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Hi all this month I will try to give you some info About the gold rush fever
In the cities and towns of the East, it seemed almost like wartime. Thousands of men left their homes and families behind and headed for California. Women moved in with relatives or fended for themselves. Children wrote letters to their faraway fathers and waited impatiently for them to come home. It was 1849, and the California Gold Rush had begun. James W. Marshall had discovered gold on January 24, 1848. Marshall worked for John Sutter, a Swiss immigrant who hoped to create an agricultural empire in California. Sutter owned 39,000 acres of land, on which he raised livestock, fruits, and vegetables. He built a large fort that was home to a number of businesses. Marshall was inspecting a ditch at Sutter's sawmill on the South Fork of the American River when he saw a sparkle beneath the water. He picked up the glittering particle, half the size of a pea. He was certain that he had found gold. In January 1848, California was largely unsettled. Some 100,000 Native Americans lived in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In small mission towns and ranches along the coast lived about 10,000 Californians, or Mexican Californians; 2,000 U.S.
citizens; and a few hundred Europeans. When Marshall told Sutter that he had discovered gold, Sutter swore him to secrecy. If word got out, men would rush in from everywhere, and Sutter's empire would be destroyed. But little by little the news spread. At first only a trickle of gold seekers found their way to the hills. But that trickle soon grew. On May 12, 1948, when word of the discovery reached San Francisco, the town's male population was about 600. On May 15, only about 200 men remained. By June 1, San Francisco was a ghost town--stores closed, ships abandoned, and houses deserted. Most of the men had run off to the gold fields. The town's newspapers even shut down. No one was left to write or read them. Gold fever quickly spread. By the end of 1848, prospectors came from as far as Oregon to the north, the Hawaiian Islands to the west, and Mexico and Chile from the south. It took almost a year for the news to reach the East. When it did, a stampede began. Today it might be hard to understand why men left their homes and loved ones and travelled thousands of miles to look for gold. But in 1849, a prosperous farmer might make about two or three hundred dollars a year. A factory worker made about a dollar for working a twelve-hour day. A skilled craftsman made a dollar and a half a day. In California, gold was free to anyone who could find it. A miner could take $25 to $35 of gold a day--or even more--out of a riverbed. Stories of miners becoming rich men in a single day spread like wildfire. Many of these stories were exaggerations. But some of them were true. Some men struck it rich, in primitive mining camps with names like Hang town, Gouge Eye, and Hell's Delight. The work was backbreaking, but flake-by-flake, nugget-by-nugget, these lucky forty-niners dug up deposits of gold worth hundreds--or even thousands--of dollars. Most miners were not so lucky. Many of the best mining sites were quickly claimed, and then picked clean. Some people in California made money without having to dig for gold. Smart businesspeople charged miners for supplies and services. A pound of sugar sold for $2. A pound of coffee for $4. Women in the gold fields could charge $25 for a cooked meal, or earn $50 a week
Washing shirts. In 1849, those prices were sky-high. A successful miner could easily pay them. But many miners could barely make ends meet. As the competition for gold became greater, miners fought over "claims," or mining rights--sometimes violently. Many Americans from the East blamed their lack of success on miners from Mexico, Chile, Peru, and China, whom they considered "foreigners." Miners of Latin American descent--even those who had lived in California their whole lives--were sometimes violently attacked. Some were even killed. Eventually, much of the gold that could be mined by hand had been found. Heavy machinery was needed to dig out the rest. Many miners went home penniless--or nearly so. John Sutter left California in 1851, heavily in debt. Miners had invaded his house and trampled his fields. His "empire" was in ruins. James W. Marshall, the man who first found the gold, had little success as a miner. He died in poverty in 1885. Still, many miners stayed. They started businesses in the boomtowns or farmed the fertile valleys. By 1856, San Francisco had more than 50,000 citizens and was the largest and most important city in the West. On its streets walked people from every corner of the world. Most California miners never made much money. Yet some did what they set out to do--they struck it rich, and took home a fortune. They paid off the mortgages on their farms and started new lives. Sadly, some miners did not go home at all. They died of diseases like cholera, or from accidents in the gold fields or on the journey to California. Many of the women and children waiting back East would never see their loved ones again. The Gold Rush transformed not only the lives of people, but California itself. California's population grew dramatically. Its towns, cities, and businesses thrived. And almost overnight, it became the most famous American state. People around the world knew the story of California, the golden land where a fortune could be dug from the ground.
