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SHERLOCK HOLMES’ SCIENCE OF DEDUCTION AND ANALYSIS Ever read about Science of observation, deduction and analysis?

Oh, I’m not going to give a physics lecture! Well, it’s a great thing. Imagine that somebody is coming to you and you already no! !hat s"he !as up to in the past or !hat s"he is going to as you and so on# there could be many cases in !hich science of deduction can be used. $ere are some of the points !hich can help you all in deducing. %ut you can al!ays read novels of &rthur 'onan (oyle in your leisurely time to no! more about it. )hey are available on the net as e*boo s for free, and in printed form as !ell. SHERLOCK HOLMES’ SCIENCE OF DEDUCTION AND ANALYSIS
Note+ ,os. -*./ are from the Doyle complete canon0 .-*12 are from the Basil Rathbone movies, and 13*14 are from the Young Sherlock Holmes movie.

-. 5i e all other arts, the Science of (eduction and &nalysis is one !hich can only be ac6uired by long and patient study, nor is life long enough to allo! any mortal to attain the highest possible perfection in it. %efore turning to those moral and mental aspects of the matter !hich present the greatest difficulties, let the in6uirer begin by mastering more elementary problems. 5et him on meeting a fello!*mortal0 learn at a glance to distinguish the history of the man and the trade or profession to !hich he belongs. 7uerile as such an e8ercise may seem, it sharpens the faculties of observation, and teaches one !here to loo and !hat to loo for. %y a man’s finger*nails, by his coat*sleeve, by his boot, by his trouser* nees, by the callosities of his forefinger and thumb, by his e8pression, by his shirt*cuffs 9 by each of these things a man’s calling is plainly revealed. )hat all united should fail to enlighten the competent in6uirer in any case is almost inconceivable. :. ;ou should consider your brain originally is li e a little empty attic, and you have to stoc it !ith furniture as you choose. & fool ta es in all lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the no!ledge !hich might be useful to him gets cro!ded out, or at best is <umbled up !ith a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty in laying his hands upon it. ,o! the s illed !or man is very careful indeed as to !hat he ta es into his brain attic. $e !ill have nothing but the tools !hich may help him in doing his !or , but of these he has a large assortment and all in the most perfect order. It is a mista e to thin that that a little room has elastic !alls and can distend to any e8tent. (epend upon it there comes a time !hen for every addition of no!ledge you forgot something that you ne! before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbo!ing out the useful ones. =. &n observant man can learn by an accurate and systematic e8amination of all that came in his !ay. >rom a drop of !ater, a logician could infer the possibility of an &tlantic or a ,iagara !ithout having seen or heard of one or the other. So all life is a great chain, the nature of !hich is no!n !henever !e are sho!n a single lin of it. 2. &l!ays approach a case !ith an absolutely blan mind, !hich is al!ays an advantage. >orm no theories, <ust simply observe and dra! inferences from your observations. 3. It is a capital mista e to theori?e before you have all the evidence. Insensibly, one begins to t!ist the facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. It biases the <udgment. .. )he temptation to form premature theories upon insufficient data is the bane of this profession. 4. )hey say that genius is an infinite capacity for ta ing pains. It’s a very bad definition, but it does apply to detective !or . @. )he height of a man, in nine cases out of ten, can be told from the length of his stride. 1. When a man !rites on a !all, his instinct leads him to !rite above the level of his o!n eyes. -/. )o a great mind, nothing is little. --. It is a mista e to confound strangeness !ith mystery. )he most commonplace crime is often the most mysterious, because it presents no ne! or special features from !hich deductions may be dra!n. -:. )here is nothing ne! under the sun. It has all been done before. -=. Often !hat is out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance. In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason bac !ard. )hat is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practice it much. In the everyday affairs of life it is more useful to reason for!ard, and so the other comes to be neglected. Aost people, if you describe a train of events to them, !ill tell you !hat the results !ould be. )hey can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something !ill come to pass. )here are a fe! people, ho!ever, !ho, if you told them a result, !ould be able to evolve from their o!n inner consciousness !hat the steps !ere !hich led up to that result. )his po!er is !hat I mean !hen I tal of reasoning bac !ard, or analytically. -2. )here is no branch of detective science !hich is so important and so much neglected as the art of tracing footsteps. &l!ays lay great stress upon it, and practice it till it becomes second nature.

