to 4000
m/h.
- Put limitation for FRC3020 for N2-ramping to 5% and SP to 4000 m/h.
In case of O2 stop operator should immediately switch FRC3020 to manual
and reduce the flow to approx. 1000 m/h
- Ensure connection between oxygen tuyeres and the char bed by
poking and if not possible by lancing, as there is a thick scull layer in
front of the tuyeres.
- Poke the tuyeres and check for flow
- Install the flyer (nozzle diameter 10-mm), test N2 & O2 flow
measurements and heat the sealing mass for approx. 30 minutes.
- Start addition of approx. 400 m/h N2/O2 mixture to the flyer, ratio
70/30, one hour before start of the plant and proceed as per the procedure
attached. Mud gun ready and filled with tap hole mass.
- Charge Layer 4 CRE/Coke (ratio 30/70), DRI, LD slag and quartzite to
the Coal-charging bin .Maintain charging bin level in LLZ.

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PLANT START
- Pressurize the plant to 2.5 bar. Start 3 tuyeres above the tap hole A,
check for ignition, adjust oxygen flow to the tuyeres to 1800 m/h/tuyere and
increase gradually the oxygen flow to 2000 m/h/tuyere and the plant
pressure to 3.5 bar (oxygen velocity 260 m/sec).
- Start N2 injectors for dust burners and operate the plant for
minimum 6 hours without oxygen to the dust burners to dry out slowly
gunning layer of refractory and limit later oxygen to dust burners to
750 m3/h/burner for next few hours of operation.
- Start the coal screws approx. 15 minutes after start of the plant (no
volatile & tar) and charge to the melter gasifier Layer 4 (Coal line)
- Adjust the speed of the coal screws to achieve filling rate of the char
bed of approx. 5 m/h (consumption + 5 m/h) until reaching approx.
50% on LRO1604 and maintain it at this level for minimum 6 hours for
better drying of gunitting layer.
- Charge Layer 5 (coal line) CRE/Coke (ratio 30/70), DRI, LD slag and
quartzite
- After exhausting all the CRE, switch over to Layer 6 with 100% Coke
till dome temperature reaches > 1000
o
C.
- Once dome reaches above 1000
o
C, start adding coal in the ratio of (coal
:coke) 30:70, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 as per the furnace demand.
When the dome temperature of approx. 700
0
C is reached
- Start cooling gas compressor and adjust the bustle gas temperature to
600C and increase it up to 50C/h to reheat slowly the refractory of the
ducts and cyclones
- Adjust N2 to the DRI screw nozzles to 30 - 50%, start one DRI screw
with 0.3 rpm and switch over every 5 minutes to the next one to move
slowly the burden in the shaft, without reduction gas (FRC2001 closed).
- Adjust Shaft batches according to the Taps and Hot metal & slag
Chemistry
- Watch regularly the discharge rate and the hydraulic pressure of the DRI
screws, the down pipe temperatures
- Open oxygen to one more oxygen tuyere every one-hour. Refer Table 3
for Tuyere Opening schedule.
- Perform the first tap approx. 10 hours after the start of the plant
(~100 t hot metal)
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If hot metal temperature is >1470 C, Si-content on higher side and
minimum 10 t of slag could be
taped and basicity & composition of slag is in a normal range
- Open oxygen to one more oxygen tuyere every hour or in longer time
intervals in dependence of tap.
- After first tap, switch over DRI addition from the coal line to the
reduction shaft and adjust additives
- Reduce the coke rate based on the tap conditions. if slag could not be
taped,
- Proceed to operate the plant with 10 (min 6) oxygen tuyeres & DRI
addition via coal line and start with addition of approx. 2 t/h fluorspar up to
the next tap If the next tap is successful
- Reduce additives to the coal and switch gradually addition of DRI to
the Melter gasifier from the coal line to the DRI screws
- Approx. 15 minutes after the start of DRI screws, switch the top gas flow
control flap FRC2001 to Manual mode and open it by 3% in order to preheat
slowly the refractories and proceed with increasing of the top gas flow.
- Reduce the top gas flow, increase the N2 to the nozzles of the DRI
screws and increase temporary the speed of the relevant DRI screw if
pressure loss in the reduction shaft is increasing and if there are signs of
abnormal operation of the DRI screws,
- When the bustle gas temperature of 800 C is reached, increase the SP of
the reduction gas in steps of 5 C every two hours till the temperature of 820
C is reached.
- As there is a big risk for blocking of the DRI screws during the first
day of operation, the specific top gas should be kept on lower side. Total
top gas flow = (melting rate x 1.5 x specific top gas). (The coke volume in
the burden is not considered for the calculation of the top gas flow.)
- If the dome temperature is too high and CO2 in the cooling gas can
not be maintained in the normal range (CO2 < 5%) and oxygen flow is
already reduced to 1000 m/h/Burner, start with addition of mill scale
- Check and adjust in time additives to coal for every new LAYER
charged from the reduction shaft to the Melter gasifier
- Proceed with charging of 30% by volume coke to the reduction shaft
until the burden is changed to 100% pellets
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- Reduce in steps the coke addition to the reduction shaft to normal
values and proceed with increase of melting rate acc. to the Standard
table for start of the plant, considering long shut down and plant
conditions
- Proceed with adjustment of additives to the reduction shaft for
higher melting rates.



Guidelines for Melting Rate and No of Tuyeres in Operation

Time after
oxygen start
Melting
rate
No. of
tuyeres
Total tuyere
oxygen
Plant pressure
0 hrs 3 3 6000 2.5
2 hrs 8 4 7200 3.5
3 hrs 10 5 9000 3.5
4 hrs 12 6 10800 3.5
5 hrs 14 7 12600 3.5
6 hrs 16 8 14400 3.5
7 hrs 18 9 16200 3.5
8 hrs 25 10 18000 3.5


















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LRO 1602 (22.4mts)
27 mts
MAN
COAL
IN LINER
LRO 1604 (20.25.4mts)
LRO 1603 (21.4 mts)
LRO 1605
(18.35mts)
LRO 1606
(16.55mts)
TUYERE
TAP HOLE
TARGET LEVEL (16.12
mts)
GU
N
GUIDE CHAINS
FROM DRI DROP
BOX CHAINS
MANHOLE
FLANGE
LRO 1601(23.45mts)
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PART II COREX MECHANICAL

Introduction:

After deliberation and thorough discussion on the process, it is equally
important to know the equipment and maintenance involved in it. Broadly
two types of maintenance namely mechanical, electrical and automation are
involved in operating all process equipments.


An attempt has been made to describe different types of mechanical
equipment and its description in details. During revamping as well as
erection of equipment the function of each shall be described on the job.
Prior to this it is important to learn the equipment erection area wise, system
wise, referring its available drawings.

COAL SCREW CONVEYOR

Equipment No: 323F01 & 323F03.
Function of coal screw conveyor 323F01
The coal screw conveyors are horizontally arranged compact conveying
units for the metering and conveying of coal and aggregates from charging
bin to CSCF03 through chute.

Technical Data: 323F01.
Dimensions and weight:
Length: 9036mm, width: 2214mm,Height: 2608mm & Total weight:
Approx. 14200kgs or 14.2tons.

Specification:
Gastight welded construction. Design pressure is max 4.8 bar
Capacity: Max. 140t/hr, Design temp. Max. 200deg. C
Drive system: Variable Hydraulic drive, Max operating pr. 180bar, and Max
speed 20rpm. Direction Anticlockwise rotation

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Function of coal screw conveyor 323F03
The coal screw conveyors are horizontally arranged compact conveying
units for the metering and conveying of coal and aggregates from CSCF01
to Meltergasifier through coal riffler.

Technical Data: 323F03 with cooling system.
Dimensions and weight:
Length: 9275mm, width: 2135mm,Height: 2108mm & Total weight:
Approx. 14000kgs or 14tons.

Specification:
Gastight welded construction. Design pressure is max 4.8 bar
Capacity: Max. 150t/hr, Design temp. Max. 200deg. C
Cooling water-working pressure is 6.5bar, Max pressure is 11bar.
Cooling water flow: Approx. 40cub.m/hr.
Drive system: Variable Hydraulic drive, Max operating pr. 180bar, and Max
speed 20rpm. DirectionClockwise rotation.

Equipment Description: 323F01 & 323F03.

Housing:
The housings consist of a solid welded construction with inlet and outlet
flange studs for material, with screwed bearing flange covers at both housing
front faces, a flange stud for inspection purposes within the material feeding
area, two wheel brackets to raise and lower as well as extend and retract the
CSCs, and a supporting bracket to ensure perfect seat of the CSC on the steel
structure of the Corex plant.

Screw shaft:
The conveyor screw is a tubular construction with studs shrunk in and
welded at both sides. Within the area of material feeding highly wear
resistant flight segments are fastened on the shaft using stop rings and
secured against rotation. Flights made of wearing plates are welded onto the
tubular shaft in the rear conveying area.
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The screw shaft for CSC F03 is designed for being cooled with water. In the
interior of the screw shaft a tubular body is installed for cooling water
displacement,

Bearing of screw shaft:
Self-aligning roller bearings (23134CCK/W33) are used at both sides to
support the shaft. In case of the fixed bearing an additionally provided axial
self-aligning roller bearing (29332 E) is used to take up the axial forces
caused by conveying.

Drive:
The screw shaft drive consists of a hollow shaft mounted helical gearbox
and a hydraulic motor (axial piston type) connected via flexible coupling
and flanged at the gear housing. The gear torque is supported on a bracket
screwed on the housing flange.

Cooling water supply:
Cooling water flows in and out via rotating unions screwed into the shaft
ends. Protection against rotation respective supporting takes place either at
the coupling lantern (at the drive side), or at a bracket fastened on the
bearing housing (fixed bearing side). Flexible lines only shall be connected
to the rotating unions.

Sealing:
Flanges gaskets made of graphite-coated metal washers are used for the
material line. O-rings are used for housing and bearing flanges as well as for
manhole covers. Multistage labyrinths filled with grease and two shaft
sealing rings directed towards the labyrinths are used to protect the shaft
bearing against entry of dirt and contaminants the sealing effect is increased
by using a nitrogen gas to assist the labyrinth sealing.
Roto-glyd-rings are provided at the bearing outer cover to make the screw
shaft gas tight.

Lubrication:
Grease holes RP1/4 at the bearing covers are used to lubricate the screw
shaft bearings, item 1 &2 acc. to lubrication chart. They are not only used to
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lubricate the anti friction bearings but also to provide the labyrinths with
grease to protect the bearings against entry of contaminants.
Rotating unions, items 4 & 5, are lubricated acc. to the lubrication chart at
the lubricating nipples.

Lifting and Landing Wheel Unit Mobile Hydraulic Hand
Pump:
The lifting and landing wheel unit of the CSC is used as assembling resp.
disassembling utility and consists of the mobile hydraulic hand pump, the
instrument panel and four hydraulic cylinders, which are connected with the
guiding part of the wheel. Two front wheels are supported in a rigid wheel
fork where as the other two rear wheels are supported in a swiveling wheel
fork.

General maintenance Instructions:
Inspection (visual check) of the coal screw shall be done during every shift.