In fall of 1848, news of the California gold strike hit the East. The following spring, thousands of gold seekers travelled by overland trails and by ship to the "gold fields." Most of these "forty-niners" had never before left the places where they had grown up. Their journeys would be unforgettable Most forty-niners from the Midwest and many from the East travelled west on the Oregon-California Trail. Travel by ship was costly. Maps and books promised a quick and easy overland voyage. But for many gold seekers who travelled overland, the journey would be the hardest they had ever experienced. Forty-niners usually travelled in covered wagons pulled by oxen or mules. A few rode horses. Once they passed frontier towns like Independence, Missouri, they entered the wilderness. Many of the forty-niners were from cities like Boston or New York. They had never camped outdoors, hunted for food, or built a fire. And now they faced months far from civilization. In 1849, some 32,000 gold-seekers went west on the trail through present-day Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada. They endured violent thunderstorms, torrential rain, and scorching heat. They travelled mile after mile of bumpy trails that choked their throats with dust in dry weather and turned to mud holes when rain fell. They lost their belongings and even their lives trying to cross-rivers such as the Platte, the Green, and the Bear. Many gold-seekers feared attack by Native Americans. But this seldom happened. Disease was the biggest killer. Forty-niners fell victim to cholera, mountain fever, pneumonia, and diphtheria. Hundreds of gold-seekers died and were buried along the trail. The strain took a toll on the oxen and mules as well. As they travelled, forty-niners lightened the load by throwing out everything they didn't need--from cook stoves and furniture to barrels of flour. Still, thousands of animals died from exhaustion or thirst and were left to rot in the sun. Near the end of their journey, the forty-niners crossed the Forty Mile
Desert, a hot, dry wasteland between the Humboldt and Carson rivers in present-day Nevada. Some people brought enough water for the crossing. Those who did not sometimes paid for this with their lives. Beyond the Forty Mile Desert, lay California, the land of gold. Some would find their fortunes there. Most would not. But they had survived their overland journey by a combination of bravery, cooperation, skill, and luck. The experience had changed them forever.
Suddenly a heavy blow struck the starboard quarter and careened the ship over on her side...A crash was heard overhead--chains rattling and falling, sails madly flapping, yardarms snapping and masts breaking; for a few seconds, the noise was terrific..." The Edward Everett sailed from Boston in 1849, bound for California around Cape Horn, at the tip of South America. The gold seekers on board enjoyed a variety of foods, including cheese and butter, potpies, plum pudding, and applesauce. Scheduled activities included lectures and Sunday church services. Most forty-niners travelling the 15,000-mile journey around Cape Horn did not enjoy such luxuries. They paid anywhere from $100 to
$1000 and spent up to 8 months on board ship, packed together into tiny rooms or in the ship's hold.. In good weather, the travellers could enjoy the beauty of the sea. And stops in exotic ports such as Rio de Janeiro in Brazil made life interesting. But as the voyage went on, the boredom could become maddening. To pass the time, gold seekers gambled and played checkers, told stories, and daydreamed of gold. Usually, there were two varieties of food--boring and awful. Meats and vegetables spoiled quickly in the hot climate near the equator. Worms burrowed through the bread. The water tasted foul. Some men got scurvy, a disease caused by lack of foods containing vitamin C. Their gums bled and their teeth fell out. A few even died. Diseases such as cholera killed men as well. Dead bodies were wrapped in canvas cloth and buried at sea. The most dangerous leg of the journey was the sail around the very tip of Cape Horn. Monstrous waves, terrifying winds, and frigid temperatures challenged even the most experienced captains. Some took a short cut through the Strait of Magellan. But that passage was narrow and sometimes deadly. Still, the Cape Horn route was probably the safest of all the routes to the gold fields. Thousands of men made the trip successfully. But even after their 15,000-mile journey, forty-niners arrived in California with no guarantee of success. Year later, many would return home, no richer than when they'd left for California. For many forty-niners, the Panama shortcut was irresistible. It cut 8,000 miles and months of travel off the sea voyage around Cape Horn, at the tip of South America. And a trip through the jungles of Panama, with their brightly-colour birds and flowers, seemed like an exotic adventure. The cross-Panama journey began on the Caribbean coast, at the mouth of the Chagres River. There, forty-niners stepped on board a bungo, a type of Panamanian canoe. At first, native Panamanians charged about $5 for the 3 to 4 day river journey. But when they realized how anxious the gold seekers were to get across Panama, the price quickly rose.
