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# Type II SedimentationFlocculent Settling

Expected results Students shall obtain a design curve of TSS removal vs. time and design a basin based on the curve generated. An example of the detailed analysis follows. 1. From the measured weights determine the TSS concentration (mg/L). TSS = (final weight tared weight)/sample volume filtered Table 1: Sample TSS results from each sample port for 22 L column. Time TSS Concentration (mg/L) A B C D 0 130.1 130.1 130.1 130.1 5 85.5 98.9 110.8 118.5 10 52.7 69.7 83.5 105 15 31.6 42.4 64.3 85.8 20 18.8 25.6 42.1 55.6 30 5.1 11.8 29.4 30.7 40 0.7 2.5 13.7 16.6 Note: A, B, C, and D are the sampling ports. A is at the top and D is at the bottom. 2. Determine the % solids removed for each port and plot. % solids removed = (TSS0 TSSt)/TSS0 100 Table 2: Sample % solids removal for 22 L column. Time % solids removed (min) A B C D 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5 34.28 23.98 14.83 8.92 10 59.49 46.43 35.82 19.29 15 75.71 67.41 50.58 34.05 20 85.55 80.32 67.64 57.26 30 96.08 90.93 77.40 76.40 40 99.46 98.08 89.47 87.24

1 0 0 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 % Solids Removed 7 0 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 4 0 .0 0 3 0 .0 0 2 0 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 T im e (m in )
A B C D

3. Correct for depth change from the water surface to the sampling ports due to sampling. From plot determine the time and depth for each 10% solids removed. For the 22 L column, it is about a 1.3 cm loss of depth for each sampling time point. Organize % solids values as a function of depth and time in a chart and plot as follows:

## Table 3: Isoconcentration table corrected for depth.

Time (min) 0 1.5 2.5 4 5.5 6 6.5 7.5 8.5 10.5 11 11.5 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 24 26 29 32 33 10% 0 28 58.5 89 109.3 20% 0 28 58.5 87.6 57.1 26.6 87.6 106.6 55.8 86.3 55.8 106.6 84.6 105 84.6 105 52.7 103.5 83.1 22.2 103.5 52.7 80.9 101.3 54.2 23.7 25.3 57.1 25.3 Depth 30% 0 (cm) 40% 0 50% 0 60% 0 70% 0 80% 0 90% 0

28 26.6

0
d 1

20 40
90%

Depth (cm)

d 2

60 80 100 120 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
10% 40% 50% 20% 30% 60% 70%

d 3

80%

d 4

Time (min)
4. The overall removal at selected times is calculated from:

% overall removal at t

=!

## d i ' Ri + Ri +1 \$ % " 2 # i =1 D &

n

with di as shown in the isoconcentration curve, D is the total depth of the settling column, Ri and Ri+1 are the lower and upper bounds of % removal for di (use Ri = 100% for d1). This procedure is repeated for a range of times to obtain the design curve of overall removal vs. time. 5. The design settling velocity (D/tdesign) is equal to the surface loading rate (Q/As) where D is the depth of the column, Q is the flowrate and As is the surface area of the basin. However, safety factors of 0.65-0.85 need to be applied to the design settling velocity and 1.25-1.5 to the detention time.

References
Droste, R. L. (1997) Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (1991) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.