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Lab Report Rubric (Assessment Form) Center of Diploma Study Group Members :

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Students Name: Laboratory : DAC 31601 / DFC 3051
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION
Criteria 1 2 3 4 5 SCR WT TSCR (%)
Attendance &
Dicipline (A)
- Student in laboratory more than
1 hour late
- Student in laboratory within 30
minutes to 1 hour late
- Student in laboratory within 10
to 30 minutes late
- Student in laboratory just
before laboratory start
- Student in laboratory 10 minutes
earlier
1 0
Aim / Purpose
(B)
- Purpose is not identified
- Relevant variables are not
described
- Purpose is somewhat vague
- Relevant variables are not
described
- Purpose is identified
- Relevant variables are
described in somewhat unclear
manner
- Purpose is identified
- Relevant variables are
described
- Purpose is clearly identified
- Relevant variables are described
1 0
Materials
(optional)
(C)
- There is not a list of the
necessary lab materials
- Most lab materials included - All necessary lab materials
included but not listed in any
particular order
- All necessary lab materials
included and listed
- All necessary lab materials included
and listed in an organized manner 1 0
Procedure
(optional)
(D)
- Procedures are not listed - Procedures are listed but not in
clear steps
- Procedures are listed in clear
steps but not numbered and/or
in complete sentences
- Procedures are listed in clear
steps
- Each step is numbered and in
a complete sentence
- Procedures are listed in clear steps
- Each step is numbered and in a
complete sentence
- Diagrams are included to describe the
set-up
1 0
Data
(E)
- Data is not represented or is not
accurate
- Data lacks precision
- Greater than 20% difference
with accepted values
- Good representation of the
data using tables and/or graphs
- Less than 15% difference with
accepted values
- Precision is acceptable
- Accurate representation of the
data using tables and/or graphs
- Data is fairly precise
- Less than 10% difference with
accepted values
- Accurate representation of the data
using tables and/or graphs
- Graphs and tables are labeled and
titled
- Data is precise with less than 5%
difference with accepted values
4 0
Analysis /
Result
(F)
- Trends / patterns are not
analyzed
- Questions are not answered
- Analysis is not relevant
- Trends / patterns are not
analyzed
- Answers to questions are
incomplete
- Analysis is inconsistent
- Trends / patterns are logically
analyzed for the most part
- Questions are answered in
complete sentences
- Analysis is general
- Trends / patterns are logically
analyzed
- Questions are answered in
complete sentences
- Analysis is thoughtful
- Trends / patterns are logically
analyzed
- Questions are answered thoroughly
and in complete sentences
- Analysis is insightful
4 0
Discussion
(G)
- No disussion was included or
shows little effort and reflection
on the lab
- A statement of the results is
incomplete with little reflection on
the lab
- A statement of the results of
the lab indicates whether results
support the hypothesis
- Accurate statement of the
results of the lab indicates
whether results support the
hypothesis
- Possible sources of error
identified
- Accurate statement of the results of
lab indicates whether results support
hypothesis
- Possible sources of error and what
was learned from the lab discussed
4 0
Participation
(during
experiment)
(H)
- Student was hostile about
participating
- Participation was minimal - Did the job but did not appear
to be very interested. Focus lost
on several occasion
- Used time pretty well. Stayed
focused on the experiment most
of the time
- Showed interest, used time very well,
guide other students and very focused
on experiment
1 0
NAME OF LECTURER : SIGNATURE : DATE : TOTAL SCORE : 0
Note : SCR = SCORE, WT = WEIGHTAGE, TSCR = TOTAL SCORE













































STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC
(SCE)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY



I, hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. I also admit not
to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge
that everything mentioned in the report is true.




_________________
Student Signature



Name :

Matric No. :

Date :







CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 3/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

1.0 OBJECTIVE : To obtain the maximum value of dry density and the optimum moisture content.


2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of this experiment, students are able to:
Understand the relationship between dry density and moisture content for a given degree of
compactive effort
Understand the moisture content for the most efficient compaction.
Obtain the maximum dry density can be achieved for particular type of soil.