As the gold seekers travelled, they saw a jungle landscape that seemed like something from a dream: dense thickets of mangrove trees, dazzling tropical flowers, and exotic animals such as crocodiles, parrots, and jaguars. Some forty-niners even got the chance to sample roast iguana or monkey meat, cooked over a campfire. The river journey was the easy part. Soon, the bungoes landed, and the men set out on horses or mules into the steaming jungle. Bodies of dead horses and mules marked the 50-mile trail. Death lurked everywhere, in the form of diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and cholera.
Of the thousands of forty-niners who attempted the Panama crossing, some died of disease and never made it out of the jungle. Most did, arriving at Panama City, a small outpost on the Pacific coast. There, many miners got a surprise. There weren't any boats to take them to California. They would have to wait. Gold Discovery in Australia They were a wildly assorted crowd. G. L. Mundy, a visitor writing in 1852, reported, 'There were merchants, cabmen, magistrates and convicts, amateur gentlemen rocking the cradle merely to say they had done so, fashionable hairdressers and tailors, cooks, coachmen, lawyers' clerks and their masters, colliers, cobblers, quarrymen, doctors of physic and music, aldermen, an ADC on leave, scavengers, sailors, shorthand writers, a real live lord on his travels - all levelled by community of pursuit and of costume'. 'Levelled' is just the right word. The miners lived in bark huts or tents. 'Our furniture,' wrote one miner, James Bonwick, 'is of simple character. A box, a block of wood, or a bit of paling across a pail, serves as a table.' Meals were primitive . 'The chops can be picked out of the frying pan, placed on a lump of bread, and cut with a clasp knife that has done good service in fossicking during the day.' Insects and flies added to the discomfort. 'The nuisance is the flies,' complained Bonwick. 'The little fly and the stinging monster March fly. O!
The tortures these wretches give! In the hole, out of the hole, at meals or walking, it is all the same with these winged plagues. When washing at a waterhole, the March flies will settle upon the arms and face, and worry to that degree, that I have known men to pitch their dishes, and stamp and growl with agony. The fleas, too, are of the Tom Thumb order of creation, and they begin their bloody-thirsty work when the flies are tired of their recreation.' For those who stuck it out, the rewards could be handsome. Almost 80 tonnes (2.6 million ounces) of gold were mined in Victoria alone in 1853; by 1856 it had risen to a peak of 90 tonnes (2.9 million ounces).
When you have been looking at the census for your family you may have come across the word journeyman which some may know what this stands for and some may not so Christine has put a small piece together about this occupation
I have come across the term 'journeyman' lots of times on census forms and have often wondered what it was. So this month I thought I would find out!
The word comes from the French word journee, meaning period of one day, this refers to his right to charge a fee for each day's work. He would normally have been employed by a master craftsman but would live apart and might have had a family of his own. A journeyman could not employ others. In contrast, an apprentice could be bound to his master, usually for a fixed term of 7 years abn lived as a member of the household, receiving most of his compensation in the terms of room and board.
In parts of Europe, as in the later medieval Germany, spending time as a journeyman (Giselle) moving from one town to another to gain experience of different workshops was an important part of the training of an aspirant master. In medieval England, however, most journeymen remained employed as employees throughout their careers, lacking the financial resources to set up their own workshops. There terms 'jack' and 'knave' is sometimes used as informal words for journeyman. Hence the expressions 'jack of all trades' - someone who is educated in several fields of trade but is not yet skilled enough in any to set up their own workshops as a maker. Today in the USA, the name 'journeyman' still exists but it is a person who has completed an apprenticeship program - or is an experienced worker, not a trainee and is fully qualified and able to perform a specific trade without supervision.
REVIEW OF JUNE'S NEWSLETTER -----------------------------------------------------Firstly I would like to apologise for not doing my usual review of May's messages. I was changing Internet Providers from Talk talk back to British Telecom and I was unable to get it done in time. I eventually came back online on the 7th June.