- All pressure bearing parts must be inspected (Like - Sound, lubrication
points, temperature, Vibration, Water& Nitrogen flow, Cleanness & any
leakage ...etc.)
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DRI-SCREW CONVEYOR
Equipment no: 333F01 to F06
Function of DRI screw:
The DRI screw conveyors are horizontally arranged compact conveying
units for the metering and conveying of DRI and additives at elevated
temperature from reduction shaft to Melter gasifier through DRI down pipe
& drop box.

Technical Data:
Dimension & weight:
Length- 7215mm, width- 2115mm, Height- 2286mm & total weight-
16000kgs. Or 16tons.

Specification:
The DRI-screw conveyor is a tube shaft with welded on flights supported
in a flange-type bearing housing in an overhung position.
Design pressure max -4.8bar, Max. Working temp. 800deg C, Capacity
30t/hr, Cooling water-working pressure is 4to5bar, Max pressure is 8bar,
Cooling water flow- Approx. 100cub.m/hr.
Drive system: Variable Hydraulic drive, Max operating pr. 280bar, Max
speed 4rpm and DirectionClockwise rotation (it can operate both direction).

Equipment Description:
Main Housing:
The housings consist of a flange-type bearing housing in an overhung
position, with screwed bearing end cover at drive side & other side screwed
heat cover. Flanged type mounting on the reduction shaft flange.

Finished shaft:
The screw conveyor is a tube shaft construction, with welded-on flights
(paddles). Paddles made of high chrome nickel caste steel (AISI309S) with
hard faced; Hardness should 58 to 62 HRC. The paddles are different size&
quantity is 56 nos.
The screw shaft designed for being cooled with water.
In the interior of the screw shaft a tubular body is installed for cooling water
displacement,

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Bearing of Finished shaft:
The screw conveyor is a tube shaft construction, with welded-on paddles,
supported in a bearing main housing in an over hung position. The radial
bearing is done in a self-aligning Spherical roller bearing
(239/500CAC3/W33- 2nos), whereas an angular contact ball bearing is used
for axial load (719/500AGMB-02nos.)

Drive system:
The tube shaft is driven by a gear wheel, which is fastened by means of a
locking device, for toque transmission to tube shaft. A pinion arranged
below the tube shaft, and an integrated hydraulic drive (Planetary gear box
with hyd. Motor), mounted on the pinion shaft and fastened there with
shrink disc coupling, is provided to drive the spur gear.

Cooling system:
1.Finished shaft cooling, 2.Main Housing cooling and 3. Heat
cover cooling.
1.The cooling water for the finished shaft is delivered and drained-off
through a rotary union housing & end cover, which is provided at the rear
end of the finished shaft. The cooling water flows into the inner chamber of
the cooling tube, by a stationary inlet tube that is arranged in the shaft
center. The water flowing backs the annular space between cooling tube and
finished shaft.

2.The cooling ring cools the housing within the bearing area. A wall inside
the cooling ring separates the two cooling water flows (size: pipe). The
cooling water connections are arranged side by side in the upper flange half.

3.Cooling of heat cover is done by separate cooling water connections,
whereby the forward flow of the cooling water is arranged at the lower
flange half and the return flow at the upper flange half (size: 1pipe).

Sealing system:
A radial piston ring, a labyrinth and a spring washer are provided at the
reduction shaft side of the main bearing to protect it against entry of
contaminants. To increase the sealing effect the space between piston ring
and labyrinth seal is additionally pressurized with nitrogen as blocking
medium.
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Lubrication:

The main bearings & rotary union bearings have to be lubricated daily.. Oil
immersion lubrication is provided for the two driving gear wheels.
Re-lubrication in short intervals is mainly destined for the labyrinth and
improves its function.

General maintenance Instructions:
Inspection (visual check) of the DRI screw shall be done during every shift.

- All pressure bearing parts must be inspected (Like - Sound, lubrication
points, temperature, Vibration, Water flow, Nitrogen flow , Cleanness & any
leakage ...etc.). Water outlet temperature should not be more than 50 deg. C

LOCK HOPPER FOR ORE AND COAL:

Function of Lock Hopper For Coal:
The coal and additives are charged by skip hoist to the upper part of the lock
hopper system being an open feeding bin, Which can be closed at the bottom
by a double flap gate, This gate is a combination of a material blocking flap
and a gas sealing flap.

By opening this gate the material will be released into the depressurized lock
chamber beneath, which is connected to the N2 purging system. The
chamber will be pressurized with N2 after each charging cycle. The chamber
discharges at the bottom into an intermediate storage hopper through a
similar double flap gate as described above.

Coal screw conveyors will do discharge from the intermediate storage
hopper with adjustable speed for the control of coal flow into the Melter
gasifier.

Function of Lock Hopper For Oxide Material & Additives:
The oxide & additives charging system is working in the similar manner as
the coal charging system.

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The feeding hopper carries out charging of the reduction shaft directly and
continuously through the distribution device into the shaft. The level in this
hopper is measured continuously and a low signal initiates the recharging of
the hopper.

Technical Data:
Main Dimensions (for one valve casing)
Overall width: 2995mm, Overall height: 2850mm, Upper & Bottom
connection flange type & total weight: 11500kgs.
Specifications:
Design Temperature- 200 deg. C; Design pr.- 4.8bar,operating pr. -3.3bar,
operating temp. -Ambient, operating sequence-16times/hr & Flow rate at
material flap- 025cub.m/sec.
Opening & closing time of the flaps- min 5sec & max depends on
customers required.

Equipment Description:
Pressure vessels:
Pressure vessels consists of two connection flanges, semi spherical bottom,
cylindrical casing, inside cone, two inspection manholes and connection for
measurements. The lower ore seal ring is provided with cooling, the coal
lower & upper seal ring provided with heating to avoid the seal damage.

Drives:
Drives for material & seal flaps are strictly identical, this can be
interchanged. All bearings, combined with an integrated double seal, are
located in the drive housing, outside pressure tank. The support on one side
allows rapid installation and removal. A hydraulic cylinder actuates the drive
lever.

Seal Flap:
The seal flap is screwed on the drive arm by anchor bolts. The flaps sealing
surface hard-faced with ground finish.

Seal Ring:
The seal seat is in the area hard-faced; this is screwed on the conical casing
of the pressure vessels. The sealing is ensured by a Silicon rubber O ring,
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built in the trapezoid groove. The seal seats are made for gas cooling or oil
heating.

Material Flap:
The material flap is screwed to the drive arm by anchor bolts, its all in one
piece and made of wear- resistant material.

Lubrication:
Lubrication points are connected to the central lubrication system. A main
lubricator provides the lubrication of each single drive. The distribution is
made by lubrication valves every 8hours they are lubricated each one with
0.6ccm.

General maintenance Instructions:
Inspection (visual check) of the lock hopper shall be done during every shift.
All pressure bearing parts must be inspected (Like - Sound, lubrication
points, temperature, Vibration, Oil & Nitrogen flow , Cleanness & any
leakage ...etc.)


DUST RECYCLING SYSTEM:

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION:
Hot Gas Cyclone:
The hot generator gas, leaving the melter gasifier is dedusted in the
refractory lined hot gas cyclone before entering the reduction furnace. The
dust consists of coal, coke and iron particles.

The dedusting takes place in the upper part of the hot gas cyclone where the
vortex tube is installed. In the lower part of the hot gas cyclone the dust is
collected. To prevent the back stream of collected dust to the upper part a
displacement cone (Chinese cap) is installed below the vortex tube. To
prevent coarse particle to enter the down stream are provided Grid the lower
part of the hot gas cyclone.

Purge plugs are installed in the cones of hot gas cyclone and lower dust bins
for fluidization purposes.

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Dust shut - off valves:
Dust shut-off valves are installed below hot gas cyclones and below the
lower dust bins.
During normal operation of the COREX plant they are in open position and
only used for maintenance purposes to block the dust flow.

Disc gate valve:
Disc gate valves are installed below hot gas cyclones and above the lower
dust bins.
Hydraulically operated, hydraulic operating pressure is 50 bars, Shaft L-
type with water cooled, disc type and cooling plate with water cooled. This
valve have a different configuration, nothing but a isolation valve.

Lower Dust Bins:
The hot dust, collected in lower dust bins is transported by means of
nitrogen to the dust burners and burnt in the melter gasifier using oxygen.
The combustion takes place in front of the dust burners.

Grids are installed in the lower part of the hot gas cyclone and in the lower
dust bin to safeguard the adjacent built in equipment against coarse particles.

Knife Edge gate valve (KGV) is installed at the emergency discharge
nozzles of the hot gas cyclones, the Lower dust bins, and below the T-piece
of the dust recycling line.

During normal operation of COREX- plant they are in closed position and
only used to empty the dust recycling systems for maintenance purposes.


TECHNICAL DATA:
HOT GAS CYCLONE (RC 351 A01 to A04)
-Dimensions: Outside diameter-3100 mm & Overall length-13030 mm
-Analysis of gas atmosphere:
The gas atmosphere is reducing and contents Sulphur:
CO 64 %
CO2 3 %
H2 28 %
CH4 1 %
N2 2 %
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H2S 600-1000 ppm

-Analysis of dust
C approx 60 %
S approx 1 %
Fe approx 20 %
Gangue approx 19 %
Grain size approx 0.020-0.250 mm
Bulk density approx 0.25-1.0 t/m
Temperature approx 850-900C

- Gas temperature inside hot gas cyclone: Normal 850C& Max.
1100C
- Pressure inside hot gas cyclone: Normal 3.30 bar g & Max 4.80 bar g
- Gas flow: Normal 54500 m/h & Max 66000 m/h
- Dust content of generator gas: Normal 115 g/m & Max 200 g/m




LOWER DUST BIN (RC 352 B11 to B14)

-Dimensions:
Outside diameter - 2300 mm & Overall length - 4000 mm
-Analysis of gas atmosphere:
The gas atmosphere is reducing and contents Sulphur:
CO 32 %
CO2 2 %
H2 13 %
CH4 1 %
N2 50 %
H2S 600-1000 ppm

-Analysis of dust
C approx 60 %
S approx 1 %
Fe approx 20 %
Gangue approx 19 %
Grain size approx 0.020-0.250 mm
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Bulk density approx 0.25-1.0 t/m

Temperature approx 850-900C
- Gas temperature inside hot gas cyclone: Normal 820C& Max. 900C

- Pressure inside hot gas cyclone: Normal 3.30 bar g & Max 6.50 bar g



DUST BURNER (RC 353 A21 to A24)
Dimensions: Diameter 605 mm & Length - 2645 mm
Connection flange to melter gasifier DN300
Connection flange to oxygen inlet DN 100
Dust inlet connection DN 150
Water inlet connection DN 80
Water recirculation inlet and Outlet connection -DN 80
Water outlet connection DN 80

Analysis of dust: Carbon - approx 60 %
Sulphur - approx 1 %
Fe approx 20 %
Gangue approx 19 %
Grain size approx 0.020-0.250 mm
Bulk density approx 0.25-1.0 t/m
Temperature approx 700C

Operating pressure approx norm -3.30 bar g & Max 4.80 bar g
Dust flow rate approx. norm 4.5 5 t/h & Max 8 t/h
Oxygen:
Flow rate up to 3000m/h each burner
Supply pressure normal 10barg
Supply temperature approx 30C
Purity 99.5 %
Nitrogen:
Flow rate up to 1000m/h each burner through Injector
Supply pressure normal 10bar g
Supply temperature approx 30C
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Purity 90 %
Cooling water
Flow rate up to 30 m/h each burner
Working pressure normal 9barg
Inlet temperature approx 36C


SAFETY MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

General:
Inspections (visual check) of the entire COREX disc gate shall be done
during every shift.