3.0 THEORY

Compaction of soil the process by which the solid particles are packed more closely together by
mechanical means, thus increasing the dry density, Markwick, 1994. it is achieved through the
reduction of the air voids in the soil. At low moisture content, the soil grain is surrounded by a thin film
of water, which tends to keep the grains apart even when compacted. In addition of more water, up to
certain point, more air to be expelled during compaction. At the point, soil grains become as closely
packed together as they can, that is at the dry density is at its maximum. When the amount of water
exceeds the required to achieve this condition, the excess water begin to push particles apart, so the
dry density reduced.

The moisture content at which the greatest value of dry density achieved for the given compaction
effort is the optimum moisture content, (OMC), and the corresponding dry density is the maximum dry
density



Figure 1: Relationship between dry density (pd) against moisture content w for several types of soil.






CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 4/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS

1. Cylindrical metal mould, internal dimensions 105mm diameter and 115.5mm high. (fitted with a
detachable and removable extension collar.
2. Metal rammer with 50mm diameter face weighing 205kg, sliding freely in a tube which controls
the height of drop to 300mm
3. Measuring cylinder; 200ml or 500ml (plastic)
4. 20mm BS sieve and receiver
5. Large metal tray
6. electronic balance
7. Jacking apparatus for extracting compacted material from mould.
8. small tools: palette knife, steel-straight edge, 300mm long, steel rule, scoop or garden trowel
9. Drying oven, 105-110C and other equipment for moisture content determination.




Figure 2 : Mould base plate and the metal rammer





















CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 5/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

5.0 PROCEDURES

1. Veify the mould, baseplate, extension, collar and rammer to be used are those that conform to
BS 1377. weight the mould body to the nearest 1g (m
1
). Measure its internal diameter (D)mm
and length (L)mm in several places and calculate the mean dimensions.
2. Calculate the internal volume of the mould (V)mm
3
using
4000
2
L D
V

=
t

Apply with an oily cloth on the internal surface of mould to ease the removal of soil later on.
3. Measure the empty metal tray and 5kg of air dried soil sample that the has passing through
sieve no.4 (4.75mm)
4. place the mould assembly on a solid base, such as concrete floor. Add loose soil so that after
eacch sequence of compaction the mould will be one-third filled.
5. compact the soil by applying 27 blows of the rammer dropping from the controlled height of the
300mm. ensure that the rammer is properly in place before releasing, Figure 3, Note: do not
attempt to grab the lifting knob before the rammer has come to rest. The sequence as shown in
Figure 4 has to be followed. Repeat for the second and third layer that the final shall not more
than 6mm above the mould body, Figure 5.


Figure 3 Hand position when releasing rammer


Figure 4 Sequence of blows using hand rammer




CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 6/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011


Figure 5 Soil in mould after compaction

1. Trimming of by removing the extension collar, cut away the excess soil and level off to the top
of the mould. Any cavities rsulting from removal of stones at the surface shoul be filled with fine
material.

2. Remove the baseplate carefully, trim the soil at the lower end of the mould. Weigh soil and
mould to the nearest g.

3. Fit the mould on to the extruder and jack out the soil. Break up the sample on the tray.

4. Take up to three representative samples in moisture content containers for measurement of
moisture content. This must be done immediately before the soil dry out. The average of three
measurements is w%. (Preferably one from each layer).

5. Break up the material on the tray and mix with the remainder of the prepared sample. Add an
increment of water, approximately as follows :

Sandy and gravelly soils : 1 2% (50 100 ml of water to 5 kg of soil)
Cohesive soils : 2 4 % (100 200 ml of water to 5 kg of soil)














CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 7/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

6.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

1. Calculate the bulk density, of each compacted specimen from the equation


3 1 2
/
1000
m Mg
m m
= (if volume = 1000 cm
3
)
Where : m
1
mass of mould; m
2
mass of soil and mould


3 1 2
/ m Mg
V
m m
= (if volume = V cm
3
)


4
2
L D
V
t
= (check all conversion of unit)

2. Calculate moisture content, w
n
% for each compacted specimen.

100
0 1
1 2

=
w w
w w
w
n

Where : w
2
weight of moist soil + container, w
1
weight of dry soil + container
w
0
weight of empty container