So, June not really a busy time with messages but we did have a number of members on holiday, me included. Pat Waring went off to Canada, I went to Turkey and Judy in Australia set off in her caravan with other friends to see the Golden Quest Discovery Trail. Judy was also visiting a ghost town called 'Mount Morgans', where her grandparents were married. I am hoping she will send in some photos of that venue.
I think everyone enjoyed seeing the photo of Sue Duckle's relative called Margarete, which was on display for quite a few days in May. Margarete was born in 1903 in Germany. The poor girl was born with severe epilepsy and spent her life
living in a psychiatric hospital. The photo was taken in 1918 when Margarete was 15. Unfortunately, the Germans put her to death shortly after. A tragic story.
Kaz has now subscribed to Ancestry, so hopefully she will be able to progress now with her family tree.
May's Newsletter had quite a few good reviews from members, including Helen and Pat Waring. Melissa, have you now been able to download May's Newsletter? Sue Duckles kindly e-mailed Melissa with the Newsletter in a pdf format so she could read it with adobe acrobat. Pat Waring has been away on holiday in Canada but still managed to pop in now and then to keep in touch. Pat came across some new relations from Lancashire with the surname of BALDWIN. Vera did some detective work and came up with lots of info about the family. She used the parish records for Lancashire available via Ancestry.
I came back online on the 7 June - hurrah! I was fed up of the internet going off all the time with Talk talk. So far so good with British Telecom.
We have two new members this month, Pat Selman from London and 'firstname.lastname@example.org' -( could you please introduce yourself and tell us a little about the family tree you are researching.) Pat from London is currently researching both sets of grandparents. On her maternal side are the names Ashdown/Collins and on the paternal side, Selman/Saunders. This side of the family came from Wiltshire. Judy, Vera and I have been finding more info for her.
25th June and Susan Dunkley asking for help after many months of researching. Her dilemma is trying to find any info
on Thomas Dunklin's parents - rumour has it they were Thomas Dunklin and Mary Mabbet.
Melissa in Canada wrote in on the 26 June to welcome our two new members. She has been a little quite this month but says that her life has been quite hectic lately. She has had a wedding, funeral, 3x soccer a week and a daughter graduating from grade school. Apparently the children in Canada are now on their summer holidays. Melissa says that she has been in touch with some extended cousins and has been exchanging info and pics of her BAILEY line. They are having a family reunion but sadly she cannot attend but promises to let us all know how it went. So, goodbye to June! Let’s make July a busy month on here. So, all those members who have been a little quiet, have another look at those trees, is there anything we can help you with? Just leave the details and what the query is and we shall do our best to help. Has anyone come across an interesting web page or info that they would like to share?
Memory Page of Our loved ones
When you are researching the most common name Smith
Most of us have at least one hard to search for name in our family tree - a common name like SMITH, a name that is also a commonly used word such as RICE, or an ancestor who shares name with a famous individual, such as George Bush. In this situation, how can we weed out the genealogical information for our specific ancestor from all of the others who share his name? These search tips, while helpful when searching for all surnames, not just common ones, are especially important when the name itself is too common to return a manageable number of results.
When searching for a common name such as John Smith, add a location and time period to your search parameters to produce more effective results.
Add common genealogical terms to your search to eliminate non-genealogy pages, Combining this with the previous technique can help narrow your results even further. Use other less common names from your ancestor's family to enhance your query. If your John Smith married Liana Snagglepuss, then start by searching for Snagglepuss. When searching for a surname that is also a common noun, such as Park, Rice, Bush or Street, use the NOT or - feature to tell the search engine to not return results that include a particular word. For example, rice -cook -recipe will help eliminate Web pages, which refer to cooking rice rather than your Rice ancestors.