- Correct cooling water pressure, indicated in cooling water header,
after each COREX disc gate.
- final positions of hydraulic cylinder
- oil leakages at the hydraulic cylinder and piping to hydraulic unit
- wall temperatures (hot spots) on body

Particular safety instructions
- Any maintenance or repair work on the COREX disc gate, which
requires an opening of a flange connection can only be done during
shutdown of the COREX plant.
- Before opening of a flange connection, COREX-plant has to be
purged with nitrogen
- Always special care has to be taken whilst opening of a flange
connection, because hot dust and hot toxic gas might come out. Using of
leather hand gloves is recommended
- Every flange connection, which was open during a COREX-plant
shutdown, has to be checked with pressure before COREX-plant start up.

Inspection sequence

- For the first preventive maintenance the COREX disc gate shall be checked
approx. 6 months after start up of the COREX plant. Afterwards the
maintenance sequence has to be adjusted accordingly.
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VENTURI SCRUBBER SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
The venturi scrubbers are important parts of the gas cleaning system in the
COREX plant.
For final cleaning and pressure control of cooling gas, top gas and excess
gas the following equipments are required.

Cooling gas adjustable venturi scrubber - 366S03
Top gas adjustable venturi scrubber - 363S02
Excess gas adjustable venturi scrubber DN 400 - 365S05
Excess gas adjustable venturi scrubber DN 800 - 365S01

FUNCTION

The design of the venturi scrubbers for cooling, top, and excess gas is almost
similar and will be described below.
Cooling and top gas packing scrubber which are located upstream of the
adjustable venturi scrubbers for pre-scrubbing, quenching and cooling of the
process gases

FINE SCRUBBING

The fine scrubbing of cooling gas, top gas and excess gas occurs in the
adjustable venturi scrubbers. The venturi scrubbers are mainly
characterized by its axially adjustable conical body, which forms an
annular gap together with its conical casing
The annular gas scrubber works as a system which at the same time serves
as a fine cleaning stage and for the noiseless reduction of the furnace
pressure to the main pressure of the pipe net of excess and export gas. To be
able of handling variable excess gas flows; two parallel excess gas
adjustable venturi scrubbers of DN 400 and DN 800 are installed.
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During normal operation, the excess gas flow via the venturi scrubber DN
800 is shut off by means of a damper. The gases are cleaned to ensure the
residual dust content is below the guaranteed values.
Upstream of each annular gap scrubber a nozzle zone is located in such a
way that a pointed water injection into the annular gap is guaranteed.
Water is injected by means of flat jet nozzles into an area having a low gas
velocity.
To maintain the required operating conditions of the plant automatically, an
electro hydraulic adjusting unit will be used for the adjustment of the
annular gap scrubbers.
The adjustable conical venturi scrubbers are inter-connected to the
appertaining hydraulically operated cylinder by means of rods.

OPERATION TECHNICAL DATA
COOLING GAS:
Normal operation
Gas flow rate V (STP) 76,000 m/h
Gas inlet:
-temp approx 50C
-pressure p(g) 320 kPa
-dust content S (STP) 0.3 g/m

Gas outlet
-temp < 35C
-dust content S (STP) < 10 mg/m
-droplet content S (STP) < 1 g/m
Scrubbing water:
-flow rate 70 m/h
-temperature 35C
Gas analysis:
CO 63.5%
CO2 2.5 %
H2 28.5 %
H2O 2.0 %
CH4 1.0 %
N2 + Ar 2.5 %
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Gas velocity normal operation
Inlet pipe 8.8 m/s
Venturi scrubber 60-80m/s
Water separator 1.6 m/s
Mist eliminator
Inlet 6.2 m/s
Outlet 12.2 m/s
Pressure loss
- Venturi scrubber 30-40 kPa
- Mist eliminator 2 kPa
Water flow rate, specific
Venturi scrubber 0.82 l/m (STP) gas


EXCESS GAS
Normal operation max
operation
Gas flow rate V (STP) 15000 84000 m/h
Gas inlet:
-temp approx 37 37C


-pressure p (g) 320 320 kPa
-dust content S (STP) 0.5 0.5 g/m

Gas outlet
- Temp < 35 35C
- pressure 160 160 kPa
- dust content S (STP) < 5 5 mg/m
- Droplet content S (STP) < 5 1 g/m

Scrubbing water:
- Flow rate 30 110 m/h
- Temperature 35 35C

Gas analysis:
CO 63.5%
CO2 2.5 %
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H2 28.5 %
H2O 2.0 %
CH4 1.0 %
N2 + Ar 2.5 %

Venturi scrubber DN 400 for normal operation.
Venturi scrubber DN 800 for maximal operation.

Gas velocity normal operation max operation
Inlet pipe
-400 mm dia 3.5-0.5 m/s 14 m/s
-800 mm dia
Venturi scrubber
-DN400 50-180 m/s
-DN800 - 200-250 m/s
Water separator 0.3 5.4 m/s
Mist eliminator
Inlet 1.5 26.5 m/s
Outlet 2.1 33.8 m/s
Pressure loss
Venturi scrubber < 310kPa
Mist eliminator 0.1 - 7 kPa
Specific Water flow rate
DN 400 4-6 l/m
DN 800 1.3 l/m
TOP GAS
Normal operation
Gas flow rate V (STP) 145,000 m/h
Gas inlet:
- Temp approx 37C
- Pressure p(g) 240 kPa
- dust content S (STP) 0.5 g/m
Gas outlet
-temp < 35C
-dust content S (STP) < 5 mg/m
-droplet content S (STP) < 1 g/m
At p (g) = 20 kPa < 1 g/m
At p (g) = 200 kPa < 2 g/m
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Scrubbing water:
- flow rate 180 m/h
- Temperature 35C

Gas analysis:
CO 42.0%
CO2 31.5%
H2 20.5 %
H2O 2.0 %
CH4 1.0 %
N2 + Ar 3.0 %

Gas velocity normal operation
Inlet pipe 12.5 m/s
Venturi scrubber 75-215 m/s
Water separator 2.4-6 m/s
Mist eliminator
Inlet 9.7-25.6 m/s
Outlet 12.6-33.3 m/s
Pressure loss
Venturi scrubber 40-220 kPa
Mist eliminator 3.5-9 kPa
Water flow rate, specific
Venturi scrubber 1.1 l/m (STP) gas
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION:
Top gas system
RC01.363 S02 Adj. Venturi scrubber DN 1200
RC01.363 S03 Mist eliminator
RC01.363 S04 Water separator
RC01.363 S05 Water level control tank
Excess gas system
RC01.365 S01 Adj. Venturi scrubber DN 800
RC01.365 S02 Mist eliminator
RC01.365 S03 Water separator
RC01.365 S04 Water level control tank
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RC01.365 S05 Adj. Venturi scrubber DN 400
Cooling gas system
RC01.366 S03 Adj. Venturi scrubber DN 1000
RC01.366 S04 Mist eliminator
RC01.366 S05 Water separator

Top Gas Scrubber Equipment
The top gas scrubber equipment consisting of adjustable venturi scrubber,
water separator, mist eliminator and water level control tank serves for fine
cleaning of top gas, coming from the top gas packing scrubber.
In addition the venturi scrubber will continuously control the gas pressure.

Excess Gas Scrubber Equipment
The top gas scrubber equipment consisting of two adjustable venturi
scrubbers, water separator, mist eliminator and water level control tank
serves for fine cleaning of excess gas, coming from the cooling gas packing
scrubber.
In addition the venturi scrubber will continuously control the gas pressure.
For treating the excess gas, one venturi scrubber for normal operation and
the one for maximal load have been installed.
The venturi scrubbers are used for controlling of the pressure in split range
mode. The reason for this is that the gas quantities differ extremely.
During normal operation, the supply of excess gas scrubber which is out of
operation is shut off by means of damper.

Cooling Gas Scrubber Equipment
The cooling gas scrubber equipment consisting of adjustable venturi
scrubber, water separator and Mist eliminator serves for fine cleaning of
cooling gas coming from the cooling gas packing scrubber.
In addition, the venturi scrubber will continuously control the gas pressure.


Water separation for venturi scrubbers:

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Most of injected water will be separated in the separators which are located
below the venturi scrubbers. The remaining free droplets in the gas stream
will be separated in the mist eliminators, which are located at down stream.
The water discharges from the top gas and excess gas venturi scrubber
equipment flows to tanks, which are located below the water separators and
which are equipped with the level control devices.
The water discharged from the cooling gas venturi scrubber equipment flows
to the cooling gas packing scrubber, which is equipped with the level control
devices.


STAVES COOLING AND BOTTOM COOLING SYSTEM
Function:
The staves cooling system provides the required precondition for cooling the
melter gasifier under operation conditions to ensure the right cooling of the
refractory work in front of the staves. The staves are applied to the inside of
the melter gasifier.

Technical Data :( 381 to 388)
Dimensions and weight:
Length: 1960mm, width: 1037 mm, thickness: 190mm & Total weight:
Approx. 2340kgs.
Specification:
The staves are installed from row 1 to row 8, Number of staves: 252 nos,
Staves made of SG iron for row no: 1to 8, Flow rate: 1650 Cub M / Hr. Max.
Pressure-10 bar.

Equipment Description:
Elastomer joints:
These elements are placed while preparing the staves, just before the
erection. The elastomers are placed in between the MG shell and staves of
the water inlet and outlet tubes.

Steel washers (fixed & sliding):
Fixed washers, generally placed on the lower part of the stave at the fixed
point (except row 4 & row 8). After the compression of the elastomer joints
they are only tack welded on the shell and on the protecting pipe of the water
inlet tubes. Sliding washers, generally placed on the upper part of the stave
at the movable point (except row 4 & row 8).
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Filling products (Plasmag-Fibrous Mastic):
Plasmag is put in place as soon as a row of staves is completed. (After
welding of all washers) fibrous mastic is placed by using it as a framework
for the pouring of the plasmag. It is recommended to start the operation as
soon as half a row of staves is placed in position.

Compensators:
These parts are used to allow freedom of movement for the inclination and
the vertical displacement of the protective pipes when the staves move about
as a result of expansion.
They are welded on the shell and on the water outlet tubes of the staves at
right angles to the mobile points.




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COOLING GAS COMPRESSOR
Equipment description:
The positive displacement Compressor (rotary lobe blower, Roots principle)
is used for conveying of cooling gas .The compressor is driven by an electric
motor via a reduction gearbox. Direction of rotation is counter clock-wise
seen on the driving shaft of the blower. The shaft of the main motor is
connected to a slow-rolling motor by means of an overrunning coupling.
The separate lubrication units are provided for compressor and gearbox.