so the observer !ho has thoroughly understood one lin in a series of incidents should be able to accurately state all the other ones. It is good to adopt a system of doc eting all paragraphs concerning men and things. )he larger crimes are apt to be the simpler. :3.ever guess. indeed. or the great issues that may hang from a boot*lace. Bsually in unimportant matters there is a field for the observation.. . If you do they !ill instantly shut up li e an oyster. -1. It may seem to point very straight to one thing. ho!ever. !hatever remains. you are very li ely to get !hat you !ant. It is not impossible. and for the 6uic analysis of cause and effect !hich gives the charm to the investigation. and occasionally. Cead nothing but the criminal ne!s and the agony column. must be the truth. %ut to the investigator. It should be your business to no! things. the most bi?arre a thing is the less mysterious it proves to be. )he latter is al!ays instructive. !here there is room for doubt !hether any positive crime has been committed. is the motive.our eyes should be trained to e8amine faces and not their trimmings. )o train yourself to see !hat others overloo . for the bigger the crime the more obvious. =2. It’s all been done before. =3. Singularity is almost invariably a clue.-3. Observe the small facts upon !hich large inferences may depend. ==. both before and after. and the same spo e comes up. to its highest pitch. it is necessary that the reasoner should be able to utili?e all the facts !hich have come to his no!ledge0 and this in itself implies. a possession of all no!ledge. but concentrate yourself upon details. )he old !heel turns. It is a perfectly overpo!ering impulse. Often the strangest and most uni6ue things are very often connected not !ith the larger but !ith the smaller crimes. On e8amining a !oman’s appearance. In an investigation. !hich. )he most difficult crime to trac is the one !hich is purposeless. :/. =@. :=. Where there is a !ant of it you must suspect deception. If you listen to them under protest. &s 'uvier could correctly describe a !hole animal by the contemplation of a single bone. as a rule. & man should eep his little brain*attic stoc ed !ith all the furniture that he is li ely to use. their first instinct is at once to rush to the thing !hich they value most. you should reali?e the importance of sleeves. and the rest he can put a!ay in the lumber*room of his library. an e8act science and should be treated in the same cold and unemotional manner. :@. (etection is. :2. for e8ample. and !ill be again. It is the first 6uality of a criminal investigation that you should see through a disguise. -. :. ho!ever. :-. . When someone thin s their house is on fire. (epend on it0 there is nothing so unnatural as the commonplace. even in these days of free education and encyclopedias. =.. One. :1. ho!ever improbable. and become impressed by their beauty. Often the impression of a !oman may be more valuable than the conclusion of an analytical reasoner. =1. )he ideal reason !ould. ::. featureless crimes !hich are really pu??ling. 7roblems may be solved in the study !hich has baffled all those !ho have sought a solution by the aid of the senses. )he most practical thing that you ever can do in your life !ould be to shut yourself up for three months and read t!elve hours a day at the annals of crime. <ust as a commonplace face is the most difficult to identify.ever trust to general impressions. =-. In a man it is perhaps better first to ta e the nee of the trouser.ou must loo for consistency. )o carry the art.our method should be founded upon the observation of trifles. but if you shift your o!n point of vie! a little. We have not yet grasped the results !hich the reason alone can attain to. :4. as you !ill readily see. . !hen one had been sho!n a single fact in all its bearings. )he main thing !ith people !hen you tal to them in an investigation is to never let them no! that their information can be of the slightest importance to you. so that it !ould be difficult to name a sub<ect or a person on !hich one could not at once furnish information. It is your commonplace. can see some scattered houses along a countryside. . !here he can get it if he !ants it. . the little things are infinitely the most important. deduce from it not only all the chain of events !hich led up to it but also all the results !hich !ould follo! from it. =4. the suggestiveness of thumb*nails. the more difficult it is to bring it home. you should be able to guide yourself by the thousands of other similar cases !hich should occur to your memory. &s a rule. Women are never to be entirely trusted 9 not the best of them. =:. . you may find it pointing in an e6ually uncompromising manner to something entirely different. When you have eliminated the impossible. It is a shoc ing habit 9 destructive to the logical faculty. that a man should possess all no!ledge !hich is li ely to be useful to him in his !or . &n investigator should loo at everything !ith reference to his o!n special sub<ect.. is a some!hat rare accomplishment. Everything comes in circles. )hen !hen you have heard some slight indication of the course of events in an investigation. -4. as it !ere. )he more featureless and commonplace a crime is. -@. 'ircumstantial evidence is a very tric y thing. or ought to be. =/.