How to Trace the Origin of Your Surname
With a few exceptions, hereditary surnames, the last names passed down through the males of a family, didn't exist until about 1000 years ago. While it may be hard to believe in today's hustle and bustle, surnames just weren't necessary before that. In a world that was much less crowded than it is today -- a world where most folks never ventured more than a few miles from their place of birth and every man knew his neighbours -- first, or given names, were the only designations necessary. Even kings got by with a single name. During the middle ages, as families got bigger and villages got a bit more crowded, individual names became inadequate to distinguish friends and neighbours from one another. One John might be called "John son of William" to distinguish him from his neighbours "John the smith" and his friend "John of the dale." These secondary names
weren't quite yet the surnames, as we know them today, however, because they weren't passed down from father to son. "John son of William," for example, might have a son known as "Robert the Fletcher (arrow maker)." True surnames, hereditary names used to distinguish one person from another, first came into use in Europe about 1000 A.D., beginning in southern areas and gradually spreading northward. In many countries the use of hereditary surnames began with the nobility who often called themselves after their ancestral seats. Many of the gentry, however, did not adopt surnames until the 14th century, and it was not until about 1500 A.D. that most surnames became inherited and no longer transformed with a change in a person's appearance, job, or place of residence. Surnames, for the most part, drew their meanings from the lives of men in the middle Ages, and their origins can be divided into four main categories:
Patronymics, last names derived from a father's name, were widely used in forming surnames, especially in the Scandinavian countries. Occasionally, the name of the mother contributed the surname, referred to as a metonymic surname. Adding a prefix or suffix denoting either “son of” or “daughter of” formed such names. English and Scandinavian names ending in "son" are patronymic surnames, as are many names prefixed with the Gaelic "Mac," the Norman "Fritz," the Irish "O," and the Welsh "app." Examples: The son of John (JOHNSON), son of Donald (MACDONALD), son of
Patrick (FITZPATRICK), son of Brian (O'BRIEN), son of Howell (HOWELL).
Place Names or Local Names
One of the most common ways to differentiate one man from his neighbor was to describe him terms of his geographic surroundings or location (similar to describing a friend as the "one who lives down the street"). Such local names denoted some of the earliest instances of surnames in France, and were quickly introduced into England by the Norman nobility who chose names based on the locations of their ancestral estates. If a person or family migrated from one place to another, they were often identified by the place they came from. If they lived near a stream, cliff, forest, hill, or other geographic feature, this might be used to describe them. Some last names can still be traced back to their exact place of origin, such as a particular city or county, while others have origins lost in obscurity (ATWOOD lived near a wood, but we don't know which one). Compass directions were another common geographic identification in the Middle Ages (EASTMAN, WESTWOOD). Most geographic-based surnames are easy to spot, though the evolution of language has made others less obvious, i.e. DUNLOP (muddy hill). Examples: BROOKS lived along a brook; CHURCHILL lived near a church on a hill; NEVILLE came from Neville-Seine-Maritime, France or Newville (New Town), a commonplace name in France; PARRIS came from -- you guessed it -Paris, France.
Another class of surnames, those derived from a physical or other characteristic of first bearer, make up an estimated 10% of all surname or
Descriptive Names (Nicknames)
family names. These descriptive surnames are thought to have originally evolved as nicknames during the Middle Ages when men created nicknames or pet names for his neighbours and friends based on personality or physical appearance. Thus, Michael the strong became Michael STRONG and black-haired Peter became Peter BLACK. Sources for such nicknames included: an unusual size or shape of the body, bald heads, facial hair, physical deformities, distinctive facial features, skin or hair colouring, and even emotional disposition. Examples: BROADHEAD, a person with a large head; BAINES (bones), a thin man; GOODMAN, a generous individual; ARMSTRONG, strong in the arm
The last class of surnames to develop reflect the occupation or status of the first bearer. These occupational last names, derived from the specialty crafts and trades of the medieval period, are fairly self-explanatory. A MILLER was essential for grinding flour from grain, a WAINWRIGHT was a wagon builder, and BISHOP was in the employ of a Bishop. Different surnames often developed from the same occupation based on the language of the country of origin (MÜLLER, for example, is German for Miller). Despite these basic surname classifications, many last names or surnames of today seem to defy explanation. The majority of these are probably corruptions of the original surnames -- variations that
have become disguised almost beyond recognition. Surname spelling and pronunciation has evolved over many centuries, often making it hard for current generations to determine the origin and evolution of their surnames. Such family name derivations, resulting from a variety of factors, tend to confound both genealogists and etymologists. It is fairly common for different branches of the same family to carry different last names, as the majority of English and American surnames have, in their history, appeared in four to more than a dozen variant spellings. Therefore, when researching the origin of your surname, it is important to work your way back through the generations in order to determine the original family name, as the surname that you carry now may have an entirely different meaning than the surname of your distant ancestor. It is also important to remember that some surnames, though their origins may appear obvious, aren't what they seem. BANKER, for example, is not an occupational surname, instead meaning "dweller on a hillside."