The oil systems comprise major components as follows:
2 electrical driven oil pumps, one is serving as main pump, the other one
as auxiliary Pump.
Oil tank including heating device
Heat exchanger with water Ilow
Duplex oil Iilter
A rotary piston compressor consists of the following main parts:
1 cylinder 2 slide plates 2 rotary pistons
1 gear case 1 housing cover 4 mechanical seals
The sealing of the shaft passages between conveying chamber and oil
chamber is separate by means of oil block & mechanical seals.
In order to make sure a complete separation between conveying medium and
lubricating oil labyrinths are purged with nitrogen

TECHNICAL DATA:
The main dimensions of units are (length x width x height)
9200 x 8100 x 7200
Conveying medium cooling gas
Density 2, 97
Volume flow at suction side 480 kg/m
3

Intake pressure 2, 8 m3/min.
Intake temperature 45 bar (g)
Discharge pressure 3,8 bar (g)
Discharge temperature 73
0
C
Different pressure 1000 mbar
Compressor speed 405 rpm
Power consumption at
Compressor coupling 1030 kW
Motor speed 1785 rpm
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Motor rating 1800 kW
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:
The hydraulic system serves for supply of hydraulic fluid to the consumer
likes Interlocking devices, Charging distributor, Corex disc gates, DRI screw
conveyor, coal gate valve, Coal screw conveyor, Venturi scrubber, Mud gun
M/C, Tap hole M/C & Skip hoist. The pressure generate in the power pack ,
its serve the Pressure relief valve , Control valve, actuator & motor then
come back to system.

The Hydraulic unit consists of.
- An oil tank - Pump station - an accumulator station -
control valves boxes - Circulation system - and the
return line filter.

TECHNICAL DATA:

Hydraulic Oil HLP46 according to DIN 51524.

Tank capacity 8000litres for Inter locking, DRI screw, CSC & Charging
distributor.

Tank capacity 1200litres for Venturi scrubber system

Tank capacity 2000litres for Tap hole opening & closing system.

Inter locking Pumps:
1 + 1 pump approx. 97cdm3/ min, 180 bar, 1750 rpm & 37KW

DRI screw Pumps:
6 + 1 pump Approx. 105 cdm3/ min, 280 bar, 1750 rpm & 55KW

Coal screw Pumps:
2 + 1 pump Approx. 230 cdm3/ min, 160 bar, 1750 rpm & 55KW

Disc gate Pumps:
1 + 1 pump Approx. 225 cdm3/ min, 50 bar, 1750 rpm & 22KW

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Recirculation Station - Approx. 330 cdm3/ min, 7 bar, 1750 rpm, 11KW,
cooler 225 lpm of water at temp. 35 deg. C, Filter 660Cdm3 / min., 10
microns & Operating temp. 45 deg, C

Return line Filter 2600 Cdm3 / min., 25 micron

Venturi scrubber Pumps:
1 + 1 pump approx. 100 lpm, 190 bar, 1200 rpm & 37KW

Recirculation Station - Approx. 55lpm, 10 bar, 1500 rpm, 2.2KW, cooler
20 lpm of water at temp. 35deg. C, Filter 100lpm, 10 micron &
Operating temp. 45 deg, C

Tapping Equipment Pumps:
2 + 1 pump Approx. 100 cdm3/ min, 270 bar, 1200 rpm & 54 HP
(42KW)

Recirculation Station - Approx. 49lpm, 15 bar, 1500 rpm, 3.45KW, cooler
60 lpm of water at temp. 35deg. C, Filter 100lpm, 10 micron &
Operating temp. 45 deg, C

COAL DRYING PLANT:
DESCRIPTION AND FUNCTION OF HOT GAS GENERATOR:

The hot gas generator consists of an outer surface, s spiral housing, the
combustion chamber and a telescopic muffle mixing chamber. The
combustion chamber is lined with mould able refractory materials. This
horizontal type is a direct hot gas generator.

The mixing air is led into the hot gas generator via the spiral type inlet, into
the annular gates between the outer shell and the combustion muffle into the
telescope muffle mixing chamber and is there loaded up and mixed with the
waste gases of the burner. The gas air mixture reaches a temperature of
maximum 220 deg C as required.

Description of Gas Burner: Burner can be used to burn DR mixed gas as
well as LPG gas. It can be adjusted continuously over a wide performance
range. Air and gas quantity is provided by means of an air and a gas control
valve delivered by customer. Ignition is by means of a gas electric pilot
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burner. Two optical electronic flame monitoring devices provided for the
safety of the burner operation. To burn DR mixed gas in the burner a gas
chamber with a correct number of gas nozzles is used. LPG gas is burn with
the help of a lance in the centre of the burner.

COMPONENTS OF THE BURNER:
The burner consists primarily of the burner casing (air casing) with the front
panel. On front panel are assembled the pilot burner, the two UV scanners
and a peep hole.

The DR mixed gas came form distribution chamber to the gas chamber. At
this way the burner has a different number of gas nozzles for burning. The
LPG gas comes from distribution tube to the central burner lance. The
burner casing with two gas chambers accommodates all assemblies and
attachments.

Pilot burner is situated near the centre of the front panel and around the LPG
Pipe is attached the baffle plate at the side of the combustion chamber. It
serves to stabilize the flame. The baffle plate can be adjusted in the axial
direction.
The burner is ignited by means of the gas electric pilot burner provided with
a separate ionization control.

The main flame is monitored by two ultra violet flame monitoring devices.

Technical Data:

Equipment
No 146D01 TO 146D06
Description Vibrating Coal Drier
Quantity 6
Location
Coal Drying Plant Line -
01 to 06
Type DBM 1800x12
Make BINDER + CO AG
Specification Length 1800 mm
Width 12 Mtrs
Amplitude (2a) 8 mm
Frequency 10 Hz
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Angle of
Oscillation 45 Deg
Drive Type IEC-B3/132 M 4
Protection IP 54
Power 7.5 kW
RPM 1480 rpm
Volts 3 x 440 volts


4 x V belt 17x11
(LW) 1970 mm
Eccentric 8 mm
Execution Trough
St 360 B Double shell,
insulated
Hood St 360 B Stationary
Open Area 5 % (approx)
Perforation 2 mm Dia



SKIP CHARGING
GENERAL:
The Skip System is used to hoist the raw material up to the top of the
COREX tower.

The skip systems in principal consists of the skip bucket, which is running
up and down along the skip bridge and the winch system with rope guidance
as well as supervision system for the control of the skip system.

The skip system has to control the speed at top and bottom very accurately
for safety. For the purpose of it each end positions are provided with
different limit switches which enable to control the speed of skip in steps.
The winch system of both skip hoists are provided with hydraulically
operated disk brakes for emergency purposes.


The skip motor is controlled by means of frequency converter.



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DESCIPTION OXIDE COAL
CAPACITY OF BUCKET 12 M3 12 M3
WEIGHT OF BUCKET
EMPTY
FULL

12.0 TONS
35.5 TONS

09.0 TONS
18.9 TONS
TRAVEL DISTANCE 110.8 Mtrs 99.3 Mtrs
BRIDGE INCLIBATION 55.0 57.7
CYCLES 8 Cycles/Hr 12 Cycles/Hr
SPEED 1.04 Mtrs/Sec 1.52 Mtrs/Sec
SPEED AT INSPECTION 0.1 Mtrs/Sec 0.1 Mtrs/Sec
CYCLE TIME 325 Secs 250.8 Secs
ROPE DIAMETER 48 mm 35 mm
GEAR RATIO 48.75 24.98
MOTOR SPEED 0 750 RPM 0 750 RPM
DIA OF ROAD DRUM 1300 mm 1300 mm
ROPE FORCE 297.055 N 158.390 N


SKIP OPERATION:
PRECONDITIONS
The Skip bucket must be parked at the bottom positioned.
All safety systems must indicate healthy conditions and satisfies the
interlock.
Select the local switch to remote.
The drive system (Frequency converter) must be operational and ready
without any fault indication.
Lock Hopper feeding bin is in empty condition.

START
Select skip hydraulic pump in sequence and give Start command to the
group.
Select electric motor in sequence.
Select skip charging bin gate in Auto.
Select skip group in Auto.
Give Start command to the Skip Group.

If the Oxide skip starts automatically, it first runs with empty bucket when
the feeding bin of lock hopper is empty. After this initial operation the skip
is now in auto mode ready for charging material accordingly.
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STOP
Give stop command: The command is complete when the Coal skip is at
bottom parking position.
If Coal Skip trips, it can only be controlled by local operation from the skip
winch station.

START SKIP IN MANUAL (from LOCAL BOX)
This mode can be used when the skip is tripped due to any problem or the
test is needed after maintenance.
Switch local switch to local from remote.
Switch group switch to manual from Auto in CCR.
Push UP or DOWN button switch and adjust the speed by the
potentiometer at the Local Control Box.
Stop the skip in any position by pushing STOP button.
If the skip control is interrupted and the skip bucket stops at other places
than at the bottom, it is necessary to bring the skip bucket down to bottom
parking position from the local control box. This ensures that the system is
investigated properly for eliminating the reason of fault.

SLACK ROPE
This is the signal to detect the loosening of wire rope.

ROPE LENGTH
Signal to detect the deviation of distance between the position of slow limit
switch and the input value of the cam switch.













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PART III ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION
CONTENTS

COREX ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION
THE DETAILS OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENTAION:
COREX TOWER (REDUCTION SHAFT & MELTER GASIFIER):
GENERAL:
In a operational point, the reduction shaft is used for reducing of iron carrier,
Calcining of lime and dolomite.

The melter gasifier is used for drying and degassing of coal generation of
reduction gas, performing of rest- reduction and melting of sponge to iron
and slag.

In this main process, it has many kinds of instrumentation system installed
such as Melter gasifier oxygen injection control system, dust recycling
control system, temperature & pressure monitoring system in the reduction
shaft coal and DRI charging control system.

THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM IN
MELTER GASIFIER:

EQUIPMENT

TYPE APPLICATION
ANALYSER CO/ CO2/ SO2/ O2 FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Gauges
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. / Audible/
Vari. Area type

FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER Radiation/ Radar/ UV
type

FOR FURNACE LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch

FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type

FOR TEMP. MEASUREMNT
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THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYS IN
REDUCTION SHAFT:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
SPEED TRANSMITTER ENCODER/
TACHOMETER
FOR SPEED
MEASUREMENT &
CONTROL
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT &
CONTROL
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
& CONTROL
ANALYSER CO/ CO2/ SO2/ O2 FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type FOR TEMP.
MEASUREMENT
VIBRATION TRANS. Vibra. Sensor FOR VIBRATION
MEASUREMENT

THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM IN
DUST RECYCLING SYS:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flow meter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER Radiation/ Radar/
UV type
FOR FURNACE LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
POSITION SENSOR Proximity switch/
Limit switch
FOR POSITION
MEASUREMENT
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated ON/OFF OPERATION

THE DETAILS OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENTAION:
GAS RECYCLING SYSTEM:
GENERAL:
The generated gas from the Melter Gasifier have to be sustained the proper
temperature and cleaned status.
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For this treatment, it has two type of equipment installed. One is the dust
removing equipment; the other is gas recycling and water treatment system.


THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM IN
SCRUBBER AREA:

EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
ANALYSER CO/ CO2/ H2/ O2/
H2S/ CH4
FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Gauges
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER Radiation/ Radar/
UV type
FOR LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
RTD Pt-100 FOR TEMP. MEASUREMNT

THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM IN WTP:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Gauges
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT &
CONTROL
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flow meter /
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
& CONTROL
ANALYSER CO/ CO2/ SO2/
PH/Conductivity
FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type FOR TEMP.
MEASUREMENT





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THE DETAILS OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENTAION:
COOLING GAS & AIR COMPRESSORS:
THE SPECIFICATION OF COOLING GAS COMPRESSOR
CONTROL SYSTEM:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages/Switch
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER Radiation/ Radar/
UV type/level switch
FOR LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
RTD Pt-100 FOR TEMP.
MEASUREMENT
VIBRATION
TRANSDUCER
Vibration Sensor FOR VIBRATION
MEASUREMENT

THE SPECIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION IN SGP:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT &
CONTROL
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
& CONTROL
ANALYSER CO/ CO2/ SO2/
PH/Conductivity
FOR GAS MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type FOR TEMP.
MEASUREMENT
POSITION TRANSMITTER Proximity/ limit
switch
FOR POSITION
MEASUREMENT

THE DETAILS OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENTAION:
STOCK HOUSE AND CHARGING SYS:
GENERAL:
This system is used for providing raw materials with the reduction shaft and
Melter gasifier. It is configured as follows.
A) Belt conveyor B) Bin and feeder C) Skip
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There are two kinds of instrumentation equipment, one is the raw material
weighing control equipment, and the other is the raw material charging
pressure adjustment equipment.

THE RAW MATERIAL WEIGHING CONTROL EQUIPMENT:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
LOAD CELL FOR WEIGHING
MEASUREMENT
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flow meter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER RADIATION TYPE FOR BIN LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type FOR TEMP. MEASUREMNT
WEIGHING CONTROL
PANEL
SCHENK J & N FOR WEIGHING CONTROL

THE COAL WEIGHING CONTROL EQUIPMENT:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
LOAD CELL FOR WEIGHING
MEASUREMENT
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER RADIATION TYPE FOR BIN LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
THERMOCOUPLE K type / R type FOR TEMP. MEASUREMNT
WEIGHING CONTROL SCHENK J & N FOR WEIGHING CONTROL

THE RAW MATERIAL CHARGING PRESSURE- ADJUSTED
EQUIPMENT:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
TEMPERATURE K type FOR Temp. measurement
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
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SOLENOID VALVE PNEU,/HYDRAU FOR ON/ OFF OPERATION
LEVEL TRANSMITTER RADIATION TYPE FOR BIN LEVEL
MEASUREMENT

THE DETAILS OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENTAION:
COAL DRYING SYSTEM:
GENERAL:
The coal drying sys for reducing the contents of moisture in coal are utilized
by hot air.
The hot air used by CRG or COG is generated by the hot gas generator
automatically.
As instrument equipment, it has a coal conveying control equipment and
combustion furnace control system.

THE SPECIFICATION OF THE COAL CONVEYING CONTROL
EQUIPMENT:
EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
LOAD CELL FOR WEIGHING
MEASUREMENT
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages./ Switch
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag./Audiable type
flowmeter
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER RADIATION
TYPE
FOR BIN LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
RTD Pt-100 FOR TEMP. MEASUREMENT
POSITION SENSOR Proximity / limit
switches
FOR POSITION
MEASUREMENT
WEIGHING CONTROL SCHENK J & N
(INTECONT +)
FOR WEIGHING CONTROL



THE SPECIFICATION OF THE DEDUSTING CONTROL
EQUIPMENT:

EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PT / DPT / Press.
Guages/ Switch
FOR PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
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FLOW TRANSMITTER Mag. Flowmeter/
Vari. Area type
FOR FLOW MEASUREMET
LEVEL TRANSMITTER RADIATION TYPE FOR BIN LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
CONTROL VALVE Ball type/ Globe
Butterfly / Pinch
FOR FLOW CONTROLING
SOLENOID VALVE Pneumatic operated FOR ON/OFF OPERATION
RTD Pt-100 FOR TEMP. MEASUREMNT

DCS (AC 450):
A large programmable controller for binary, regulatory and supervisory
control, with up to thousands of I /O points. It is used as an integrated
process station in a distribution system, communicating with other ABB
master equipment over Master Net.

A programmability of ABB AC 450 covers wide range of functions, such as
logic and sequence control, data and text handling, arithmetic, reporting,
positioning and regulatory control including advanced PID and self tuning
adaptive control.

COREX PLANT AREA DCS NODE NOS.
COMMON (FOR
BOTH Module)
MODULE -1 MODULE-2
GENERAL DS 01
COAL DRYING PLANT DS 06
STOCK YARD AREA DS 07
MATERIAL HANDLING DS 11 DS 21
PROCESS DS 12 DS 22
PROCESS DS 13 DS 23
WATER TREATMENT DS 16 DS 26

Man Machine Interfacing equipment, ranging from simple panel mounted
displays and pushbuttons, over low- cost, monochrome video terminals to
advanced operator stations with color graphics.

OPERATOR STATION:
As a man machine interfacing equipment, it supports :
A. Presentation of process and system information on screen :
B. Command/ dialog handling using keyboard and pointing device.

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IMS STATION:
Information Management system provides process information for decision
making by management and a platform for implementation of proprietary
applications, e.g. for production planning, optimizing control of
administration.


2) TYPICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SCHEME FOR COREX:





COREX Plant Has 4 Main Distribution Lines From Main Receiving
Substation (MRSS):

LI NE 1 : 16/ 20
MVA,33KV/ 6.9KV
TO C1SAB701 ( MAI N CONTROL ROOM- MODULE 1)
LI NE 2 : 16/ 20
MVA,33KV/ 6.9KV
TO C2SAB701 ( MAI N CONTROL ROOM- MODULE 1)
LI NE 3 : 16/ 20
MVA,33KV/ 6.9KV
TO C1SBB701 ( SUBSTATI ON WATER TREATMENT-
MODULE 1)
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LI NE 4 : 16/ 20
MVA,33KV/ 6.9KV
TO C2SBB701 ( SUBSTATI ON WATER TREATMENT-
MODULE 2)
BUS COUPLER 1. BETWEEN C1SAB701 & C2SAB701
2. BETWEEN C1SBB701 & C2SBB701
TI E FEEDER 1. BETWEEN C1SAB701 & C1SBB701
2. BETWEEN C2SAB701 & C2SBB701





HT DISTRIBUTION SCHEME FOR COREX, MOD 1 & 2



(1) SINGLE LINE DIAGRAMS:
(A) 33KV SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
(B) 6.6KV SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
(C) 415V SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

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(2) MAIN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT LIST:

SR.
NO
EQUI PMENT SPECI FI CATTON QUANTI TY
A TRANSFORMER
1 RECEI VI NG 16/ 20 MVA,33KV/ 6.9KV 4
1 MVA,,6.6KV/ 433V 2
2 MVA,6.6KV/ 433V 15
2 PROCESS
2.5 MVA,,6.6KV/ 433V 6
1 MVA,,6.6KV/ 433V 2 3 LI GHTI NG & MAI NT
2 MVA,6.6KV/ 433V 2
B MOTOR
1 HI GH VOLTAGE ( HT) 150- 1800KW,6.6KV 33
2 LOW VOLTAGE ( LT) 0.15- 355 KW,415V,50
HZ

0.15- 355 KW,440V,60
HZ

Tot al 739
C HT SWI TCHGEAR 4 UNI T
1 VCB 2000A 8
2 VCB 1250A 46
3 VCS 400A 54
4 E/ S 2
5 I SOLATER 2
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D LT SWI TCHGEAR
MCC UNI T
C1SAB501 t o 506 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 6
C2SAB501 t o 506 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 6
C1SBB501 t o 505 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 5
C1SBB501 t o 505 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 5
PCM 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 1
LI GHTI NG & MAI NT 440V ,DRAWOUT TYPE 4
LADDLE REAPAI R
SHOP, SLAG TRET.
PALNT,SLAG
BRI QUETI NG PLANTS
WI LL BE I NCLUDED
TOTAL 27
VVVF PANEL
CDP SCREEN - SCUM
SCAPER
1
CDP AI R MI XI NG FAN 1
SGP HYDRAULI CS 2
TOWER HYDRAULI CS 4
STOCK HOUSE VI BRO
FEEDER
2
STAND ALONE 17
SKI P DRI VE 4
PCM 1
DECANTER DRI VE 4
E
TOTAL 36
HOI ST & CRANES
CAST HOUSE 40/ 10T 4
S.G.P. 10T 2
SKI P DRI VE 10T 2
DRI 20T 2
C.G.C. 30T 2
PUMP HOUSE 5T 2
JI B CRANE 6
F
HOI ST 20
G DG 1875KVA
( 1500KW) ,440V,4P,60
HZ
2

(3) ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR COREX 1 & 2:
- ELECTRIC ENERGY ( KWH / TON) = 65

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- TOTAL CONNECTED LOAD=40 MW
o HT LOAD= 18 MW
o LT LOAD= 22MW

- TOTAL RUNNING LOAD = 22 MW

- TOTAL POWER CONSUMPTION= 13 MW

- TOTAL EMERGENCY LOAD = 2 MW


COREX PLANT LAYOUT

(4) VVVF DRIVES:
The squirrel cage induction motor is mostly industrial drive. The
advantages of this kind of motors are as follow
1. nearly free of maintenance
2. sturdy
3. safe to operate
4. high protection class
5. low specific weight

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But there are some efforts necessary to vary the speed of squirrel cage
induction motor without additional measures the speed is calculated
by the formula,
N= (1-slip) *120*frequency / no. of pole

It means we have three possibilities to for speed variations
1. change of no. of pole (P)
2. change of slip (S)
3. variation of frequency (f)

Static converter is used for frequency variation, by changing the
stator frequency torque/ speed characteristic of the motor may be
continuously shifted towards lower or higher speeds .shape of the
torque / spped curve remains same when the flux in motor is held
constant. Therefore motor voltage must be change in same ratio as
the frequency (V/ f=k=constant)
Hence this is known as a Variable Voltage Variable Frequency Drive
(VVVF Drive)

The VVVF Drive offers the following advantages,
1. Speed control
2. energy saving
3. optimization of process
4. Variable motor speed independent of mains frequency &
adjustable above & below the motor nominal speed
5. lower mains distortions
6. 4 quadrant operation with automatic regeneration into mains
7. adjustable current limitation
8. short circuit proof
9. ground fault protected
10. High efficiency
11. Low motor noise
12. Low radio interference
13. Sturdy arrangement
14. easy mounting and startup

Extensive precautions provide for a maximum reliability of operation.
Plant shut down s are reduced to a minimum because the protection
device is able to prevent damages of the components
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- RC elements, surge suppressors and TSE snubber circuits for
protection against voltage spikes
- Adjustable acceleration/ deceleration-ramps for speed preset
value
- Electronic current limitation (and torque limitation)


In addition the drive will trip electronically with selective first fault
indication in the following cases:
- Wrong mains phase sequence
- Optional protection e.g. blocking of motor
- Line failure (avoiding blowing of fuses even during
regenerations
- Motor over voltage or over current
- Commutation breakdown
- Loss of supply of control electronics circuit
- Over temperature of heat sink
- Over speed (only with torque control system)
- Fuse blow







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(5) EMERGENCY POWER FAILURE:



3) EMERGENCY SCHEME:
GENERAL IDEA:
Incase the power failure of corex plant is occurred; all valves are gotten out
of control and only operated for the safe positions.
In such a case the process is fulfilled to depressurize swiftly for safety and
the emergency generator is activated to supply power for the critical
facilities.
If the MCW, stave and PCW pumps are tipped the operator has to start up
these emergency cooling water pumps as soon as the emergency power
generator starts.
Once the emergency power generator is started, the operators should make
efforts the plant to be in safety status.