$ouses. & dog al!ays reflects the family life. )he truth is only arrived at by the painsta ing process of eliminating the untrue. . there usually is something that unfortunate victims have in common. try to imagine ho! you !ould proceed under the same circumstances. )o the trained ear. Surgical instruments that save life are hardly more pleasant to loo at. 2=.. Aa e it a point of never having any pre<udices. 3=. but it pays. . Some people !ithout possessing genius have a remar able po!er of stimulating it.3. 4/. It is a series of lessons !ith the greatest for the last. al!ays loo for a possible alternative.4. it is only the colourless. It ta es some imagination. and provide against it. founded upon e8perience. 3/. li e people. footsteps have a characteristic rhythm as identifiable as fingerprints. that the lo!est and vilest alleys do not present a more dreadful record of sin than does the smiling and beautiful countryside. that might indicate the motive. 4=.. One characteristic that the detective should have in the Science of (eduction and &nalysis is the ability to thro! the brain out of action and to s!itch all thoughts on to lighter things !herever you thin things could no longer !or to advantage. 33. uneventful cases !hich are hopeless. 7eople generally forget in assuming a disguise. &nd their passing moods may reflect the passing moods of others. When murders are committed. than those that ta e it. It’s the conclusions dra!n from facts that are fre6uently in error. In an investigation. than the average collector.-.the only thought sometimes should be a feeling of their isolation and the impunity !ith !hich crime may be committed there. and. 32. 24. . one has to ta e chances. In an investigation. When you follo! t!o separate chains of thought. . 3:.:. 'rime is common. It is the first rule of criminal investigations. If. !here you then must try to string them together !ith some thread to ma e a connection. Cesults are come by al!ays putting yourself in the other fello!’s place. . in order to solve the mystery. 2/. 22. or a sad dog in a happy one? Snarling people have snarling dogs. 34. and to underestimate one’s self is as much a departure from the truth as to e8aggerate one’s o!n po!ers. Other!ise your energy and attention must be dissipated instead of being concentrated. 4-. especially his eyes. .othing has more individuality. $e has the nerve and he has the no!ledge. 3@..2./. you !ill find some point of intersection !hich should appro8imate to the truth. (o not agree !ith those !ho ran modesty among the virtues. It is of the highest importance in the art of detection to be able to recogni?e. )he features given to man are means by !hich he shall e8press his emotions. and thin ing !hat you !ould do yourself. no matter ho! trivial. >irst real insight into the character of parents is gained by studying their children. 2@. )herefore it is upon logic rather than upon crime that you should d!ell.our thoughts about dogs should be analogous. It is my belief. In an investigation. 2:. generally has a motive. merely because it’s obvious. save perhaps !atches and bootlaces. having first gauged his intelligence. .@. . . dangerous people have dangerous ones. In this profession. . have definite personalities. and you can read a man’s train of thought from his features. It’s often a mista e to accept something as true. )he 7ress is a most valuable institution. . One of the first principles in solving crime is never to disregard anything. !hich are incidental and !hich vital. on the other hand. 7ipes are occasionally of e8traordinary interest. 2. 3-. &l!ays in an investigation you should put yourself in the man’s place. they appear incidental. 23. Aurder li e matrimony. out of a number of facts.1. 31. 2-. >acts are al!ays convincing. then they are sometimes a part of something more sinister. . Education never ends. 5ocal aid is al!ays either !orthless or else biased. some abrasion. )he average petty thief has a more e8tensive no!ledge of the value of ob<ects. and of follo!ing docilely !herever a fact may lead you. . 3. 4:. It is al!ays good to have someone !ith you on !hom you can thoroughly rely. )he best place to hide anything is !here everyone can see it. &s long as the criminal remains upon t!o legs so must there be some indentation. that the shape of the ear is an almost infallible means of recognition and identification to the trained eye. Whoever sa! a fris y dog in a gloomy family. the suspects are the beads. 5ogic is rare. 21. )o the logician all things should be seen e8actly as they are. When a doctor does go !rong he is the first of criminals. some trifling displacement !hich can be detected by the scientific searcher.. )he science of detection is very much li e stringing a handful of beads.=. if you only no! ho! to use it.