Famous People tree
LONG TIME companion and future wife of Britain's Prince Charles, Camilla Parker-Bowles was born Camilla Shand in London, England in 1947. She met Prince Charles at Windsor Great Park in the early seventies. Believing he would never propose, however, she married Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles with whom she had two children, Tom, born in 1975 and Laura, born in 1979. Her marriage to Andrew ended in divorce in January 1995.
One of the most famous individuals in Camilla's family tree is her great-grandmother, Alice Frederica Edmonton Keppel, royal mistress to King Edward VII from 1898 until his death in 1910. Madonna shares a distant relationship with Camilla Parker Bowles through Zacharie Cloutier (1617-1708), while Celine Dion shares descent with Camilla from Jean Guyon (1619-1694). 1. Camilla Rosemary SHAND was born on 17 Jul 1947 in King's College Hospital; London.1 She married Brigadier Andrew Henry PARKERBOWLES (b. 27 Dec 1939) at The Guard's Chapel, Wellington Barracks, on 4 July 19731. Their marriage ended in divorce in 1961. Second Generation: 2. Major Bruce Middleton Hope SHAND was born on 22 Jan 1972. Major Bruce Middleton Hope SHAND and Rosalind Maud CUBITT were married on 2 Jan 1946 in St. Paul's Knightsbridge.3 3. Rosalind Maud CUBITT was born on 11 Aug 1921 in 16 Grosvenor Street, London.1 She died in 1994.1,3 Major Bruce Middleton Hope SHAND and Rosalind Maud CUBITT had the following children: 1 i. Camilla Rosemary SHAND ii. Sonia Annabel SHAND was born on 2 Feb 1949.1 iii. Mark Roland SHAND was born on 28 Jun 1951.1 Third Generation: 4. Philip Morton SHAND was born on 21 Jan 1888 in Kensington.5 He died on 30 Apr 1960 in Lyon, France. Philip Morton SHAND and Edith Marguerite HARRINGTON were married on 22 Apr 1916.6 they were divorced in 19201.
5. Edith Marguerite HARRINGTON was born on 14 Jun 1893 in Fulham, London.7 2 i. Major Bruce Middleton Hope SHAND ii. Elspeth Rosamund Morton SHAND
6. Roland Calvert CUBITT, 3rd Baron Ashcombe, was born on 26 Jan 1899 in London.1 He died on 28 Oct 1962 in Dorking, Surrey.1 Roland Calvert CUBITT and Sonia Rosemary KEPPEL were married on 16 Nov 1920 in Guard's Chapel, Wellington Barracks, St. George Hanover Square.8 They were divorced in Jul 1947. . Sonia Rosemary KEPPEL was born on 24 May 1909. She died on 16 Aug 1986. Roland Calvert CUBITT and Sonia Rosemary KEPPEL had the following children: 3 i. Rosalind Maud CUBITT ii. Henry Edward CUBITT was born on 31 Mar 1924.1 iii. Jeremy John CUBITT was born on 7 May 1927.1 He died on 12 Jan 1958.1 8. Alexander Faulkner SHAND was born on 20 May 1858 in Bayswater, London.10 He died on 6 Jan 1936 in Edward’s Place, Kensington, London. Alexander Faulkner SHAND and Augusta Mary COATES were married on 22 Mar 1887 in St. George, Hanover Square, London.11 9. Augusta Mary COATES was born on 16 May 1859 in Bath, Somerset.12 Alexander Faulkner SHAND and Augusta Mary COATES had the following children: 4 i. Philip Morton SHAND
10. George Woods HARRINGTON was born on 11 Nov 1865 in Kensington.13 George Woods HARRINGTON and Alice Edith STILLMAN were married on 4 Aug 1889 in St. Luke's, Paddington.14 11. Alice Edith STILLMAN was born about 1866 in Notting Hill, London.15 George Woods HARRINGTON and Alice Edith STILLMAN had the following children: i. Cyril G. HARRINGTON was born about 1890 in Parsons Green.15 5 ii. Edith Marguerite HARRINGTON 12. Henry CUBITT, 2nd Baron Ashcombe was born on 14 Mar 1867. He died on 27 Oct 1947 in Dorking, Surrey. Henry CUBITT and Maud Marianne CALVERT were married on 21 Aug 1890 in Ockley, Surrey, England. 13. Maud Marianne CALVERT was born in 1865 in Charlton, near Woolwich, England. She died on 7 Mar 1945. Henry CUBITT and Maud Marianne CALVERT had the following I HAVE ADDED A TREE IN ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF A FAMOUS PERSON YOU NEVER KNOW YOU MAY BE RELATED IN SOME WAY
WHAT'S IN A NAME? WHY SPELLING IS SO IMPORTANT IN YOUR ANCESTRY