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EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SPECIFICATION:
GENERATOR SPECIFICATION
Model: CAT SR-4B
TYPE SALIENT
BRUSHLESS SELF EXCITED
DIRECT COUPLED WITH THE ENGINE
RATED POWER OUTPUT AT
ALTERNATOR TERMINAL 1500 KW/1875 KVA
RATING STAND-BY
SUPPLY 3 PHASE ,4 WIRE
RATED VOLTAGE 440 VAC +/- 5%
RATED CURRENT 2460 A
RATED FREQUENCY 60 HZ,+/- 1 HZ
NO. OF POLE 4
RATED SPEED 1800 RPM
POWER FACTOR 0.8 LAGGING
SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ABOVE 0.2
EFFICIENCY
AT 1/2 LOAD 90.50%
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AT 3/4 LOAD 92.80%
AT FULL LOAD 95.80%
DEGREE OF PROTECTION IP 22
CLASS OF INSULATION F
VOLTAGE REGULATION
1. ADUSTABLE RANGE +/- 5 % OF RATED VOLTAGE
2. VOLTAGE STABILITY Max. 2.5 % OF RATED VOLTAGE
3. VOLTAGE DROP Max. 30 % OF RATED VOLTAGE
4. VOLTAGE RECOVERY WITHIN 2 SEC
COOLING METHOD SHAFT DRIVEN FAN COOLED
TEMPERATURE RISE AT FULL LOAD
1. RESISTANCE METHOD 100 C
2. THERMOMETER METHOD 85 C
SINGLE BAL BEARING ,GREASE
LUBRICATION HORIZONTAL TYPE
APPLICABLE STANDERDS
KS,NEMA MG1 , JEM 1354 ,JEC 114,146
WITH DAMPER WINDING FOR UNBALANCE LOAD OF 20 %
WITH SPACE HEATER 110-220 V, 60 HZ ,1200W
WINDING TEMPERATURE
PROTECTION
WITH BUILT IN CT FOR MONITERING ,PROTECTION,AND EXCITATION


DIESEL ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Model :CATERPILLAR 3516
CYCLE 4
SPEED 900-1800 RPM
CYLINDER 16
BORE 170 mm
STROKE 190 mm
POWER STAND-BY 2168 BHP
NET WEIGHT 13800 KG (At Dry)
COOLING TYPE RADIATOR
GOVERNING SYSTEM ELECTRICAL GOVERNOR
FUEL REQUIREMENT 406 LITTER/ Hr





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4) CHECKING STANDARDS OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS:


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5) TROUBLE EXPERIENCE OF SOME ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT:



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Remedy:
1. Short circuit & instantaneous over current protection to be adopted.
2. NGR Earth fault relay to be adopted.


Remedy: 1. Trip coil 1 have t rip ckt supervisor relay
2. Trip coil 2 should provide from U.P.S.
Remedy: 1. Trip coil 1 have t rip ckt supervisor relay
2. Trip coil 2 should provide from U.P.S.
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Remedy:
1. Trip coil 1 have trip ckt supervisor relay
2. Trip coil 2 should provide from U.P.S.

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6) SAFETY:
A) BASICS OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS & SAFETY:


Science of Electrical Fault
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(A) HUMAN RESISTANCE & EFFECT OF CURRENT ON MAN:
Body Area Resistance (ohm)
Dry skin 100k to 600k
Wet skin 1 k
Internal body-hand to foot 400 to 600
Ear to Ear 100























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100 100 500 500 7.Ventricular
fibrillation effect
from 8 second
shocks
63 94 15 23 60 90 6.Shock painful
and severe
muscular
contractions,
breathing difficult
50 75 10.5 15 51 76 5.Shock painful, let
go threshold
7 55 6 9 41 62 4.Shock painful,
muscular control
Not lost
11 1.7 1.2 1.8 6 9 3.Shock not painful
,
Muscular control
not lost
8 12 .7 1.1 3.5 5.2 2.Perception
threshold
5 7 .3 .4 .6 1 1.Slight sensation
on hand
women Men women Men women Men
AC 10 kHz
(ma)
AC 50/60 Hz
(ma)
DC
(ma)
Effect
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(B) ELECTRICAL HAZARDS & CONSEQUENCES:
The following hazards are associates within the use of electricity

Primary hazards Consequences
Electrical shocks may lead to death
Burns may lead to heavy injury
Fire & explosion may lead to fire, damage to
property
Induced voltage may lead to shock & injury
Arcing through air may lead to death

Secondary hazards Consequences
Person falling from height may lead to shock & injury
Dropping of tools & objects may lead to minor injury


(C) DOS & DONTS:
Dos
Always take work permit for any electrical maintenance
Use safety hand gloves & shoes which are made for electrical work
Use Electrically Insulated tools
Check Voltage & Proper grounding before starting the work
Use proper rating Switches, Plug sockets & other electrical apparatus
Check effective Earthing Earthing should be provided for any Electrical
equipment
Use low voltage hand lamp for confined area

Donts
Enter into electrically hazardous area. E.g. Electrical Substation,
transformer building,
Touch/move on open Cable contact
Water jet on electrical fire
Touch open capacitor in field
Use of unearthed equipment
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COREX DOCUMENTATION INSTRUCTIONS:


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8. COMMON ELECTRICAL / INSTRUMENTATION
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN INDUSTRIES:

Abbreviat ion Short Descript ion Meaning/ Purpose/ Det ail
MMWC
Milli Met er of Wat er
Column
Unit for measurement of
pressure.
I GCT
I nt egrat ed Gat e
Commut ing Thyrist or
Thyrist or normally used in
AC drives for cont rol of
speed of AC mot ors.
Gnd
Ground, Grounding ,
Eart hing

G- N,
Ground- t o- Neut ral,
Neut ral- t o- Ground volt age

L- L
Line- t o- Line volt age =
Phase- t o- Phase
Used for showing t wo
phases ( like - R & Y, Y & B,
R & B) Normal volt age L- L
is 460 Volt s in 220 V
syst em.
L- N Line- t o- Neut ral volt age
Used for showing one
phase. Normal volt age L- N
is 230 Volt s in 220 V
syst ems.
L- G Line- t o- Ground volt age
MOV Met al Oxide Varist or
Common varist or use in
overvolt age prot ect ion ckt .
HD Heavy Dut y
This is used for relays
which are used in
blowers/ pumps applicat ion.
I t has more delay in
t ripping as compared t o
normal relay.
OEM
Original Equipment
Manufact urer
Who supplies original unit s
like LG, Samsung is for
Washing Machines et c.
R&D Research and Development
SCADA
Supervisory Cont rol and
Dat a Acquisit ion
Used for Display, Cont rol &
Hist ory for various process
dat a. I nt erface wit h
Machine & Human.
T&D
Transmission and
Dist ribut ion ( regarding
power)

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A Amps, Ampere ( current )
Unit for measurement of
Current .
AC Alt ernat ing Current
C Coulomb ( charge)
1 coulomb is t he amount of
elect ric charge carried by a
current of 1 Amp flowing
for 1 sec.
DC Direct Current
di/ dt , DI / DT
The rat e of change of
current over t ime
( t ransient )
Word normally used in
prot ect ion ckt of mot ors,
G Giga ( one billion)
Hz
Hert z ( frequency, cycles
per second)
Unit for measurement of
analog signal cycles,
Normal Power supply is 60
Hz.
I Current measured in Amps
Word used t o denot e
current in Elect rical
syst em.
J
Joules ( energy, abilit y t o
do work) = N x m

k kilo ( one t housand)
m
milli ( one- t housandt h) ,
met er

M Mega ( one million)
MTBF
Mean Time Bet ween
Failures
Average Time bet ween
failures for same
equipment / machine. Used
for diagnosis/ analysis of
breakdowns.
N Newt on ( force)
Unit for measurement of
Force.

micro, micron ( one-
milliont h)

n nano ( one- billiont h)