and imagination. D'ome. 44. Watson. @-. Sometimes to leave one unguarded.. @=. sooner or later they’ll feel the urge to ill again. Bnless there is method in his madness. It’s not unli e a finely tuned musical instrument. if he !ere posing as a madman. )he temptation of the sudden !ealth could possibly turn a once seemingly harmless person. 41. FSherloc $olmes * Science of (eduction and &nalysisF http+""mmasood. Suicides invariably leave notes behind them. their name becomes smeared and sometimes their life is ruined. Once a person has dipped their fingers in blood.o one ever loo s t!ice at a postman. )he imagination is !here crimes conceived. intelligence. Egomaniacs are al!ays so much chattier !hen they feel they have the upper hand. 14. 7urpose and motive are the last things a sane man !ould imply. In an attempt to solve a crime.!ordpress. one must adapt oneself to the tools at hand. @3. Aurder is an insidious thing. then the footprint must have some other compensating deformity to e8plain it. mathematical e6uations and riddles are some !ays of fine*tuning the mind. they have a habit of becoming to !idely no!n. @4. 1=.42. their method. )he obvious al!ays appears simple. @/. @2. 1-. come! )he game is afoot. @1. !hich demands attention and practice. no matter ho! false.. even though they prove nothing.o matter !hat situation arises. .. @@. 13. 7oison is a !oman’s !eapon.com"://4"/1"/1"sherloc *holmes*science*of*deduction*and*analysis" . is apt to be peculiarly subtle and cruel. 1:. it’s best to bait it !ith the food they li e. )he terrifying part about blac mail is that the victim is afraid to fight the accusation. use the imagination as the criminal does. 4@. it’s good to no! that. into a ruthless iller. and act upon it. If other peculiarities arise. &n investigator al!ays needs something more than legends and rumors. can be a s illful trap for one’s opponent. such as. Often a good disguise to assume is that of a postman. . the footprint being made by a person not really clubfooted. . it is not al!ays the case. you !ill usually find yourself <ustified. al!ays e8hibits a pattern and a purpose in it. such as. & great detective relies on perception.o!. the footprint being balanced from toe to heel. if you go beyond facts.ever trust the obvious. . 7eople !ill stic to facts. 12. Aurders do not.ever trust plans already made by other people. Once the accusation is made. 7roof. Every crime. Whenever setting a trap. and !hen you drive a person to suicide. Even !hen facts clearly indicate one thing. )hat’s !hy so many murders remain unsolved. )he deductive mind never rests. . in order to catch someone.E Ceference+ Auhammad Aasood. imagine !hat might have happened. @:. 1. and !here they’re solved. 1/. &nything is possible. it’s best to duplicate the conditions under !hich the crime occurred. !hatever it is. When e8amining footprints. 43. until proven other!ise. but !earing a clubfooted shoe. clubfooted people invariably bring their full !eight do!n on the toe. that’s murder. >eline not canine. @. 4. When !omen are involved in crime. you must have proof. 7roblems of logic.