What's in a name? The answer is, quite a bit actually. If you are beginning a search of Your family tree it will help you tremendously to know the history of your family
Name, or for that matter of the names of other branches of the family. Many times Names were changed when people immigrated to this country. If a person's name Sounded too "foreign" in a culture that was primarily of English ancestry then that Name may very well have been changed. To a lesser extent, if the spelling of the name Seemed difficult or again foreign then it could have been changed for that reason as Well. A prime example of simple spelling differences in languages is in the American and British spellings of certain words. The American word theater is spelled theatre in the UK. Defense is spelled defense. Shop in old English is shoppe. The same small Changes often happen with names. When doing genealogy research you will sometimes notice names spelled several Different ways in the same document. Many years ago standardized spellings for Names didn't really exist. Not everyone could read and write in those days, and often Members of the same family would spell names differently. The English name Darby For instance could also be spelled Derby, but still pronounced the same way. Also Smith could be spelled Smithe or Smyth, or Smythe. Maddox can also be spelled Maddux, Madux, or even Maddoc. The Scottish name Munro was more commonly Spelled Monroe by the English. Then look at names that are translated from one Language to another. The French name Choaumote was sometimes Americanized to Shumate, a totally different spelling. Another reason for name changes is that immigration authorities both made mistakes,
Including typographical errors, which would stick with an immigrant, and would Sometimes arbitrarily change names on their own because they couldn't pronounce a Name or didn't like the spelling. For instance, the Swedish name Sjoblom, with a silent j, is pronounced see-bloom. Some members of the Sjoblom family had their names Changed, involuntarily, to Seebloom or Seabloom. As another example of how names were changed is the Italian name Tagliaferro Which means ironworker. This name became Tolliver. Another Italian name, Amici Which means friend was Americanized into Ameche. Even the families of presidents Have not been immune. Roosevelt comes from the Dutch name Van Rosevelt, which Means of the rose field. Blum, which means flower, was Americanized into Bloom.
Great Harwood Wills
Breathwaite, William 1825 (Lancashire Record Office WCW/William Braithwaite 1825) William Breathwaite of Great Harwood, in the County Palatine of Lancaster, yeoman. Made the 19th July 1823. Mentions: Son William, daughters Cicely wife of William Walne and Ellen wife of Richard Carter, grandchildren William Breathwaite and Ann, Margaret and Elizabeth Walne. Executors: Son William Breathwaite, grandson William Breathwaite and James Fielding. Witnesses: John Cronshaw, John Ratcliffe and William Harrison Also John Radcliffe mentioned as a tenant.
Calvert, Robert 1719 (Lancashire Record Office WCW/1719/Calvard, Robert) Robert Calvard of Harwood Magna in the County Lancaster clothier. Made the 20th June 1718.
Bequeaths to my son Joshua 'my bed as it stands and all my Clothes with the chest that they are in likewise the Cheare that I sit in and the great Bible'. Bequeaths to daughter Marye 'my Trunk and that which is in it and the Table Cheare' and 'to Robert my Desk'. To son John ‘one is shilling to be paid within six months if he demands it'. Then lists children as follows: Daniel, Joshua, Obadiah, Jonathan, Samuel, Robert, Mary. Executors were Daniel and Joshua Calvert Witnesses were Alexander Mercer and John Pollard Robert made his mark.
I saw the wills above and found them quite interesting so had to share with you all we hope you all enjoy this news letter that Christine and I have put together for you all Bye for now Vera and Christine