3. Calculate the average value of moisture content, w% for each compacted specimen.


3
3 2 1
w w w
w
+ +
=

4. Calculate corresponding dry density,
d



|
.
|

\
|
+
=
w
d
100
100
Mg/m
3

5. Plot of graph dry density,
d
against moisture content, w. Draw a smooth curve through the
points.













CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 8/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

6. Sample calculation:

A : TEST CRITERIA
Serial no. Test No : Location :

Location No:
No. of layer :3 Rammer mass :
2.5 kg
Soil Description :
Brown sandy clay with a little fine gravel
Sample No.:
Blows per layer :
27
No. of separate
batch :
Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled


B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM
3
Measurement No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Cylinder + soil = A g 3786 3907 3999 3962 3908
Cylinder = B g 1917 1917 1917 1917 1917
Soil mass = A B g 1869 1990 2082 2045 1991
Wet density = 1.865 1.986 2.078 2.041 1.987


7. Sample calculation:

A : TEST CRITERIA
Serial no. Test No : Location :

Location No:
No. of layer :3 Rammer mass :
2.5 kg
Soil Description :
Brown sandy clay with a little fine gravel
Sample No.:
Blows per layer :
27
No. of separate
batch :
Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled


B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM
3
Measurement No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Cylinder + soil = A g 3786 3907 3999 3962 3908
Cylinder = B g 1917 1917 1917 1917 1917
Soil mass = A B g 1869 1990 2082 2045 1991
Wet density = 1.865 1.986 2.078 2.041 1.987

C : Plotting of air voids line, V
a
= 0%, 5% AND 10% (Use G
s
=
S
= 2.65)

Use the equation below using
w
= 1Mg/m
3


3
/
100
1
100
1
m Mg
w
V
S
a
d
+









CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 9/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011


8. Final plot of a graph along with the air voids line


























CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 10/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011

8.0 CALCULATIONS
A : TEST CRITERIA
Serial no. Test No : Location :


Location No:
No. of layer :3 Rammer mass :
2.5 kg
Soil Description :


Sample No.:
Blows per layer :
27
No. of separate
batch :
Sample preparation :
Air dried and riffled



B : DENSITY CALCULATION VOLUME OF CYLINDER = 1002 CM
3
Measurement No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Cylinder + soil = A g


Cylinder = B g


Soil mass = A B g


Wet density =



C : MOISTURE CONTENT

Measurement No. 1 (1) (2) (3)
Wet soil + container,w
2
(g)


Dry soil + container,w
1
(g)


Empty container, w
0
(g)


Moisture content, w
n
(%),


AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%



Measurement No. 2 (1) (2) (3)
Wet soil + container,w
2
(g)


Dry soil + container,w
1
(g)


Empty container, w
0
(g)


Moisture content, w
n
(%),


AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%





CENTER OF DIPLOMA STUDY PAGE NO.: 11/11
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
EDITION:
REVIEW NO.:
TEST TITLE : PROCTOR STANDARD SOIL
COMPACTION

EFFECTIVE
DATE:
3/01/2011
AMENDMENT
DATE:
3/01/2011
Measurement No. 3 (1) (2) (3)
Wet soil + container,w
2
(g)



Dry soil + container,w
1
(g)



Empty container, w
0
(g)



Moisture content, w
n
(%),



AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%



Measurement No. 4 (1) (2) (3)
Wet soil + container,w
2
(g)



Dry soil + container,w
1
(g)



Empty container, w
0
(g)



Moisture content, w
n
(%),



AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%



Measurement No. 5 (1) (2) (3)
Wet soil + container,w
2
(g)



Dry soil + container,w
1
(g)



Empty container, w
0
(g)



Moisture content, w
n
(%),



AVERAGE MOISTURE, w%



D : DRY DENSITY CALCULATION (USE ACTUAL VOLUME OF CYLINDER )
Measurement No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
AVG MOISTURE, w%



Dry density,
d



E : PLOTTING OF DRY DENSITY AGAINST MOISTURE CONTENT WITH AIR VOIDS LINE
AT 0%, 5% AND 10%. USE PROPER GRAPH PAPER

8.0 QUESTIONS
1. Define and explain what is meant by optimum moisture content, and how it is determined in the
laboratory.
2. Explain fully the principles and methods involved in soil compaction. How do you use the
Proctor test apparatus in the field for checking the soil compaction?