Ohms ( resist ance,
impedance)
Unit for measurement of
Resist ance.
RFI
Radio Frequency
I nt erference
Used for measuring of
int erference signals in
communicat ion.
UPS
Unint errupt ible Power
Supply
Power supply wit h bat t ery
backup. O/ P is good sine
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wave AC signal. Normally
used for Elect ronics
equipment supply.
V Volt s ( volt age)
Word used t o denot e
volt age in Elect rical
syst em.
W Wat t ( power)
Word used t o denot e power
in Elect rical syst em.
PLC
Programmable Logic
Cont roller
This is used for cont rolling
of equipment s/ processes.
We can program as per our
requirement . Normally
used in Level- 1
Aut omat ion.
CT Current Transformer
Used for st ep up/ st ep down
of current in Elect rical
syst em.
PT Pot ent ial Transformer
Used for st ep up/ st ep down
of volt age in Elect rical
syst em.
I GBT
I nt egrat ed Gat e Bipolar
Transist or
Transist or normally used in
Drives for cont rol of speed
of Mot ors.
HMI Human Machine I nt erface
Used for Display, Cont rol &
Hist ory for various process
dat a. I nt erface wit h
Machine & Human.
PSI Pounds per square inch
Unit for measurement of
pressure.
ACB Air Circuit Breaker
Normally used in LV
syst em.
VCB Vacuum Circuit Breaker
Normally used in MV or HV
syst em.
SF6 Sulphur Hexa Chloride Gas
Used in SF6 Breakers for
HT syst em.
MCC Mot or Cont rol Cent re
Used t o cont rol t he fixed
speed mot ors & auxiliary
supply.
PCC Power cont rol cent re
Main Power dist ribut ion
board for line/ process.
OWS Operat or work st at ion
User int erface from where
some dat a input s are t aken
for set t ing of values.
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AGC Aut omat ic Gauge Cont rol
I n Rolling Mill used t o
cont rol t he t hickness of
rolling mat erial.
HGC Hydraulic Gap Cont rol
I n Rolling Mill used t o
cont rol t he t hickness of
rolling mat erial.
LPM Lit ers Per Minut e
Unit for measurement of
Flow.
MV Medium Volt age
HT High Tension
LT Low Tension
mv Milli Volt
Unit for measurement of
low volt age.
mA Milli Ampere
Unit for measurement of
low current .
P.F. Power Fact or
The power fact or of an AC
elect ric power syst em is
defined as t he rat io of t he
real power t o t he apparent
power
XLPE
Cross Lengt h Poly Et hylene
( Cable)
Type of cable.
PVC
Poly Vinyl Chloride ( Cable
)
Type of cable.
T/ C Thermocouple
I nst rument t o measure t he
t emperat ure.
RTD
Resist ance Temperat ure
Det ect or
Resist ance Temperat ure
Det ect ors ( RTD) , as t he
name implies, are sensors
used t o measure
t emperat ure by correlat ing
t he resist ance of t he RTD
element wit h t emperat ure
DPT
Different ial Pressure
Transmit t er
I nst rument t o measure t he
different ial pressure.
PT Pressure Transmit t er
I nst rument t o measure t he
pressure.
FT Flow Transmit t er
I nst rument t o measure t he
flow.
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TT Temperat ure Transmit t er
I nst rument t o convert
signal from t / c, rt d &
t ransmit in Volt age or
Current form t o PLC.
PI D
Proport ional I nt egral
Derivat ive ( Cont rol)
This is used t o cont rol t he
Act ual value wit h respect t o
set point in process.
TI Temperat ure I ndicat or
Mechanical I ndicat or used
for t emperat ure display.
PI Pressure I ndicat or
Mechanical I ndicat or used
for pressure display.
FI Flow I ndicat or
Mechanical I ndicat or used
for flow display.
SSI
Serial Synchronous
I nt erface
Type of communicat ion
bet ween t wo unit s.
CPU Cent ral Processing Unit
Part of PLC where act ual
processing og logic/ dat a is
done.
P/ S Power Supply
DI Digit al I nput Normally zero or one.
DO Digit al Out put Normally On or Off.
AI Analog I nput
Normally analog volt age or
current signal t o PLC.
AO Analog Out put
Normally analog volt age or
current signal from PLC.
CRO Cat hode Ray Oscilloscope
I nst rument used for
analysis of various signal.
PPR Pulses per Revolut ion
Unit for measurement of
revolut ion for
encoder/ t acho.
RPM Revolut ion Per Minut e
Normal Unit for
measurement of mot or.
MPM Met ers per Minut e
Normal Unit for
measurement of
Line/ Process speed.
OT
Oil Temperat ure (
Transformer )

WT
Winding Temperat ure (
Transformer )

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LT Level Transmit t er
I nst rument t o measure t he
Level.
LI Level I ndicat or
Mechanical I ndicat or used
for level display.
O/ L Overload ( Relay)
Used in prot ect ion ckt of
mot ors depending upon
current .
EF Eart h Fault
I ndicat es short ckt in Phase
wit h ground.
SC Short Circuit
I ndicat es short ckt in Phase
wit h phase/ ground.
S/ S Sub St at ion
Locat ion where normally
HT power panels are
inst alled &
t ransmission/ dist ribut ion of
power is done.
SLD Single Line Diagram
Used for display of Power
flow in single line from
different equipment s.
P&I D
Piping & I nst rument at ion
Diagram

L/ S Limit Swit ch
NO Normally Open ( Cont act )
NC Normally Close ( Cont act )
SV Solenoid Valve
PC Personal Comput er
MCB Miniat ure Circuit Breaker
MCCB
Moulded Case Circuit
Breaker

EPROM
Elect rically Programmable
Read Only Memory
Non Volat ile Memory.
RAM Random Access Memory Volat ile Memory.
PROM
Programmable Read Only
Memory
Non Volat ile Memory.


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PART IV SAFETY

1.1. INTRODUCTION:
It is an accepted fact that the best way to prevent an accident is to eliminate
the hazards and follow the safe work procedures. If, however, this is not
possible, personnel must be adequately protected and provided with
individual protection equipment.

All the personnel should use the equipment required for individual
protection. These equipments must suit the job.

A large number of injuries could be prevented or at least be of a less serious
nature, if safety hats, glasses, gloves and boots were worn.
1.1.1. GLASSES:
Safety glasses must be worn by all personnel in all working areas. This
regulation shall also apply to visitors. Personnel accompanying visitors
shall be responsible for seeing that they are provided with, and wear
safety glasses.

1.1.2. SAFETY BOOTS:
All personnel are required to wear safety boots.

1.1.3. SAFETY HELMETS:
Personnel are required to wear safety helmets (approved type) in all
working areas. This regulation shall also apply to visitors. Personnel
accompanying visitors shall be responsible for seeing that they are
provided with, and wear safety glasses.

1.1.4. GLOVES:
Personnel engaged in work where there is a risk of hand injuries shall
wear gloves. The type of gloves will be determined by the injuries that
could be sustained: cuts, burns, acid burns, etc.

However, it is strictly forbidden to wear gloves when operating a
boring-drilling machine, a power press, grinders or any equipment in
which glove material could be caught.

Personnel are required to wear special rubber gloves when handling live
wires.
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1.1.5. MASKS:
In all cases where it is not possible to provide adequate protection
against dust, fumes, irritating or toxic gases, the company shall provide
personnel with appropriate masks and protection devices.

Masks shall be of the approved type and suited to the specific conditions
under which they shall be used.

1.1.6. HEARING PROTECTION:
In certain areas of the plant, noise levels may be high and prolonged
exposure could cause a hearing loss. These areas will be posted and the
company shall provide hearing protection to personnel who must work
in these areas.

Ear protection will be of an approved type and shall be used in all
appropriate areas of the plant.

1.1.7. SAFETY BELTS:
All personnel working more above the ground level than approved by
Indian law are required to wear approved type safety belts, with
properly anchored and adjusted cable, thus reducing falls to a minimum.

The cable must be solidly anchored to a fixed object; if this should not
be possible, the foreman/supervisor must assign two men to handle the
cable.

Personnel working inside a tank must also wear safety belts.
Foremen/supervisors must assign a safety watchman to give assistance
in emergency cases.

1.1.8. WORKING WITH HOT PRODUCTS:
All personnel, working in areas with hot and/or liquid iron, slag or DRI
must wear protective clothes (shoes, suits, gloves, helmets and face
protection) for blast furnace men.

1.2. DANGEROUS MATERIALS AND AREAS:
There are many hazardous materials used in a COREX

C 2000 plant.
These materials are in gas, liquid or solid state and are potentially dangerous
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to personnel and or plant safety due to their nature as a toxic, combustible or
poisonous material, or in the case of liquid iron and slag their capacity to
cause serious burns.

Hazardous substances can cause severe health problems and even death.
These substances, dependent on their concentration and other conditions
may cause sleepiness, nausea, giddiness and unconsciousness, headaches,
visual disturbance, breathing difficulty, blood pressure fluctuations,
tiredness, agitation, and many other abnormal body reactions. In certain
circumstances and concentration such hazardous substances can be fatal. It
is, therefore, necessary to know and understand hazardous substances for the
sake of personnel safety and to also know the basic first aid necessary in
order to react correctly and promptly once a person is subjected to any
hazardous substance.

Personnel must be cautious of dangerous materials at all times and in all
areas of the COREX

C-2000 plant.

However, there are certain areas in which particular hazards are more likely
to exist than others & it is important to recognize these areas as well as the
hazardous substances and the symptoms they produce.


1.2.1. HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES:
1) LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG):
LPG used for the plant consists mainly of propane and butane and a
mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons. LPG forms an easily ignitable and
explosive mixture with air. Like most gases, it cannot be respired at high
concentrations, it has a low narcotic effect. Due to the extreme cold
generated while evaporating it causes frozen spots when coming into
contact with the human skin.

The main hazards associated with LPG are fire and explosion.

2) CARBON MONOXIDE (GAS), CO:
Carbon Monoxide is a combustible, colorless, odorless, and highly
poisonous gas. In the bloodstream it combines a hundred times more
easily with hemoglobin that oxygen, and thus can quickly lead to death.

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Threshold Limit Value 50 ppm.
3) CARBON DIOXIDE (GAS), CO2:
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas. It is not
combustible. The gas has a low toxicity, but in high concentrations, it
acts as a respiratory poison and can lead to death.
Threshold Limit Value 5000 ppm.
4) HYDROGEN (GAS), H2:
Hydrogen is a colorless and odorless gas that is flammable and forms an
explosive mixture with air. H2 is considerably lighter that air. The
major hazards associated with H2 are fire, explosion and respiratory
problems. Hydrogen is non-toxic, but can act as a asphyxiant by
displacing air below levels necessary for supporting life.

5) NITROGEN (GAS), N2:
Nitrogen is colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas. It is slightly lighter
than air. Nitrogen is non-toxic, but may cause suffocation by diluting the
concentration of oxygen in air below levels necessary to support life.

6) OXYGEN (GAS), O2:
Oxygen is an element which, at atmospheric pressures and temperatures,
exists as a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. The outstanding property of
Oxygen is its ability to sustain life and to support combustion. Although
Oxygen is nonflammable, materials which normally will not burn in air
may burn in an Oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Materials which do burn
in air will burn more vigorously and at a higher temperature in an
Oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Some combustibles, such as oil, burn in
Oxygen with near explosive violence if ignited by flame, impact, or some
other energy source. As a result of these properties, caution should be
exercised and special precautions taken when entering areas or confined
spaces where an Oxygen enriched atmosphere may exist.

7) HYDROGEN SULFIDE (GAS), H2S:
Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless gas, with the odor of rotten eggs in low
concentrations. It is highly flammable, somewhat heavier than air, water
soluble, highly toxic, and attacks eyes and respiratory organs. Higher
concentrations of the gas paralyze the sense of smell and therefore given
no warning. Breathing it can result in immediate death due to paralysis
of the respiratory center.
Threshold Limit Value 5000 ppm.
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8) METHYLMERCAPTAN (GAS), CH3SH(CH4S):
Methylmercaptan is a colorless gas with an unpleasant odor, flammable
and not soluble in water.
Threshold Limit Value 5000 ppm.

9) CAUSTIC SODA (LIQUID), NaOH:
On coming into contact with light metal or zinc, caustic soda can cause
the development of hydrogen gas which, if mixed with air, can form an
explosive mixture.

10) METALLIZED (SOLID) DRI:
Metallized DRI is porous reduced iron, which can reodxidize upon
contact with air and can result in product temperature increase. Under
normal operating conditions, the DRI is discharged in closed feeding
lines at temperatures of approx. 800C.

In contact with air, the temperature of freshly reduced DRI can further
increase. This product can eventually get red hot and damage
equipment and steel structure.

If DRI comes into contact with water, it immediately reacts and
generates heat and hydrogen which can react with oxygen from the air
and cause an explosion.

11) METALLIZED FINES (SOLID):
Metallized fines have an even greater tendency to reoxidation than
reduced pellets or lump ore, due to the higher surface area. This
reoxidation process can cause fire and, because some hydrogen is
formed, can also lead to explosion when mixed with air.
12) METALLIZED DUST (SOLID):
The tendency to reoxidize is greater than reduced pellets or lump ore
and the chance or reduced iron dust exploding is comparable to coal
dust or flour.
The minimum explosive concentration for reduced iron dust in air is
121 g/Nm
3
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13) STEAM:
Insulation along steam lines and above boilers and valves must not be
removed, as coming into contact with steam carrying components may
also cause serious burns.

14) BLOWDOWN WATER:
Blowdown water must neither be used as drinking water nor be
discharged without pretreatment. If skin, eyes or mucous membranes
come into contact with blowdown water, irritation may occur on these
parts of the body.

15) SLUDGE:
It has high concentrations of coal, iron and ash particles and contains
toxic compounds. If skin, eyes or mucous membranes come into
contact with sludge, irritation may occur on these parts of the body.

16) LIQUID IRON AND SLAG:
Liquid iron and slag have temperatures above 1450 C. Any contact
with liquid iron or slag will lead to serious burns and possible death.
Liquid iron or slag will quickly ignite combustible materials such as
wood, cloth, paper and plastic components. If liquid iron and slag
come into contact with water, a mixture of O2 and H (detonating gas)
is formed, which when combined with the igniting agent may lead
to violent explosions. Therefore, special care has to be taken when
cooling liquid iron or slag and /or when dumping them into ladles,
containers or pits.

17) NaOCl:
Active Chlorine in this chemical, combined with combustible
materials, is flammable, cauterizing and detrimental to health if
inhaled, swallowed or coming into contact with the skin.

18) ELEVATED PRESSURE:
The COREX process is working under elevated pressure which is
causing harm of human and equipment in case of uncontrolled
manipulation or opening when the system is pressurized.


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1.2.2. HAZARDOUS AREA:
A hazardous area is defined as any area within the COREX C-2000 plant
where special safety precautions are required. These areas include gas areas,
product handling areas, storage areas, dust areas, tapping areas etc.

1.3 PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED AREAS:
a. AREA AROUND THE PLANT SAFETY PRESSURE VALVE:
The safety valve on the top of the COREX tower is installed as a safety
device in case of excessive high plant pressure. This can occur during
start up, shutdown or upset process conditions. The safety valve system
works automatically and can therefore come into full operation at any
time without any prior warning.

When the safety valve opens, hot and flammable gases are emitted,
which are extremely hazardous to any personnel in this area.

WHEN THE SAFETY VALVE OPENS, THERE IS EXTREME
DANGER TO LIFE!

Access to the area in the vicinity of the safety valve should be restricted
and warning notices posted. This area should be evacuated immediately
whenever the safety valve comes into operation.

b. TAPPING AREAS:
During tapping liquid iron and slag flow into the iron and slag runners
and into hot metal ladles and slag handling facilities. During this
process, CO and CO2 gases are also released. During drilling, tapping
and ladle filling the splashing of iron and slag can regularly occur.
During tapping, only those persons who are specially trained in handling
liquid iron and slag and who wear special protective clothing are allowed
to enter to stay in the tapping areas.

WALKING OR DRIVING ON TAPPING LAUNDERS OR IN
THE IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT IS DANGEROUS TO
LIFE!

c. GAS AREAS:
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Flue gas and inert gas are both non-flammable, and thus present no fire or
explosion risk. They contain mainly Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide and Water
vapor. Their main danger is that they can replace oxygen in the air,
which can lead to suffocation.

The process gas streams are all toxic and flammable due to high carbon
monoxide and H2 contents and are regarded as areas of potential fire and
explosion risk. In the ducts between gas Melter Gasifier and the
Reduction Shaft up to the gas cooling scrubbers, the process gas
temperature is high and any gas leakage appears as a flame. During start-
up and shutdown of the plant, the percent of combustibles in the
reduction gas system is lowered and diluted by inert gas (Nitrogen).

The main hazard associated with COREX process gases and LPG is their
flammability. These gases leaking from piping can spontaneously ignite.
Hissing or suction noises are general indications of piping gas leaks.
Inspection with explosion meters will reveal any dangerous leaks of these
gases.

d. DUST AREAS/DUST COLLECTION:
Due to the extremely fast reoxidation of hot metallized dust particles,
special explosion precautions must be taken in product dust-prone areas.
The explosion hazard is made even greater if hydrogen (evolved from
iron oxidation) is also present.
Precautions are required at all times in areas of transport systems and
associated handling equipment. At these areas, all work such as welding,
cutting, soldering, or similar should only be allowed with the approval of
the supervisor responsible for the area and only after necessary safety
precautions have been taken.

e. FLARES:
When flaring off flammable gases in large quantity, the flares emit
considerable heat radiation.
Access to the area in the immediate vicinity of the flare stacks should be
restricted and warning notices posted. This area should be evacuated
immediately whenever one of the flares comes into operation.

f. ROTATING MACHINERY:
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Rotating machinery should always be provided with the appropriate
protection devices, such as coupling guards, as well as emergency stop
buttons.
g. CLARIFIER:
The operating temperature of the water in the clarifier is about 60C and
personnel working near the clarifier must take special care not to fall into
this water. Life belt with fastened rope shall be available and located at
the clarifier. Gases, especially CO, can be dispelled from the water
flowing into the clarifier. When working on the clarifier bridge, the
atmosphere should be analyzed and, if 30 ppm volume CO is exceeded,
respiratory equipment must be used. It is also prudent to check the area
for CO.

DO NOT VISIT THE CLARIFIER AREA ALONE!

h. BINS, PITS, BASINS, TUNNELS, PIPING, DUCTS, VESSELS
ETC.:
In the COREX C-2000 plant toxic, flammable and asphyxiating gases
are handled and processed, with some of these being heavier than air.
When leaks occur, these gases will be diluted fairly quickly in open air to
a safe concentration. However, in confined areas and especially in bins,
pits basins, tunnels, piping, ducts, vessels, etc., higher concentrations of
toxic, flammable and asphyxiating gases can remain for extended
periods. Hence special precautions should be practiced in these areas.
Personnel shall not be permitted to enter such confined areas unless the
atmosphere has a normal air composition. In such case it is necessary
that work be performed in areas without normal air composition,
respiratory equipment must be used and all relevant safety precautions
and procedures must be observed to ensure the safety of personnel.

i. ELECTRIC INSTALLATIONS:
Electrical equipment and installations under live voltage pose the serious
risk of electrocution if not erected, operated, and maintained properly.

j. LIFTS, HOISTS, LIFTING DEVICES:
Personnel can be seriously hurt by defective cables, chains, hooks, or by
careless and incorrect operation of hoisting equipment. Therefore, it is
important that hoisting equipment be kept in good condition and under
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the control and supervision of competent and authorized persons to
ensure its safe operation.


1.4 DESCRIPTION OF POTENTIAL HAZARDS:
a. GAS EXPLOSION:
The potential for a gas explosion in the plant is very real, due to the fact
that the circulation of combustible gases is necessary for the operation of
the plant and its processes. An explosion, or uncontrolled combustion, is
possible if the concentration of combustible gases falls within the
flammable limits for those gases.

GAS Flammable
Limits (in air)
Auto-Ignition
Temp. (in air)
Min. O2
required for
combustion
Hydrogen (H2) 4% to 74% 570C 5%
Carbon Monoxide
(CO)
13% to 74% 610C 6%
Methane (CH4) 5.3% to 14% 630C 12%
LPG (Propane) 2.1 to 10.1 450C Varies
COREX Gas 5% to 52% Varies Varies

b. DUST EXPLOSION:
A dust explosion hazard exists wherever material that will burn or
oxidize readily is present in powder form, due to the surface (contact)
area of each particle being very large I relation to its mass. Dust
explosions are not as well understood as gas explosions, but it is known
that dust explosions tend to build in intensity, with secondary explosions
following an initial blast. This is due to the initial blast stirring up
increasing quantities of duist resulting in yet higher dust concentrations.
The secondary explosions, it is known from experience, tend to cause the
most damage. The most likely source of the ddust is iron, which has a
minimum explosive concentration in air of around 120 g/Nm
3
.

c. FIRE:
Wherever oxygen, a fuel and an ignition source exist, there is a potential
for fire. This potential for fire is a real concern in the plant due to the
abundance of combustible gases being circulated, and also because the
Direct Reduction Iron (DRI) itself is combustible. Also of concern are
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the plant materials in the vicinity of gas fires that could be raised to
ignition temperatures.


d. ASPHYXIATION:
Asphyxiation occurs when gaseous contaminants, called asphyxiants,
displace the Oxygen in breathing air. Chemical asphyxiation occurs
when a contaminant, such as Carbon Monoxide, reacts with hemoglobin
to prevent the blood from transporting oxygen.

e. CO-Gas:
The following concentrations of CO-gas in the air correspond with the
following effect on man:

CO gas concentration Effect on man
in the breathing air
30 ppm Maximum concentration which is
tolerable for a working place, where a
person has to stay permanently, no
symptoms.

More than 200 ppm Headache, tiredness.

More than 1000 ppm Unconsciousness, after longer
exposure to it, mortal.

More than 2000 ppm Mortal after very short time

More than 3000 ppm Immediately Mortal

f. ELECTROCUTION:
Electricity is for all practical purposes everywhere: in motors,
switchgears, lights, electrical tools, cables, instruments, etc. Any
electrical equipment or installation can potentially cause electrocution
and therefore must be erected, operated and maintained properly.

This requires strict precautionary measures to reduce the possibility of
electric shock or electrocution. Electrostatic charges can accumulate on
mechanically separated, chargeable, non-conducting surfaces and will
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discharge upon contact with personnel or in extreme cases with gases and
vapors in ducts. If the discharge creates a spark in an explosive
atmosphere, ignition is possible.

g. RADIATION:
Radiation is a hazard presented by the nuclear probes located on the
COREX tower. These nuclear probes utilize a gamma source to detect
material levels and flow rates in the COREX tower and the raw material
bins. These devices are shielded and the area affected is usually local.

h. HEAT EXHAUSTION:
This results from physical exertion in hot environments and is
characterized by low skin temperature, pallor, dizziness, weak pulse, and
profuse sweating.

i. HEAT CRAMPS:
These results from prolonged exposure to hot environments while under
exertion and are characterized by the cramping of skeletal and intestinal
muscles.

j. HEATSTROKE:
This is more serious than the previous heat conditions and is caused by
the body losing its ability to cool itself and the body temperature rising to
dangerous levels. Heatstroke is characterized by hot dry skin, severe
headache, rapid temperature rise, and possible loss of consciousness.
Since this condition can be fatal, the victim should be cooled as soon as
possible and medical personnel summoned immediately.

k. NOISE:
Elevated noise levels can disrupt concentration, interfere with
communication and otherwise distract workers in the performance of
their jobs. At higher levels, noise can induce hearing loss, cause aural
pain, induce nausea and in severe cases, reduce muscular control.
l. BURNS:
Burns result from the application of too much heat to the skin.
FIRST DEGREE burns show redness on unbroken skin.
SECOND DEGREE burns will make the skin blister with some
breaking.
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THIRD DEGREE burns cause a destruction of the skin and
underlining tissues.
FOURTH DEGREE burns will cause the skin to be charred and
blackened.
CHEMICAL BURNS are similar to those caused by heat.